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Encyclopedia > Bihar (India)
For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation).
Capital Patna
Largest City Patna
Governor Buta Singh
Chief Minister Rabri Devi
Area 94,163 km
 - Total
 - Density
Ranked 3rd in India
82,878,796 (2001)
Literacy rate:
 - Total
 - Male
 - Female

Urbanization: 10.47%
GSDP in US $(Per Capa): $ 1,045 (2004)

Bihar (बिहार) is a India. Its capital is Patna.

It is bordered on the north by the Kingdom of Nepal, on the west by Uttar Pradesh, south by Jharkhand, and the east by West Bengal. Bihar lies in the very fertile Gangetic plains, and is part of the Hindi-speaking heartland of India.

Bihar has many local languages, including Hindi, Bhojpuri, and Magadhi (Magahi). Bhojpuri, Magahi, and related languages are known as the Bihari languages.



Bihar has a very rich history. It was called Magadha in ancient days. Its capital Patna, known as Pataliputra during the old days, was the center of the Mauryan empire which ruled the Indian subcontinent between 325-185 BC. Emperor Ashoka was the most famous ruler of this dynasty. Bihar remained an important place of power, culture and education during the next thousand years before its fall started with the advent of the foreign rule in India. Bihar saw a brief period of glory for six years during the rule of Sher Shah Suri, who was from Sasaram and built the longest road of the Indian subcontinent, the Grand Trunk Road, which starts from Calcutta and ends at Peshawar, Pakistan.

A brief timeline _
Before 325 BCE _ Nanda clan in Magadha, Lichchavis in Vaishali
560 BCE - 480 BCE - Buddha
325 BCE - 185 BCE - Maurya Dynasty
250 BCE - 3rd Buddhist Council
185 BCE - 80 BCE - Sunga Dynasty
80 - 240- Regional kings
240 - 600 - Gupta Dynasty
600 - 650 - Harsha Vardhana
750 - 1200 - Pala Dynasty
1200 - Muhammad of Ghori's men destroy the universities at Nalanda and Vikramashila
1200 - 1250 - Decline of Buddhism
1250 - 1526 - Ruled by Delhi Sultanate (Muslim Turks - Tughluqs, Sayyids, Lodis)
1526 - 1540 - Babur defeats last Delhi sultan, establishes Mughal empire
1540 _ 1555 _ Suri dynasty captures empire from Mughals (including Shershah Suri who built the Grand Trunk Road)
1526 _ 1757 _ Mughal dynasty resumes
1757 - 1857 - British East India Company rule
1857 - Revolt of 1857
1857 - 1947 - British Raj rule
1912 - Province of Bihar and Orissa separated from Bengal
1935 - Bihar and Orissa become separate provinces
1947- Indian Independence; Bihar becomes a state
2000 - Bihar divided into two states - north part remained Bihar, South became Jharkhand

Religions Originated

Bihar is also a birthplace of many religions, including Buddhism and Jainism. The Word "Bihar" has its origin in the word "Vihara" meaning Buddhist Monasteries. Buddha attained the Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya. Buddha started spreading his teaching after attaining the Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya. Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was born in Vaishali, Bihar. Mahatma Gandhi started the freedom movement in India by his Satyagraha in the Champaran district of Bihar against the British, who were forcing the local farmers to plant indigo which was very harmful to the local soil.


Bihar has two airports - Patna and Gaya. Patna airport is a domestic airport connected directly to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, and Ranchi. Gaya airport is a small international airport connected by Indian airlines to Kolkata and Bangkok.

Bihar is very well connected by rail lines to the rest of India. Most of the towns are interconnected and also directly connected to Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai. Patna and Gaya are the best connected towns.
Roads are not in good condition, so it is better to avoid them if possible.
For Buddhist pilgrims, best option is to go directly to Gaya, either by air or train, and then travel to Bodh Gaya, Nalanda, Rajgir, Sarnath, etc.

Places to See

  • For Buddhists - Bodh Gaya, Nalanda, Rajgir.
  • For Jains - Vaishali and Pawapuri.
  • For Sikhs - Har Mandir Sahib, Patna City, the birth place of Guru Govind Singh.
  • For Hindus - The Pind-dan at Gaya, Baidyanath Dham, Tara Mandir at Mahisi, etc.
  • For Muslims - Bihar-E-Sharif
  • For history buffs - Patna, Gaya, Bodh Gaya, Nalanda, Rajgir, Vaishali, Pawapuri, Champaran, Sasaram, etc..



Bihar has a very well developed cinema industry for the Bhojpuri language, spoken mainly in the central and western Bihar. There is a small Maithili film industry also.


Main article: Music of Bihar

Bihar has a very old tradition of beautiful folk songs, sung during important family occasions, like marriage, birth ceremonies, festivals, etc. They are sung mainly in group settings without the help of any musical instruments.

Bihar also has a tradition of lively Holi songs, filled with fun beats.

During the 19th century, when the condition of Bihar further worsened after the British loot and misrule, a lot of Biharis had to migrate as indentured labourers to West Indian islands, Fiji, and Mauritius. During this time a lot of sad plays and songs became very popular in Bhojpur area and still some dramas on that theme are played in the theaters of Patna.


Bihar produced a lot of great Hindi poets and novelists during and immediately after the independence movement. Dinkar, Nirala, Benipuri, and many others wrote important pieces of Hindi literature.

Different local languages also produced some prominent poets and authors. Vidyapati, the most famous of all Bihari poets, was a great Maithili poet.


  • Chhat - is a major festival in Bihar. It is worship of Sun.


It is mildly cold in the winter (worst it could get is 5-10 degrees Celsius). Winter months are December and January. It is very hot in the summer (40-45 degrees). April, May and first half of June are the hot months. Then comes the monsoon in the months of June, July, August, and September. October, November, February, and March are very pleasant months.


Bihar is mainly a vast stretch of very fertile land. It has many rivers including Ganga, Son, Bagmati, Kosi, Budhi Gandak, Falgu, etc. Southern part of Bihar has some small hills. Nepal is to the north of Bihar. To get to the Himalayas one will have to enter Nepal and travel for around 50-100kms.

See Districts in Bihar, India


After the division of the state in 2000, when the industrial and the mineral rich part of the state was carved out as a separate state of Jharkhand, the main economic activity of the state has been agriculture. Bihar is one of the poorest states of India. Blames for this are put on many factors - a historical disfavour from the center of Indian power (be it Calcutta during the British empire or Delhi during the independent India), a deeply polarized and highly politicized society, power hungry and corrupt rulers, lack of social reform movements, etc.


The economy is mainly based on the agricultural activities. The vast swath of the extremely fertile land makes this very easy. Despite a lot of rivers and good soil, irrigation facilities are very poor and the agriculture is mainly dependent upon the vagaries of the nature. There have been some attempts to industrialize the state also - a refinery in Barauni, a scooter plant in Fatuha, and some agriculture based industries like sugar, vegetable oil etc. But Bihar has not seen success in its industrialization.

Educational Institutions

In the old days Bihar was home to the famous universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. After their destruction in the 13th century, Bihar has not seen any more university of world repute.

Colleges and Universities

Patna University is the most prominent university. Science College,Patna Women's College, Patna College (for liberal arts), Patna Medical College, etc. are the better known colleges of this university.
Patna Women's College is one of the leading women's college in Bihar. Second best is Magadh Mahila College, and J.D. Women's College and lots more.
There are three good state run engineering colleges -
Patna Engineering College, part of Patna University
Bhagalpur College of Engineering
Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology


Bihar has a system of districts schools, called Zila schools. They are located in each district headquarters. There are a lot of state run Navodaya schools also. In early eighties, the state government also took over a lot of privately run schools, and gave them government recognitions. There are many such schools throughout the state with different names. Central government also runs a lot of Central schools for the wards of its employees. Delhi Public School, a chain of schools, is also opening a lot of schools in various town of Bihar. There are a few christian missionary run schools also in the state. Schools generally follow one of these three high school systems - Bihar School Examination Board, CBSE or ICSE. ICSE schools (there are not many of these in Bihar) follow English medium education, while the other two can follow Hindi medium education.


List of political parties in the state

External links

  • Website of government of Bihar (http://bihar.nic.in/)
  • Districts of Bihar (http://bihar.nic.in/Governance/Districts.htm)
  • History of Bihar (http://bihar.nic.in/Profile/History.htm)
  • A collection of news items about Bihar (http://www.bihartimes.com)
  • A web site about Bihar (http://www.bihar.com)

  Results from FactBites:
Bihar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2609 words)
Bihar (िबहार in Devanagri) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country..
To Bihar's north is the Kingdom of Nepal.
In between, Bihar saw a brief period of glory for six years during the rule of Sher Shah Suri, who was from Sasaram and built the longest road of the Indian subcontinent, the Grand Trunk Road, which starts from Calcutta and ends at Peshawar, Pakistan.
AllRefer.com - Bihar, India (Indian Political Geography) - Encyclopedia (392 words)
Bihar is governed by a chief minister and a cabinet responsible to a bicameral legislature with one elected house and by a governor appointed by the president of India.
Bihar was part of the ancient kingdom of Magadha, and contains many sites associated with the Buddha's early life, including Bodh Gaya, the site of his enlightenment.
The province of Bihar and Orissa was formed in 1912; Bihar became a separate province in 1936.
  More results at FactBites »



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