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Encyclopedia > Bicameralism
Legislature

This series is part of
the Politics series Book cover of the recent 2000 edition of The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, which includes a depiction of Tukulti-Ninurta I pointing (with his right forefinger) at the empty throne of his god. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...

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In government, bicameralism (bi + Latin camera, chamber) is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Thus, a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of two chambers or houses. Bicameralism is an essential and defining feature of the classical notion of mixed government. Bicameral legislatures tend to require a concurrent majority to pass legislation. A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... This is a list of legislatures by country, whether parliamentary or congressional, that act as a plenary general assembly of representatives with the power to legislate. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Parliamentary group and parliamentary party are terms used to refer to the representation of a political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or in a city council. ... The leader or chairperson of a parliamentary group holds an influential political post in a parliamentary system with strong party discipline. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Classical republic. ... Concurrent majority refers in general to the concept of balancing majority and minority interests through limited government. ...

Contents

Theory of bicameral congress

Although the ideas on which bicameralism is based can be traced back to the theories developed in Ancient Sumer and later ancient Greece, ancient India, and Rome, recognizable bicameral institutions first arose in medieval Europe where they were associated with separate representation of different estates of the realm. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The Founding Fathers of the United States eschewed any notion of separate representation for aristocracy, but they accepted the prevailing disposition towards bicameralism. However, as part of the Great Compromise between large states and small states, they invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the upper house would have states represented equally and the lower house would have them represented by population. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... The Connecticut Compromise of 1787 in the United States, later known as the Great Compromise, was struck in the creation of legislative bodies. ...

The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. The north wing houses the Senate while the south wing houses the House of Representatives.
The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. The north wing houses the Senate while the south wing houses the House of Representatives.

In subsequent constitution making, federal states have often adopted bicameralism, and the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states. Nevertheless, the older justification for second chambers — providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation — has survived. A trend towards unicameralism in the 20th century appears now to have been halted. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 343 pixel Image in higher resolution (7000 × 3000 pixel, file size: 9. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 343 pixel Image in higher resolution (7000 × 3000 pixel, file size: 9. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ...


Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do generally remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Canadian Senate. The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


The relationship between the two chambers varies; in some cases, they have equal power, while in others, one chamber is clearly superior in its powers. The first tends to be the case in federal systems and those with presidential governments. The latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


Some political scientists believe that bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of deadlock (particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers). Others argue strongly for the merits of the 'checks and balances' provided by the bicameral model, which they believe helps prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation. The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ...


Types

Federalism

Some countries, such as Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States link their bicameral systems to their federal political structure. A map displaying todays federations. ...


In the United States, Australia, Mexico and Brazil, for example, each state is given the same number of seats in the legislature's upper house. This takes no account of population differences between states — it is designed to ensure that smaller states are not overshadowed by more populous ones. (In the United States, the deal that ensured this arrangement is known as the Connecticut Compromise.) In the lower houses of each country, these provisions do not apply, and seats are allocated based purely on population. The bicameral system, therefore, is a method of combining the principle of democratic equality with the principle of federalism — all citizens are equal in the lower houses, while all states are equal in the upper houses. The Connecticut Compromise, also known as the Great Compromise, was an essential agreement between large and small states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. ...


In Canada, the country as a whole is divided into a number of Senate Divisions, each with a different number of Senators, based on a number of factors. These Divisions are Quebec, Ontario, Western Provinces, and the Maritimes, each with 24 Senators, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, each with 1 Senator, and Newfoundland and Labrador has 6 Senators, making for a total of 105 Senators. Representation in the Canadian Senate is divided into seats on a provincial basis. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the region in Canada. ... The Maritime provinces See also Maritime province for disambiguation. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


In the German, Indian, and Pakistani systems, the upper houses (the Bundesrat, the Rajya Sabha, and the Pakistani Senate respectively) are even more closely linked with the federal system, being appointed or elected directly by the governments of each German Bundesland, Indian State, or Pakistani Province. (This was also the case in the United States before the 17th Amendment.) The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Currently, Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, two territories, and also portions of Kashmir that are administered by the Pakistani government. ... Amendment XVII in the National Archives Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. ...


There are also instances of bicameralism in countries that are not federations, but which have upper houses with representation on a territorial basis. For example in South Africa, the National Council of Provinces (and before 1997, the Senate) has its members chosen by each Province's legislature. The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ... The Senate (Senaat in Afrikaans) was the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa between 1910 and 1981, and between 1994 and 1997. ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ...


In Spain the Spanish Senate functions as a de facto territorial-based upper house, and there has been some pressure from the Autonomous Communities to reform it into a strictly territorial chamber. Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ...


The European Union maintains a bicameral legislative system which consists of the European Parliament, which is elected in general elections on the basis of universal suffrage, and the Council of the European Union which consists of members of the governements of the Member States which are competent for the relevant field of legislation. Although the European Union is not considered a state, it enjoys the power to legislate in many areas of politics; in some areas, those powers are even exclusively reserved to it. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ...


Aristocratic

In a few countries, bicameralism involves the juxtaposition of democratic and aristocratic elements.


The best known example is the British House of Lords, which includes a number of hereditary peers. The House of Lords represents a vestige of the aristocratic system which once predominated in British politics, while the other house, the House of Commons, is entirely elected. Over the years, there have been proposals to reform the House of Lords, some of which have been at least partly successful — the House of Lords Act 1999 limited the number of hereditary peers (as opposed to life peers, appointed by the government) to 92, down from around 700. The ability of the House of Lords to block legislation is curtailed by the Parliament Act. Further reform of the Lords is planned; said reform would probably include the removal of the remaining hereditary peers[citation needed]. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The House of Lords Act 1999, an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament, was a major constitutional enactment as it reformed greatly one of the chambers of Parliament, the House of Lords (see Lords Reform). ... In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ...


Another example of aristocratic bicameralism was the Japanese House of Peers, abolished after World War II and replaced with the present House of Councillors. The House of Peers (貴族院 Kizokuin) was the upper house of the Imperial Diet under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ...


Unitary states

Many bicameral systems are not connected with either federalism or an aristocracy, however. Japan, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, the Republic of Ireland and Romania are examples of bicameral systems existing in unitary states. In countries such as these, the upper house generally exists solely for the purpose of scrutinising and possibly vetoing the decisions of the lower house. A map showing the unitary states. ...


In some of these countries, the upper house is indirectly elected. Members of France's Senate, Ireland's Seanad Éireann are chosen by electoral colleges consisting of members of the lower house, local councillors, the Taoiseach, and graduates of selected universities, while the Netherlands' First Chamber is chosen by members of provincial assemblies. The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ...


Subnational entities

In some countries with federal systems, individual states (like those of the United States and Australia) may also have bicameral legislatures. Only two such states, Nebraska in the US and Queensland in Australia, have adopted unicameral systems. Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...


However, in early United States history, unicameral state legislatures were not totally uncommon: even though twelve of the original thirteen States (Pennsylvania being the only exception) had a bicameral legislature at the time of the Philadelphia Convention, some of the new States didn't immediately adopt such system. It was not until 1836, for example, that Vermont finally created a Senate. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


During the 1930s, the Legislature of the State of Nebraska was reduced from bicameral to unicameral with the 43 members that once comprised that state's Senate. One of the arguments used to sell the idea at the time to Nebraska voters was that by adopting a unicameral system, the perceived evils of the "conference committee" process would be eliminated. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A conference committee in the United States Congress and bicamerial state legislature is a committee appointed by the members of the upper and lower house to resolve disagreements on a bill passed in different versions of each House. ...


A conference committee is appointed when the two chambers cannot agree on the same wording of a proposal, and consists of a small number of legislators from each chamber. This tends to place much power in the hands of only a small number of legislators. Whatever legislation, if any, the conference committee finalizes must then be approved in an unamendable "take-it-or-leave-it" manner by both chambers.


During his term as Governor of the State of Minnesota, Jesse Ventura proposed converting the Minnesotan legislature to a single chamber with proportional representation, as a reform that he felt would solve many legislative difficulties and impinge upon legislative corruption. In his book on political issues, Do I Stand Alone?, Ventura argued that bicameral legislatures for provincial and local areas were excessive and unnecessary, and discussed unicameralism as a reform that could address many legislative and budgetary problems for states. For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Jesse Ventura (born James George Janos on July 15, 1951), also known as The Body, The Star, and The Governing Body, is an American politician, retired professional wrestler, Navy UDT veteran, actor, and former radio and television talk show host. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


In Australian states the lower house was traditionally elected based on the one-vote-one-value principle, whereas the upper house was partially appointed and elected, with a bias towards country voters. In Queensland, the appointed upper house was abolished in 1922, while New South Wales there were similar attempts at abolition, before the upper house was reformed in the 1970s to provide for direct election. Nowadays, the upper house is elected using proportional voting and the lower house through preferential voting, except in Tasmania, where proportional voting is used for the lower house, and preferential voting for the upper house. The Queensland Legislative Council was the upper house of the parliament in the Australian state of Queensland, until its abolition in 1922. ... NSW redirects here. ... The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


Arab political reform

A 2005 report on democratic reform in the Arab world by the US Council on Foreign Relations co-sponsored by former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright urged Arab states to adopt bicameralism, with upper chambers appointed on a 'specialised basis'. The Council claimed that this would protect against the 'tyranny of the majority', expressing concerns that without a system of checks and balances extremists would use the single chamber parliaments to restrict the rights of minority groups. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has...


In 2002, Bahrain adopted a bicameral system with an elected lower chamber and an appointed upper house. This led to a boycott of parliamentary elections that year by the Al Wefaq party, who said that the government would use the upper house to veto their plans. Many secular critics of bicameralism were won round to its benefits in 2005, after many MPs in the lower house voted for the introduction of so-called 'morality police'. Al Wefaq National Islamic Society is Bahrains most largest political society. ...


Examples

     Nations with bicameral legislatures.     Nations with unicameral legislatures.     No legislature.
     Nations with bicameral legislatures.     Nations with unicameral legislatures.     No legislature.
  • the Bundestag and Bundesrat in Germany; they form two distinct bodies not framed by a comprehensive institution; all of the Länder have unicameral parliaments.
  • The Parliament in Italy, which consists of two chambers that have same role and power: the Senato della Repubblica (Senate of the Republic, commonly considered the upper house) and the Camera dei Deputati (Chamber of Deputies, considered the lower house) with twice as many members as the Senate.
  • The Netherlands States-General, which consists of the Tweede Kamer (Second Chamber) and the Eerste Kamer (First Chamber)
  • Parliament in Pakistan, which consists of the National Assembly and the Senate; all of the provincial assemblies are unicameral.

Download high resolution version (1262x628, 26 KB)Map of unicameral and bicameral parliaments around the world. ... Download high resolution version (1262x628, 26 KB)Map of unicameral and bicameral parliaments around the world. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... Type Lower house Speaker of the House David Hawker, Liberal since November 16, 2004 Members 150 Political groups ALP (85) Liberal Party (53) National Party (10) Last elections 24 November 2007 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site House of Representatives Entrance to the House of Representatives Judicial High... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... The Federal Assembly of Austria or Österreichische Bundesversammlung is a federal-level deliberative body consisting of the members of the two houses of the Austrian parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council, in joint session. ... The National Council or Nationalrat is one of the two houses of the Federal Assembly, the bicameral federal parliament of the Federal Republic of Austria. ... The Federal Council of Austria or Bundesrat is one of the two separate councils of parliament of Austria. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of a Senate (the upper house) and a Chamber of Deputies (the lower house). ... In its present configuration, the Brazilian Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is a federal legislative body and the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... The Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... This article is about the country. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... Vidhan Sabha, the name of the state-level legislature assemblies in India. ... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... The Italian Chamber of Deputies (Italian: Camera dei Deputati) is the lower house of the Parliament of Italy. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Councillors chamber, in the National Diet Building in Tokyo. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... The Parliament of Malaysia consists of the lower house (Dewan Rakyat or literally Peoples Hall, in Malay) and upper house (Dewan Negara or Nations Hall in Malay). ... The Dewan Negara is the Malaysian Senate. ... The Estates-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... The Tweede Kamer (second chamber) is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, the parliament in the Netherlands. ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ... The Parliament of Pakistan is known as the Majlis-e-Shoora (Council of Advisors). ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... The Parliament of South Africa is South Africas legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ... The Bundeshaus (Swiss parliament building) The Federal Assembly (in German, Bundesversammlung; in French, Assemblée fédérale; in Italian language, Assemblea federale), is Switzerlands federal parliament. ... The National Council of Switzerland (German: Nationalrat, French: Conseil National, Italian: Consiglio Nazionale) is the large Chamber of the parliament and has 200 seats. ... The Council of States of Switzerland (German: Ständerat, French Conseil des Etats, Italian Consiglio degli Stati) is the upper house of the Swiss parliament. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Philippine Congress Session Hall The legislative power is vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ... Type Lower house Houses House of Representatives House Speaker Jose De Venecia, Jr. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bicameralism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1775 words)
Although the ideas on which bicameralism is based can be traced back to the theories developed in ancient Greece, ancient India, and Rome, recognizable bicameral institutions first arose in medieval Europe where they were associated with separate representation of different estates of the realm.
The bicameral system, therefore, is a method of combining the principle of democratic equality with the principle of federalism — all votes are equal in the lower houses, while all states are equal in the upper houses.
The Diet of Japan is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (衆議院; Shūgi-in) as the lower house and the House of Councillors (参議院; Sangi-in) as the upper house.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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