FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Big Dig (Boston, Massachusetts)
Metropolitan Highway System

Big Dig is the unofficial name of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a megaproject that rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the chief controlled-access highway through the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, into a 3.5 mile (5.6 km) tunnel under the city. The project also included the construction of the Ted Williams Tunnel (extending Interstate 90 to Logan International Airport), the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge over the Charles River, and the Rose Kennedy Greenway in the space vacated by the previous I-93 elevated roadway. Initially, the plan was also to include a rail connection between Boston's two major train terminals. The project concluded on December 31, 2007, when the partnership between program manager Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff and the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority ended.[1] Metropolitan Highway System Big Dig is the unofficial name of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a megaproject which rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the chief controlled-access highway through the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, into a 3. ... Image File history File links Mhs_logo. ... Image File history File links Mhs_logo. ... A megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment project. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 93 Interstate 93 (abbreviated I-93) is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... Boston redirects here. ... The Ted Williams Tunnel (planned as the Third Harbor Tunnel, the Sumner and Callahan Tunnels being the first two) is the tunnel connecting South Boston with Bostons Logan International Airport. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... The Rose Kennedy Greenway is a series of parks and public spaces planned for downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ... The North-South Rail Link is a plan for a passenger railroad tunnel in Boston, Massachusetts to connect South Station to North Station. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco, Bechtel had 40,000 employees as of 2006 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $20. ... Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) is a planning, engineering, program and construction management organization. ... Massachusetts Turnpike logo. ...

Contents

Overview

The project was initiated because of chronic congestion on the Central Artery (I-93), an elevated six-lane highway through the center of downtown Boston, which was, in the words of Pete Sigmund, "like a funnel full of slowly-moving, or stopped, cars (and swearing motorists)."[2]


In 1959, the 1.5-mile-long (2.4 km) road section carried approximately 75,000 vehicles a day, but by the 1990s, this had grown to 190,000 vehicles a day. Traffic jams of 16 hours were predicted for 2010.[3]


The project was officially handed over to the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority at the end of 2007.[4] Massachusetts Turnpike logo. ...

The "Big Dig" project in Boston

The Big Dig has been the most expensive highway project in the U.S.[5] Although the project was estimated at $2.8 billion in 1985 (in 1982 dollars, US$6.0 billion adjusted for inflation as of 2006),[6] over $14.6 billion ($8.08 billion in 1982 dollars)[6] had been spent in federal and state tax dollars as of 2006.[7] Congressman Barney Frank, at the start of the project, once asked "rather than lower the expressway, wouldn't it be cheaper to raise the city?" The project has incurred criminal arrests,[8][9] escalating costs, death, leaks, and charges of poor execution and use of substandard materials. The Massachusetts Attorney General is demanding contractors refund taxpayers $108 million for "shoddy work."[10] On January 23, 2008, it was reported that Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, the consortium that oversaw the project, would pay $407 million in restitution for its poor oversight of subcontractors (some of whom committed outright fraud), as well as primary responsibility in the death of a motorist. However, despite admitting to poor oversight and negligence as part of the settlement,[11] the firm is not barred from bidding for future government contracts. Several smaller companies agreed to pay a combined sum of approximately $51 million.[12] The Massachusetts Turnpike Authority (MTA), which had little experience in managing an undertaking of the scope and magnitude of the CA/T Project, hired a joint venture of Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff to provide preliminary designs, manage design consultants and construction contractors, track the Project’s cost and schedule, advise MTA on Project decisions, and, in some instances, act as the MTA’s representative. Eventually, MTA even combined some of its employees with Bechtel/Parsons employees in an integrated project organization. This was intended to make management more efficient, but it hindered MTA’s ability to independently oversee Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff because MTA and Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff had effectively become partners in the project. (OIG Testimony CC-2005-027, “Impact of Water Leaks on the Central Artery/Tunnel Project and Remaining Risks”) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barnett Barney Frank (born March 31, 1940) is an American politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives. ... Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ... The Massachusetts Attorney General is an executive officer of the Massachusetts Government. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Litigation against Bechtel and others in the death of a motorist remains pending, as of January 2008.


Historical background

Boston's historically tangled streets were laid out long before the advent of the automobile. By the mid-20th century, car traffic in the inner city was extremely congested, with north-south trips especially so. Commissioner of Public Works William Callahan advanced plans for an elevated expressway which eventually was constructed (1951-59) between the downtown area and the waterfront. The Central Artery (known officially as the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway) displaced thousands of residents and businesses and physically divided the historical connection between the downtown and market areas and the waterfront. Governor John Volpe interceded in the 1950s to send the last section of the Central Artery underground, through the Dewey Square (or "South Station") Tunnel, but while traffic moved somewhat better the other problems remained. Bostons historically tangled streets were laid out long before the advent of the automobile. ... Car redirects here. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ... For the American author John Fitzgerald, see John D. Fitzgerald. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - September 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... Dewey Square is a square in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ... South Station front entrance. ... The Dewey Square Tunnel in Boston, Massachusetts, is part of Interstate 93, running under the heart of the citys financial district. ...


Built before strict federal Interstate Highway standards were developed during the Eisenhower administration, the expressway was plagued by tight turns, an excessive number of entrances and exits, entrance ramps without merge lanes, and continually escalating vehicular loads. Local businesses again wanted relief, historians sought a reuniting of the waterfront with the city, and nearby residents desired removal of this "Green Monster". (Its matte green paint prompted Thomas Menino to call it Boston’s "other Green Monster". The original Green Monster is Fenway Park's left field wall.[13]) MIT engineers Bill Reynolds and future state Secretary of Transportation Frederick P. Salvucci envisioned moving the whole expressway underground.[14] The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) defines standards for Interstate Highways in their publication A Policy on Design Standards - Interstate System. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Thomas Michael Menino (born December 27, 1942) is the current mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, United States and the citys first Italian-American mayor. ... This article is about the left-field wall at Fenway Park. ... Fenway redirects here. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Fred Salvucci is a Civil Engineer specializing in Transportation, with particular interest in infrastructure, urban transportation, public transportation, and institutional development in decision making. ...


Early planning

The project was conceived in the 1970s by the Boston Transportation Planning Review to replace the rusting elevated six-lane Central Artery. The expressway separated downtown from the waterfront, and was increasingly choked with bumper-to-bumper traffic. Business leaders were more concerned about access to Logan Airport, and pushed instead for a third harbor tunnel. In their second terms, Michael Dukakis (governor) and Fred Salvucci (secretary of transportation) came up with the strategy of tying the two projects together—thereby combining the project that the business community supported with the project that they and the City of Boston supported.[citation needed] The Big Digs Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge over the Charles River. ... FAA diagram of Logan Airport Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport, in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the 20 busiest airports in the U.S., with 22 million passengers a year using its 43 airlines. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Frederick Peter Salvucci is a civil engineer specializing in transportation, in particular infrastructure, urban transportation, public transportation and institutional development in decision-making. ...


Planning for the Big Dig as a project officially began in 1982, with environmental impact studies starting in 1983. After years of extensive lobbying for federal dollars, a 1987 public works bill appropriating funding for the Big Dig was passed by U.S. Congress, but it was subsequently vetoed by President Ronald Reagan as being too expensive. When Congress overrode his veto, the project had its green light and ground was first broken in 1991.[15] Congress in Joint Session. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Congress can override a presidential veto by having a 2/3 majority vote in both the House of Representatives and Senate, thus signing the bill into law despite the presidents veto. ...


Obstacles

In addition to these political and financial difficulties, the project faced several environmental and engineering obstacles.


The downtown area through which the tunnels were to be dug was largely landfill, and included existing subway lines as well as innumerable pipes and utility lines that would have to be replaced or moved. Tunnel workers encountered many unexpected geological and archaeological barriers, ranging from glacial debris to foundations of buried houses and a number of sunken ships lying within the reclaimed land.


The project received approval from state environmental agencies in 1991, after satisfying concerns including release of toxins by the excavation and the possibility of disrupting the homes of millions of rats, causing them to roam the streets of Boston in search of new housing. By the time the federal environmental clearances were delivered in 1994,[16] the process had taken some seven years, during which time inflation greatly increased the project's original cost estimates.[citation needed]


Reworking such a busy corridor without seriously restricting traffic flow required a number of state-of-the-art construction techniques. Because the old elevated highway (which remained in operation throughout the construction process) rested on pylons located throughout the designated dig area, engineers first utilized slurry wall techniques to create 120 ft.-deep concrete walls upon which the highway could rest. These concrete walls also stabilized the sides of the site, preventing cave-ins during the excavation process. Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ...


The multilane interstates also had to pass under South Station's 7 tracks which carried over 40,000 commuters and 400 trains per day. In order to avoid multiple relocations of the train lines while the tunnelling advanced, as had been initially planned, a specially designed jack was constructed in order to support the ground and tracks to allow the excavation to take place below. Ground freezing was also implemented in order to help stabilize the surrounding ground as the tunnel was excavated. This was the largest tunnelling project undertaken beneath railway lines anywhere in the world. The ground freezing enabled safer, more efficient excavation, and also assisted in environmental issues, as less contaminated fill needed to be exported than if a traditional cut and cover method had been applied.[17] The word tunneling (also spelled tunnelling) has more than one meaning. ... Jackscrews are integral to one of the simplest kinds of car jacks still used. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ...


Other challenges included an existing subway tunnel crossing the path of the underground highway. In order to build slurry walls past this tunnel, it was necessary to dig beneath the tunnel and build an underground concrete bridge to support the tunnel's weight. A slurry is in general a thick suspension of solids in a liquid and may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Construction phase

Construction sites of the "Big Dig"

The project was managed by the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, with design and construction supervised by a joint venture of Bechtel Corporation and Parsons Brinckerhoff. Due to the enormous size of the project—too large for any company to undertake alone—the design and construction of the Big Dig were broken up into dozens of smaller subprojects with well-defined interfaces between contractors. Major heavy-construction contractors on the project included Jay Cashman, Modern Continental, Obayashi Corporation, Perini Corporation, Peter Kiewit Sons' Incorporated, J.F. White, and the Slattery division of Skanska USA. (Of those, Modern Continental was awarded the greatest gross value of contracts, joint ventures included.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest civil engineering company in the world. ... Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) is a planning, engineering, program and construction management organization. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Modern Continental is a group of companies based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Ōbayashi Corporation (大林組 Ōbayashi-gumi) is a major Japanese construction company. ... Perini Corporation NYSE: PCR is one of the largest general contractors in the United States. ... Peter Kiewit & Sons, a private company, is a Fortune 500 contractor, based in Omaha, Nebraska. ... Founded in 1924 by Joseph F. White, Sr. ... Work in progress on 30 St Mary Axe, one of Skanskas most high-profile contracts. ...


The nature of the Charles River crossing had been a source of major controversy throughout the design phase of the project. Many environmental advocates preferred a river crossing entirely in tunnels, but this, along with 27 other plans, was rejected as too costly. Finally, with a deadline looming to begin construction on a separate project that would connect the Tobin Bridge to the Charles River crossing, Salvucci overrode the objections and chose a variant of the plan known as "Scheme Z". This plan was considered to be reasonably cost-effective, but had the drawback of requiring highway ramps stacked up as high as 100 feet (30 m) immediately adjacent to the Charles River. The city of Cambridge objected to the visual impact of the chosen Charles River crossing design. It sued to revoke the project's environmental certificate and forced the project to redesign the river crossing again. Bostons North End and the Tobin Bridge The Maurice J. Tobin Memorial Bridge, operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority, carries U.S. Highway 1 over the Mystic River in Massachusetts between Charlestown and Chelsea. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ...


Swiss Engineer Christian Menn took over the design of the bridge. He suggested a sleek, modern, cable-stayed bridge that would carry 10 lanes of traffic. The plan was accepted and construction began. The bridge employed an asymmetrical design and a hybrid of steel and concrete was used to construct it. It was the first bridge in the country to employ this method and it is the widest cable-stayed bridge in the world.[2]


Meanwhile, construction continued on the Tobin Bridge approach. By the time all parties agreed on the I-93 design, construction of the Tobin connector (today known as the "City Square Tunnel" for a Charlestown area it bypasses) was far along, significantly adding to the cost of constructing the U.S. Route 1 interchange and retrofitting the tunnel. Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: U.S. Route 1 U.S. Route 1 (also called U.S. Highway 1, and abbreviated US 1) is a United States highway which parallels the east coast of the United States. ...


Boston blue clay and other soils extracted from the path of the tunnel were used to cap many local landfills, fill in the Granite Rail Quarry in Quincy, and restore the surface of Spectacle Island in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk County Settled 1625 Incorporated 1792 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor William J. Phelan Area  - City  26. ... Spectacle Island is an island in Boston Harbor, situated some 4 miles offshore of downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Harbor Islands of Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, are a collection of 34 islands, many of which are open for public recreation and some of which are very small and best suited for wildlife. ...

Leonard P. Zakim Bridge

The Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge, designed by Swiss designer Christian Menn, is the terminus of the project, connecting the underground highway with I-93 and U.S. 1. The distinctive cable-stayed bridge is supported by two forked towers connected to the span by cables and girders. photo of the Leonard P.Zakim Bridge in Boston by Brian Corr, March 7, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... photo of the Leonard P.Zakim Bridge in Boston by Brian Corr, March 7, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... History Christian Menn is a well known and respected Civil Engineer from Bern, Switzerland who designs his bridges to be aesthetically pleasing. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ...


The Storrow Drive Connector, a companion bridge to the Zakim, began carrying traffic from I-93 to Storrow Drive in 1999. The project had been under consideration for years, but was opposed by the wealthy residents of the Beacon Hill neighborhood. However, it finally was accepted because it would funnel traffic bound for Storrow Drive and downtown Boston away from the mainline roadway.[18] The Connector ultimately used a pair of ramps that had been constructed for Interstate 695, enabling the mainline I-93 to carry more traffic that would have used I-695 under the original Master Plan. The Storrow Drive Connector is a bridge in Boston. ... The Inner Belt was a project to construct a 6 lane, limited access highway through parts of Boston, Brookline, Cambridge, and Somerville. ...


When construction began, the project cost, including the Charles River crossing, was estimated at $5.8 billion. Eventual cost overruns were so high that the chairman of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, James Kerasiotes, was fired in 2000. His replacement had to commit to an $8.55 billion cap on federal contributions. Total expenses eventually passed $15 billion. Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ... James J. Kerasiotes was the director of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority and the project manager of the Big Dig in Boston during the 1990s. ...


Engineering methods and details

Several unusual engineering challenges arose during the project, requiring unusual solutions and methods to address them.


At the beginning of the project, engineers had to figure out the safest way to build the tunnel without endangering the existing elevated highway above. Eventually, they created horizontal braces as wide as the tunnel, then cut away the elevated highway's struts, and lowered it onto the new braces.[19]


Final phases

Interstate 93 Tunnel

On January 17, 2003, the opening ceremony was held for the I-90 Connector Tunnel, extending the Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90) east into the Ted Williams Tunnel, and onwards to Logan Airport. The Ted Williams tunnel had been completed and in limited use for commercial traffic and high-occupancy vehicles since late 1995. The westbound lanes opened on the afternoon of January 18 and the eastbound lanes on January 19. Download high resolution version (1024x474, 87 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x474, 87 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ted Williams Tunnel (planned as the Third Harbor Tunnel, the Sumner and Callahan Tunnels being the first two) is the tunnel connecting South Boston with Bostons Logan International Airport. ... A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is a transportation engineering and transportation planning term referring to a vehicle with a driver and one or more passengers. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Traffic before the "Big Dig"

The next phase, moving the elevated Interstate 93 underground, was completed in two stages: northbound lanes opened in March 2003 and southbound lanes (in a temporary configuration) on December 20, 2003. A tunnel underneath Leverett Circle connecting eastbound Storrow Drive to I-93 North and the Tobin Bridge opened December 19, 2004, easing congestion at the circle. All southbound lanes of I-93 opened to traffic on March 5, 2005, including the left lane of the Zakim Bridge, and all of the refurbished Dewey Square Tunnel. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Traffic after the "Big Dig" opened completely

By the end of December 2004, 95% of the Big Dig was completed. Major construction remained on the surface, including construction of final ramp configurations in the North End and in the South Bay interchange, and reconstruction of the surface streets. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1138 × 998 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image of the North End, Boston neighborhood. ... South Bay is a 10-acre site in Boston, Massachusetts sandwiched between Chinatown and the Leather District. ...


Many environmental impact mitigation projects (transit, pedestrian, bicycle, and parks) also remain. Although these were legal requirements for approval of the environmental impact statement, many are not funded due to the massive cost overruns on the highway portion of the project.


The final ramp downtown—exit 20B from I-93 south to Albany Street—opened January 13, 2006.[20] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 93 Interstate 93 (abbreviated I-93) is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2006, the two Interstate 93 tunnels were dedicated as the Thomas "Tip" O'Neill Tunnel, after the former Democratic speaker of the House of Representatives from Massachusetts who pushed to have the Big Dig funded by the federal government. Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ... The Thomas P. Tip ONeill Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


Problems

"Thousands of leaks"

As far back as 2001, Turnpike Authority officials and private contractors knew of thousands of leaks in the ceiling and wall fissures, extensive water damage to steel supports and fireproofing systems, and overloaded drainage systems.[21] A $10 million contract, signed off as a cost overrun, was used to repair these leaks. Many of the leaks were a result of Modern Continental and other subcontractors failing to remove gravel and other debris before pouring concrete. This was not made publicly known to the media, but engineers at MIT (volunteer students and professors) did several precise experiments and found a few serious problems with the tunnel.[22] Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ...


On September 15, 2004, a major leak in the Interstate 93 north tunnel forced the closure of the tunnel while repairs were conducted. This also forced the Turnpike Authority to release information regarding its non-disclosure of prior leaks. A follow-up reported on "extensive" leaks that were more severe than state authorities had previously acknowledged. The report went on to state that the $14.6 billion tunnel system was riddled with more than 400 leaks. A Boston Globe report, however, countered that by stating there were nearly 700 leaks in a single 1,000-foot section of tunnel beneath South Station. Turnpike officials also stated that the number of leaks being investigated was down from 1,000 to 500.[22] is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 93 Interstate 93 (abbreviated I-93) is an interstate highway in the New England section of the United States. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ...


Substandard materials

Massachusetts State Police searched the offices of Aggregate Industries, the largest concrete supplier for the underground portions of the project, in June 2005. They seized evidence of false records which hid the poor quality of concrete delivered for the highway project. In May 2006, six executives of the company, including its general manager, were arrested and charged with crimes related to fraud. Immediately after the arrests, Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney announced he would return $3,900 in political contributions from employees of Aggregate Industries.[23] Massachusettes State Police patch The Massachusetts State Police (MSP) is an agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Public Safety responsible for criminal law enforcement and traffic vehicle regulation across the state. ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ...


On March 19, 2006, the International Herald Tribune reported that Massachusetts Attorney General Tom Reilly planned to sue Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff and other companies because of poor work on the project. Over 200 complaints have been filed by the State of Massachusetts as a result of leaks, cost overruns, quality concerns, and safety violations. In total, the state is seeking approximately $100 million from the contractors ($1 for every $141 spent).[10] is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... The Massachusetts Attorney General is an executive officer of the Massachusetts Government. ... Thomas Reilly is the attorney general of Massachusetts. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco, Bechtel had 40,000 employees as of 2006 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $20. ... Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) is a planning, engineering, program and construction management organization. ...


Fatal ceiling collapse

A fatal accident raised safety questions and closed part of the project for most of the summer of 2006. On July 10, 2006, a concrete ceiling panel weighing 3 tons (2.7 t) and measuring 20 by 40 ft. (6.1 by 12.2 m) fell on a car traveling on the two-lane ramp connecting northbound I-93 to eastbound I-90 in South Boston, killing Milena Del Valle, who was a passenger, and injuring her husband, Angel Del Valle, who was driving.[2] The collapse also contributed to the death of another person, a heart attack victim who died en route to a hospital when his ambulance was caught in a resulting traffic jam two weeks after the collapse.[24] On September 1, 2006, one eastbound lane of the connector tunnel was re-opened to traffic.[25][26] At approximately 11:00 p. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... South Boston is a heavily populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following extensive inspections and repairs, Interstate 90 east and west bound lanes reopened in early January 2007.[27] The final piece of the road network, a high occupancy vehicle lane connecting Interstate 93 north to the Ted Williams Tunnel, was reopened on June 1, 2007. January 2007 is the first month of that year. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 10, 2007 after a lengthy investigation, the National Transportation Safety Board found that epoxy glue used to hold the roof in place during construction was not appropriate for long term bonding.[28] This was determined to be the cause of the roof collapse. The Power-Fast Epoxy Adhesive from Powers Fasteners used in the installation was designed for short term loading, such as wind or earthquake loads, not long term loading such as the weight of a panel.[29] is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in...


Powers Fasteners revised their product specifications on May 15, 2007 to increase the safety factor from 4 to 10 for any of their epoxy products which are intended for use in overhead applications. The safety factor on Power-Fast Epoxy in particular was increased from 4 to 16.[29] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On December 24, 2007, the Del Valle family announced they had reached a settlement with Power Fasteners, in which they would be paid $6 million.[30] Power Fasteners is still facing a charge of manslaughter.[1] is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


See also

The Lieutenant William F. Callahan Tunnel carries traffic from Boston, Massachusettss North End to Logan International Airport and Route 1A in East Boston. ... Conservation Law Foundation (CLF) is New England’s leading environmental advocacy organization. ... Cross City Tunnel exit at Sir John Young Crescent, Woolloomooloo. ... Dublin Port Tunnel Construction, 2004 December 2006, southbound entrance The Dublin Port Tunnel (Tollán Calafoirt Bhaile Átha Cliath in Irish) is a road traffic tunnel in Dublin, Ireland, that forms part of the M50 motorway. ... View of the Turnpike from an overpass by Boston University, facing east (towards central Boston). ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [2] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts area. ... An old shield for the Sumner Tunnel, with the Masspike hat. ...

References

  1. ^ a b LeBlanc, Steve. "On Dec. 31, It's Official: Boston's Big Dig Will Be Done", The Washington Post, 2007-12-26. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. 
  2. ^ a b c Sigmund, Pete. "Triumph, Tragedy Mark Boston's Big Dig Project", Construction Equipment Guide, 2007-06-06. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. 
  3. ^ "History of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project", Massachusetts Turnpike Authority. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. 
  4. ^ "Mass. to Take Control of Big Dig from Contractors", The Daily Free Press, 2007-11-20. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. 
  5. ^ "Review Begins After Big Dig Tunnel Collapse", CNN.com, 2006-07-12. Retrieved on 2006-07-25. 
  6. ^ a b The Inflation calculator.
  7. ^ Johnson, Glen. "Governor seeks to take control of Big Dig inspections", Boston Globe, 2006-07-13. Retrieved on 2006-07-13. 
  8. ^ Ngowi, Rodrique. "$6M Settlement in Big Dig Death", Associated Press, 2007-12-25. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. 
  9. ^ Ross, Casey. "Epoxy company hit with Big Dig indictment", Boston Herald, 2007-08-08. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. 
  10. ^ a b "State weighs suing 'Big Dig' contractors", International Herald Tribune, 2006-03-20. Retrieved on 2006-07-17. 
  11. ^ Immediate Big Dig fixes expected to cost $100m - The Boston Globe
  12. ^ Contractors to settle Boston Big Dig suit for $450M Toronto Star January 23, 2008
  13. ^ Associated Press. "Boston’s ‘Big Dig’ opens to public", MSNBC, 2003-12-20. Retrieved on 2006-07-18. 
  14. ^ "Big Dig Nearing Light of Costly Tunnel's End", New York Times, 2004-07-25. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. 
  15. ^ Dan McNichol and Andy Ryan, The Big Dig. Silver Lining Press, 1991
  16. ^ Palmer, Thomas. "State Wins Federal OK to Start River-Crossing Part of Artery Project", Boston Globe, 1994-06-21. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. 
  17. ^ Boston Central Artery Jacked Tunnels - Mott MacDonald Project Page
  18. ^ Leonard P. Zakim-Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge. BostonRoads.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  19. ^ Boston's $14.8B Big Dig finally complete, By Steve LeBlanc, Associated Press, 12/25/07.
  20. ^ Ross, Casey. "Hallelujah Hub drivers! Last Big Dig ramp done", Boston Herald, 2006-01-14. Retrieved on 2006-07-18. 
  21. ^ Report: Even More Big Dig Leaks Found - Big Dig News Story - WCVB Boston
  22. ^ a b "Report: Even More Big Dig Leaks Found", WCVB-TV, 2004-11-17. Retrieved on 2006-07-18. 
  23. ^ "Romney to return contributions from Big Dig concrete workers", WPRI. 
  24. ^ "Man dies in tunnel backup", Boston Herald, 2006-07-27. Retrieved on 2006-08-08. 
  25. ^ "Turnpike News", Massachusetts Turnpike Authority. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  26. ^ Taurasi, Elizabeth. "Boston’s Big Dig – One of Engineering’s Biggest Mistakes?", Design News, 2006-07-28]. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.  See WikiNews article here.
  27. ^ "Mass. tunnel ceiling inspections ordered", SeattlePi.com. Retrieved on 2006-01-07. 
  28. ^ "Safety Board Determines Cause of Boston's Big Dig Tunnel Ceiling Collapse Last Year", ntsb.gov. Retrieved on 2006-07-12. 
  29. ^ a b "Power-Fast®+ Epoxy Adhesive System", powers.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-12. 
  30. ^ "Settlement reached in Big Dig death", Boston Globe, 2007-12-24. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Toronto Star is Canadas highest-circulation newspaper, though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within Ontario. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Powell, Michael, "Boston's Big Dig Awash in Troubles", Washington Post, 2004-11-19, Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
  • Official site
  • Project map
  • Boston CA/T Project History at MIT Rotch Library
  • Steve Anderson's BostonRoads.com
  • PBS.org – Central Artery
  • Big Dig Disaster
Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m