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Encyclopedia > Big Dig
Metropolitan Highway System
Metropolitan Highway System

Big Dig is the unofficial name of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a megaproject which rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the chief controlled-access highway through the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, into a 3.5 mile (5.6km) tunnel under the city. The project also included the construction of the Ted Williams Tunnel (extending Interstate 90 to Logan International Airport), the Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge over the Charles River, and the Rose Kennedy Greenway in the space vacated by the previous I-93 elevated roadway. Initially, the Big Dig plan included a rail connection between Boston's two major train terminals - North Station and South Station - North-South Rail Link. Image File history File links Mhs_logo. ... Image File history File links Mhs_logo. ... A megaproject is an extremely large scale investment project. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ... This Interstate Highway article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject U.S. Interstate Highways. ... Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition) A freeway is a type of highway that is designed for safer high-speed operation of motor vehicles through the elimination of at-grade intersections. ... Highway in Pennsylvania, USA The Pan-American Highway, in the Peruvian town of Máncora, where it serves as the main street. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, Athens of America, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... The Ted Williams Tunnel (planned as the Third Harbor Tunnel, the Sumner and Callahan Tunnels being the first two) is the tunnel connecting South Boston with Bostons Logan International Airport. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... Logan International Airport with aircraft taking off over harbor Bostons Logan International Airport from the airside lounge of Terminal E, illustrating how the airport is largely surrounded by water. ... The Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that carries eight lanes of the Interstate 93 and U.S. Route 1 concurrency, plus a two lane access ramp, across the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... The Rose Kennedy Greenway is a series of parks and public spaces planned for downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ... The North-South Rail Link is a plan for a passenger railroad tunnel in Boston, Massachusetts to connect South Station to North Station. ...


The Big Dig is the most expensive highway project in America. [1] Although the project was estimated at $2.8 billion in 1985, over $14.6 billion had been spent in federal and state tax dollars as of 2006. [2] The project has incurred criminal arrests, escalating costs, leaks, poor execution and use of substandard materials. The Massachusetts Attorney General is demanding contractors refund taxpayers $108 million for "shoddy work." [3] The final ramp opened 13 January 2006. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


The Big Dig was featured in the first season of the U.S. television program Extreme Engineering. Extreme Engineering is a series on the Discovery Channel which features futuristic and ongoing engineering projects. ...

Contents

Historical background

Boston's historically tangled streets were laid out long before the advent of the automobile. By mid-20th century, car traffic in the inner city was extremely congested, with north-south trips especially so. Commissioner of Public Works William Callahan advanced plans for an elevated expressway which eventually was constructed (1951-59) between the downtown area and the waterfront. The Central Artery (known officially as the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway) displaced thousands of residents and businesses and physically divided the historical connection between the downtown and market areas and the waterfront. Governor John Volpe interceded in the 1950s to send the last section of the Central Artery underground, through the Dewey Square (or "South Station") Tunnel, but while traffic moved somewhat better the other problems remained. Bostons historically tangled streets were laid out long before the advent of the automobile. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... The Central Artery, officially the John F. Fitzgerald Expressway, is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, designated as Interstate 93, U.S. Highway 1 and Route 3. ... For the American author John Fitzgerald, see John D. Fitzgerald. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - September 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... Dewey Square is a square in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Dewey Square Tunnel in Boston, Massachusetts, is part of Interstate 93, running under the heart of the citys financial district. ...

Built before strict federal Interstate Highway standards were developed during the Eisenhower administration, the expressway was plagued by tight turns, an excessive number of entrances and exits, entrance ramps without merge lanes, and continually escalating vehicular loads. Local businesses again wanted relief, historians sought a reuniting of the waterfront with the city, and nearby residents desired removal of this "Green Monster". (Its matte green paint prompted Thomas Menino to call it Boston’s 'other Green Monster'. The original Green Monster is Fenway Park's left field wall.)[4] M.I.T. engineers Bill Reynolds and (eventual state Secretary of Transportation) Frederick P. Salvucci envisioned moving the whole expressway underground.[citation needed] The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) defines standards for Interstate Highways in their publication A Policy on Design Standards - Interstate System. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Thomas Michael Menino (born December 27, 1942) is the current mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, United States and the citys first Italian-American mayor. ... The Green Monster in 2006, showing the manual scoreboard and Green Monster seating, and more recent additions, including charity advertisements along the top, billboards above the Green Monster seating, and the American League East standings. ... “Fenway” redirects here. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Fred Salvucci is a Civil Engineer specializing in Transportation, with particular interest in infrastructure, urban transportation, public transportation, and institutional development in decision making. ...


Early planning

The project was conceived in the 1970s by the Boston Transportation Planning Review to replace the rusting elevated six-lane Central Artery. The expressway separated downtown from the waterfront, and was increasingly choked with bumper-to-bumper traffic. Business leaders were more concerned about access to Logan Airport, and pushed instead for a third harbor tunnel. In their second terms as governor and secretary of transportation, respectively, Michael Dukakis and Fred Salvucci, came up with the strategy of tying the two projects together—thereby combining the project that the business community supported with the project that they and the City of Boston supported.[citation needed] The Big Digs Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge over the Charles River. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Frederick Peter Salvucci is a civil engineer specializing in transportation, in particular infrastructure, urban transportation, public transportation and institutional development in decision-making. ...


Planning for the Big Dig as a project officially began in 1982, with environmental impact studies starting in 1983. After years of extensive lobbying for federal dollars, a 1987 public works bill appropriating funding for the Big Dig was passed by U.S. Congress, but it was subsequently vetoed by President Ronald Reagan as being too expensive. When Congress overrode his veto, the project had its green light and ground was first broken in 1991.[5]. Congress in Joint Session. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ...


Obstacles

In addition to these political and financial difficulties, the project faced several environmental and engineering obstacles.


The downtown area through which the tunnels were to be dug was largely landfill, and included existing subway lines as well as innumerable pipes and utility lines that would have to be replaced or moved. Tunnel workers encountered many unexpected geological and archaeological barriers, ranging from glacial debris to foundations of buried houses and a number of sunken ships lying within the reclaimed land.


The project received approval from state environmental agencies in 1991, after satisfying concerns including release of toxins by the excavation and the possibility of disrupting the homes of millions of rats, causing them to roam the streets of Boston in search of new housing. By the time the federal environmental clearances were delivered in 1994, the process had taken some seven years, during which time inflation greatly increased the project's original cost estimates. This is an article about wild rats; for pet rats, see Fancy rat Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


Reworking such a busy corridor without seriously restricting traffic flow required a number of state-of-the-art construction techniques. Because the old elevated highway (which remained in operation throughout the construction process) rested on pylons located throughout the designated dig area, engineers first utilized slurry wall techniques to create 120 ft.-deep concrete walls upon which the highway could rest. These concrete walls also stabilized the sides of the site, preventing cave-ins during the excavation process. Slurrywall-excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ...


The multilane interstates also had to pass under South Station's 7 tracks which carried over 40,000 commuters and 400 trains per day. In order to avoid multiple relocations of the train lines whilst the tunnelling advanced, as had been initially planned, a specially designed jack was constructed in order to support the ground and tracks to allow the excavation to take place below. Ground freezing was also implemented in order to help stabilise the surrounding ground as the tunnel was excavated. This was the largest undertaken beneath railway lines anywhere in the world. The ground freezing enabled safer more efficient excavation, and also assisted in environmental issues, as less contaminated fill needed to be exported than if a traditional cut and cover method had been applied.[6] The word tunneling (also spelled tunnelling) has more than one meaning. ... Jackscrews are integral to one of the simplest kinds of car jacks still used. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ...


Other challenges included an existing subway tunnel crossing the path of the underground highway. In order to build slurry walls past this tunnel, it was necessary to dig beneath the tunnel and build an underground concrete bridge to support the tunnel's weight. A slurry may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Construction phase

The Central Artery/Tunnel Project was managed by the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority with design and construction supervised by a joint venture of Bechtel Corporation and Parsons Brinckerhoff. Due to the enormous size of the project—too large for any company to undertake alone—the design and construction of the Big Dig were broken up into dozens of smaller subprojects with well-defined interfaces between contractors. Major heavy-construction contractors on the project included Jay Cashman, Modern Continental, Obayashi Corporation, Perini Corporation, Peter Kiewit Sons' Incorporated, J.F. White, and the Slattery division of Skanska USA. (Of those, Modern Continental was awarded the greatest gross value of contracts, joint ventures included.) Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest civil engineering company in the world. ... Established more than 120 years ago, Parsons Brinckerhoff is a worldwide provider of infrastructure services. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Modern Continental is a group of companies based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Ōbayashi Corporation (大林組 Ōbayashi-gumi) is a major Japanese construction company. ... Perini Corporation NYSE: PCR is one of the largest general contractors in the United States. ... Peter Kiewit & Sons, a private company, is a Fortune 500 contractor, based in Omaha, Nebraska. ... Founded in 1924 by Joseph F. White, Sr. ... Skanska is a multinational heavy-construction company based in Sweden. ...


The nature of the Charles River crossing had been a source of major controversy throughout the design phase of the project. Many environmental advocates preferred a river crossing entirely in tunnels, but this, along with 27 other plans, was rejected as too costly. Finally, with a deadline looming to begin construction on a separate project that would connect the Tobin Bridge to the Charles River crossing, Salvucci overrode the objections and chose a variant of the plan known as "Scheme Z". This plan was considered to be reasonably cost-effective, but had the drawback of requiring highway ramps stacked up as high as 100 feet (30 m) immediately adjacent to the Charles River. The city of Cambridge objected to the visual impact of the chosen Charles River crossing design. It sued to revoke the project's environmental certificate and forced the project to redesign the river crossing again. Meanwhile, construction continued on the Tobin Bridge approach. By the time all parties agreed on the I-93 design, construction of the Tobin connector (today known as the "City Square Tunnel" for a Charlestown area it bypasses) was far along, significantly adding to the cost of constructing the U.S. Route 1 interchange and retrofitting the tunnel. Bostons North End and the Tobin Bridge The Maurice J. Tobin Memorial Bridge, operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority, carries U.S. Highway 1 over the Mystic River in Massachusetts between Charlestown and Chelsea. ...   Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ... This U.S. Highway article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject U.S. Highways. ...


Boston blue clay and other soils extracted from the path of the tunnel were used to cap many local landfills, fill in the Granite Rail Quarry in Quincy, and restore the surface of Spectacle Island in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... Albury landfill, Surrey, England A landfill, also known as a dump, is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. ...   Settled: 1625 â€“ Incorporated: 1792 Zip Code(s): 02169, 02170, 02171 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://ci. ... Spectacle Island is an island in Boston Harbor, situated some 4 miles offshore of downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Harbor Islands of Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, are a collection of 34 islands, many of which are open for public recreation and some of which are very small and best suited for wildlife. ...

Leonard P. Zakim Bridge
Leonard P. Zakim Bridge

The Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, designed by Swiss designer Christian Menn, is the terminus of the project, connecting the underground highway with I-93 and US 1. The distinctive cable-stayed bridge is supported by two forked towers connected to the span by cables and girders. photo of the Leonard P.Zakim Bridge in Boston by Brian Corr, March 7, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... photo of the Leonard P.Zakim Bridge in Boston by Brian Corr, March 7, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that carries eight lanes of the Interstate 93 and U.S. Route 1 concurrency, plus a two lane access ramp, across the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts. ... History Christian Menn is a well known and respected Civil Engineer from Bern, Switzerland who designs his bridges to be aesthetically pleasing. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more pillars, with cables supporting the roadbed. ...


The Storrow Drive Connector, a companion bridge to the Zakim, began carrying traffic from I-93 to Storrow Drive in 1999. The project had been under consideration for years, but was opposed by the wealthy residents of the Beacon Hill neighborhood. However, it finally was accepted because it would funnel traffic bound for Storrow Drive and downtown Boston away from the mainline roadway.[7] The Connector ultimately used a pair of ramps that had been constructed for Interstate 695, enabling the mainline I-93 to carry more traffic that would have used I-695 under the original Master Plan. The Storrow Drive Connector is a bridge in Boston. ...


When construction began, the project cost, including the Charles River crossing, was estimated at $5.8 billion. Eventual cost overruns were so high that the chairman of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, James Kerasiotes, was fired in 2000. His replacement had to commit to an $8.55 billion cap on federal contributions. Total expenses eventually passed $15 billion. James J. Kerasiotes was the director of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority and the project manager of the Big Dig in Boston during the 1990s. ...


Final phases

Interstate 93 Tunnel
Interstate 93 Tunnel

On January 17, 2003, the opening ceremony was held for the I-90 Connector Tunnel, extending the Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90) east into the Ted Williams Tunnel, and onwards to Logan Airport. (The Williams tunnel had been completed and in limited use for commercial traffic and high-occupancy vehicles since late 1995.) The westbound lanes opened on the afternoon of January 18 and the eastbound lanes on January 19. Download high resolution version (1024x474, 87 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x474, 87 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is a transportation engineering and transportation planning term referring to a vehicle with a driver and one or more passengers. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The next phase, moving the elevated Interstate 93 underground, was completed in two stages: northbound lanes opened in March 2003 and southbound lanes (in a temporary configuration) on December 20, 2003. A tunnel underneath Leverett Circle connecting eastbound Storrow Drive to I-93 North and the Tobin Bridge opened December 19, 2004, easing congestion at the circle. All southbound lanes of I-93 opened to traffic on March 5, 2005, including the left lane of the Zakim Bridge, and all of the refurbished Dewey Square Tunnel. December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (65th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


By the end of December 2004, 95% of the Big Dig was completed. Major construction remained on the surface, including construction of final ramp configurations in the North End and in the South Bay interchange, and reconstruction of the surface streets. Many impact-mitigation projects (transit, pedestrian, bicycle, and parks) also remain, but some are in danger of cancellation due to cost overruns on the rest of the project. Image of the North End, Boston neighborhood. ... South Bay is a 10-acre site in Boston, Massachusetts sandwiched between Chinatown and the Leather District. ...


The final ramp downtown—exit 20B from I-93 south to Albany Street—opened January 13, 2006.[8] This Interstate Highway article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject U.S. Interstate Highways. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In 2006, the two Interstate 93 tunnels were dedicated as the Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel, after the former Democratic speaker of the House of Representatives from Massachusetts who pushed to have the Big Dig funded by the federal government. The Thomas P. Tip ONeill Jr. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...


Problems

"Thousands of leaks"

As far back as 2001, Turnpike Authority officials and private contractors knew of thousands of leaks in the ceiling and wall fissures, extensive water damage to steel supports and fireproofing systems, and overloaded drainage systems.[9] A $10 million contract, signed off as a cost overrun, was used to repair these leaks. Many of the leaks were a result of Modern Continental and other subcontractors failing to remove gravel and other debris before pouring concrete. This was not made publicly known to the media, but the MIT engineers (volunteer students and professors) did several precise experiments and found a few serious problems with the tunnel. [10] Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ...


On September 15, 2004, a major leak in the Interstate 93 north tunnel forced the closure of the tunnel while repairs were conducted. This also forced the Turnpike Authority to release information regarding its non-disclosure of prior leaks. A follow-up reported on "extensive" leaks that were more severe than state authorities had previously acknowledged. The report went on to state that the $14.6 billion tunnel system was riddled with more than 400 leaks. A Boston Globe report, however, countered that by stating there were nearly 700 leaks in a single 1000-foot section of tunnel beneath South Station. Turnpike officials also stated that the number of leaks being investigated was down from 1000 to 500. [10] September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This Interstate Highway article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject U.S. Interstate Highways. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ...


Substandard materials

Massachusetts State Police searched the offices of Aggregate Industries, the largest concrete supplier for the underground portions of the project, in June 2005. They seized evidence of faked records that hid the poor quality of concrete delivered for the highway project. In May 2006, six executives of the company, including its general manager, were arrested and charged with crimes related to fraud. Immediately after the arrests, Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney announced he would return $3,900 in political contributions from employees of Aggregate Industries.[11] Mass. ... Willard Mitt Romney (standard IPA pronunciation: ˡwɪlɚd ˡmɪt ˡɹɑmni), usually known as Mitt (born March 12, 1947), was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, elected in 2002. ...


On March 19, 2006, the International Herald Tribune reported that Massachusetts Attorney General Tom Reilly plans to sue Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff and other companies because of poor work on the project. Over 200 complaints have been filed by the state of Massachusetts as a result of leaks, cost overruns, quality concerns, and safety violations. In total, the state is seeking approximately $100 million from the contractors ($1 for every $141 spent).[3] March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Thomas Reilly is the attorney general of Massachusetts. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States. ... Established more than 120 years ago, Parsons Brinckerhoff is a worldwide provider of infrastructure services. ...


Fatal ceiling collapse

A fatal accident raised safety questions and closed part of the project for most of the summer of 2006. Part of the ceiling collapsed in a tunnel segment under South Boston, connecting I-90 to the Ted Williams Tunnel. The July 11 collapse killed one person and contributed to the death of another, a heart-attack victim who died en route to a hospital when his ambulance was caught in a resulting traffic jam two weeks later. [12] On September 1, 2006, one eastbound lane of the connector tunnel was re-opened to traffic. [13] [14] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... South Boston is a heavily populated neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts, located south of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... The Ted Williams Tunnel (planned as the Third Harbor Tunnel, the Sumner and Callahan Tunnels being the first two) is the tunnel connecting South Boston with Bostons Logan International Airport. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Following extensive inspections and repairs, Interstate 90 east and west bound lanes reopened in early January 2007[15]. It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Crystal ball, user has created future months and dates before, and been told not to (See User Talk:Jose and Ricardo). ...


References

  1. ^ "Review Begins After Big Dig Tunnel Collapse", CNN.com, 2006-07-12. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  2. ^ Johnson, Glen. "Governor seeks to take control of Big Dig inspections", Boston Globe, 2006-07-13. Retrieved on 2006-07-13.
  3. ^ a b "State weighs suing 'Big Dig' contractors", International Herald Tribune, 2006-03-20. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  4. ^ Associated Press. "Boston’s ‘Big Dig’ opens to public", MSNBC, 2003-12-20. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  5. ^ Dan McNichol and Andy Ryan, The Big Dig. Silver Lining Press, 1991
  6. ^ Boston Central Artery Jacked Tunnels - Mott MacDonald Project Page
  7. ^ Leonard P. Zakim-Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge. BostonRoads.com. Retrieved on 2006 July 18.
  8. ^ Ross, Casey. "Hallelujah Hub drivers! Last Big Dig ramp done", Boston Herald, 2006-01-14. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  9. ^ http://www.thebostonchannel.com/bigdig/3924866/detail.html
  10. ^ a b "Report: Even More Big Dig Leaks Found", WCVB-TV, 2004-11-17. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  11. ^ "Romney to return contributions from Big Dig concrete workers", WPRI.
  12. ^ "Man dies in tunnel backup", Boston Herald, 2006-07-27. Retrieved on 2006-08-08.
  13. ^ "Turnpike News", Massachusetts Turnpike Authority. Retrieved on 2006-12-03.
  14. ^ Taurasi, Elizabeth. "Boston’s Big Dig – One of Engineering’s Biggest Mistakes?", Design News, 2006-07-28]. Retrieved on 2006-08-11. See WikiNews article here.
  15. ^ "Mass. tunnel ceiling inspections ordered", SeattlePi.com. Retrieved on 2006-01-07.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Dublin Port Tunnel Construction, 2004 December 2006, southbound entrance The Dublin Port Tunnel (Tollán Calafoirt Bhaile Átha Cliath in Irish) is a road traffic tunnel in Dublin, Ireland that forms part of the M50 motorway. ... View of the Turnpike from an overpass by Boston University, facing east (towards central Boston). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... This Interstate Highway article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject U.S. Interstate Highways. ... The Ted Williams Tunnel (planned as the Third Harbor Tunnel, the Sumner and Callahan Tunnels being the first two) is the tunnel connecting South Boston with Bostons Logan International Airport. ... An old shield for the Sumner Tunnel, with the Masspike hat. ... The Lieutenant William F. Callahan Tunnel carries traffic from Boston, Massachusettss North End to Logan International Airport and Route 1A in East Boston. ... Leonard P. Zakim Bridge The Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Freedom Bridge in Boston, Massachusetts is the widest cable-stayed bridge built prior to 2003. ... Conservation Law Foundation (CLF) is New England’s leading environmental advocacy organization. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a quasi-governmental organization formed in 1964 that controls the subway, bus, commuter rail, and ferry systems in the Boston, Massachusetts area. ... Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ...

External links

  • http://www.tsomides.com/news/downloads/Tunnel%20Design1.pdf
  • Powell, Michael, "Boston's Big Dig Awash in Troubles", Washington Post, 2004-11-19, Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
  • Official site
  • Project map
  • Boston CA/T Project History at MIT Rotch Library
  • Steve Anderson's BostonRoads.com
  • PBS.org – Central Artery

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Public Roads Magazine (3302 words)
The Big Dig certainly figures to be good news for the local shellfish population because of the construction of an artificial reef in Boston Harbor's Sculpin Ledge Channel between Spectacle Island and Long Island.
Big Dig materials are also being used to fill Quincy's Swingles Quarry, a 122-meter-deep (400-foot-deep) abandoned quarry pit that has been a public safety hazard for more than 25 years.
The Big Dig has used partnering to an unprecedented extent, and although it would be difficult to precisely quantify the benefits of the process, many experts have concluded that because of its scope and complexity, the CA/T Project would have been simply unmanageable without partnering.
Finishing the Big Dig - Boston.com (1046 words)
The Globe found that at least $1.1b in Big Dig cost overruns are tied to mistakes made by the project's management firm.
The Big Dig tunnel ceiling that collapsed in July was designed with a smaller margin of safety than other tunnel ceilings around the country, leaving nothing to prevent heavy concrete slabs from falling on a passing car when ceiling bolts fell out, according to a preliminary report by federal investigators obtained by the Globe.
A key Big Dig ramp linking the westbound Ted Williams Tunnel and Interstate 93 is set to open as soon as next week, unclogging downtown and South Boston streets where thousands of vehicles are detoured, state officials said yesterday.
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