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Encyclopedia > Biblical canon

A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


These lists, or canons, have been developed through debate and agreement by the religious authorities of those faiths. Believers consider these canonical books to be inspired by God or to express the authoritative history of the relationship between God and his people. Although the canons are in agreement regarding most of the books of the Bible, there is variation regarding some books. Texts excluded from a particular canon are considered apocryphal; however, many disputed works considered "apocryphal" by some Churches are considered 'deuterocanonical', or fully canonical, by others. There are differences between the Jewish and Christian canons, and between the canons of different Christian denominations. The differing criteria and processes of canonization dictate what the communities regard as the inspired books. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Major divisions within Christianity. ...


The canons listed below are usually considered closed (i.e. additional books cannot be added). By contrast, an open canon would allow additional books, should they meet the criteria. The closure of the canon reflects a belief that public revelation has ended and thus the inspired texts may be gathered into a complete and authoritative canon. Revelation This article is about prophecy. ...

Contents

Canonic texts

A canonic text is a single authoritative edition for a given work. The establishing of a canon text may involve an editorial selection from biblical manuscript traditions with varying interdependence. Significant separate manuscript traditions in the canonic Hebrew Bible are represented in the Septuagint, the Masoretic text, and the Dead Sea scrolls. Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet...


New Testament Greek and Latin texts presented enough significant differences that a manuscript tradition arose of presenting diglot texts, with Greek and Latin on facing pages. New Testament manuscript traditions include the Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Bezae, Textus Receptus, Vulgate, and others. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Page from Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03 The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. ... A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... A sample of the Greek text from the Codex Bezae The Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis (Gregory-Aland no. ... Textus Receptus (Latin: received text) is the name given to the first Greek-language text of the New Testament to be printed on a printing press. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...


Jewish canon

Main article: Tanakh

Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the twenty-four books of the Hebrew Bible (the Masoretic Text) as the Tanakh. Evidence suggests that the process of canonization of the Tanakh occurred between 200 BCE and 200 CE. The first suggestion of a Jewish canon comes in the 2nd century BCE. The book of 2 Maccabees, itself not a part of the Jewish canon, describes Nehemiah (around 400 BCE) as having "founded a library and collected books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings" (2Macc 2:13-15). The Book of Nehemiah suggests that Ezra brought the Torah back from Babylon to Jerusalem and the Second Temple (8). Both I and II Maccabees suggest that Judas Maccabeus likewise collected sacred books (such as 1Macc 3:42-50, 2Macc 15:6-9). They do not, however, suggest that the canon was at that time closed; moreover, it is not clear that these sacred books were identical to those that later became part of the canon. Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Site traditionally described as the tomb of Ezra at Al Uzayr near Basra. ... “Tora” redirects here. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A stone (2. ... Judas Maccabeus (or Judah the Maccabee from the Hebrew יהודה המכבי transliteration: Yehudah HaMakabi) translation: Judah the Hammer was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. ...


Additional evidence of a collection of sacred scripture similar to portions of the Hebrew Bible comes from the book of Sirach (dating from 180 BCE and also not included in the Jewish canon), which includes a list of names of great men (44-49) in the same order as is found in the Torah and the Nevi'im (Prophets), and which includes the names of some men mentioned in the Ketuvim (Writings). Based on this list of names, some scholars have conjectured[1] that the author, Yeshua ben Sira (Joshua son of Sirach) had access to, and considered authoritative, the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets. His list excludes names from Ruth, Song of Songs, Esther, Daniel, and Job, suggesting that he either did not have access to these books, or did not consider them authoritative. In the prologue to the Greek translation of Ben Sira's work, his grandson, dated at 132 BCE, mentions both the Law (Torah) and the Prophets (Nevi'im), as well as a third group of books which is not yet named as Ketuvim (the prologue simply identifies "the rest of the books")[2] Based on this evidence, some scholars have suggested that by the 2nd century BCE the books of the Torah and Nevi'im were considered canonical, but that the books of the Ketuvim were not. The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, (or The Wisdom of Joshua Ben Sirach or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus by Christians, is a book written circa 180 BCE in Hebrew. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, (or The Wisdom of Joshua Ben Sirach or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus by Christians, is a book written circa 180 BCE in Hebrew. ... Genesis (‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Isaiah (Hebrew: Sefer Yshayah ספר ישעיה) is one of the books of Judaisms Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... Megillah redirects here. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ...


The Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Hebrew language Bible into Koine Greek, probably in the 1st and 2nd centuries BCE, provided a text for the Greek-speaking world and was used by the writers of the New Testament. In this text (actually scrolls rather than a book) the Torah and Nevi'im are established as canonical, but again, Ketuvim have not yet been definitively canonized (some editions of the Septuagint include, for instance I–IV Maccabees or the 151st Psalm, while others do not include them, also there are the Septuagint additions to Esther, Jeremiah, and Daniel and 1 Esdras). The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Koine redirects here. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... A scroll is a roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written upon. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ...


The Dead Sea scrolls discovered at caves near Qumran refer to the Torah and Nevi'im and suggest that these portions of the Bible had already been canonized before 68 CE. A scroll that contains all or parts of 41 biblical psalms, although not in the same order as in the current Book of Psalms, and which includes eight texts not found in the Book of Psalms, suggests that the Book of Psalms had not yet been canonized. Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


In the first century, Philo Judaeus of Alexandria discussed sacred books, but made no mention of a tripartite division of the Bible; however, in De vita contemplativa[1], a disputed text,[3] v.25, is stated: "studying… the laws and the sacred oracles of God enunciated by the holy prophets, and hymns, and psalms, and all kinds of other things by reason of which knowledge and piety are increased and brought to perfection." Significantly, Philo quotes extensively from the Hebrew canon, including parts of the Ketuvim, but never from its apocrypha. Josephus refers to sacred scriptures divided into three parts: the five books of the Torah; thirteen books of the Nevi'im, and four other books of hymns and wisdom.[4] The number of 22 books mentioned by Josephus does not correspond to the number of books in the current canon. Some scholars have suggested that he considered Ruth part of Judges, and Lamentations part of Jeremiah. Other scholars suggest that at the time Josephus wrote, such books as Esther and Ecclesiastes were not yet considered canonical. (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... The Book of Lamentations is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Significantly, Josephus characterizes the 22 books as canonical because they were divinely inspired; he mentions other historical books that were not divinely inspired and that therefore do not belong in the canon.


The first reference to a 24-book Jewish canon is found in 2 Esdras 14:45-46, which was probably written in the first half of the second century: In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... ( 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors ( 96– 180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ...

Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first, and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people.

RSV

The "seventy" might refer to the Septuagint, apocrypha, or mystical works. The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in the mid-20th century. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ...


The Pharisees also debated the status of these extra-canonical books; in the 2nd century, Rabbi Akiva declared that those who read them would not share in the afterlife (Sanhedrin 10:1). The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... Akiba ben Joseph (or Rabbi Akiva, Rebbi Akiva, c. ...


The Mishnah, compiled by the second century, describes some of the debate over the status of some books of Ketuvim, and in particular whether or not they render the hands "impure". Yadaim 3:5 calls attention to the debate over Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes. The Megillat Ta'anit, in a discussion of days when fasting is prohibited but that are not noted in the Bible, mentions the holiday of Purim. Based on these, and a few similar references, Heinrich Graetz concluded in 1871 that there had been a Council of Jamnia (or Yavne in Hebrew) which had decided Jewish canon sometime in the late 1st century (c. 70–90). This became the prevailing scholarly consensus for much of the 20th century. However, from the 1960s onwards, based on the work of J.P. Lewis, S.Z. Leiman, and others, this view increasingly came into question. In particular, later scholars noted that none of the sources actually mentioned books that had been withdrawn from a canon, and questioned the whole premise that the discussions were about canonicity at all, asserting that they were actually dealing with other concerns entirely. The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance from Hamans plot to annihilate all the Jews of the Persian Empire, who had survived the Babylonian captivity, after Persia had conquered Babylonia who in turn had destroyed the First Temple... Heinrich Graetz (October 31, 1817 - September 7, 1891) was the first historian to write a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective. ... After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai relocated to the city of Yavne/Jamnia and founded a school of Jewish law there, becoming a major source for the later Mishna. ... Yavne (Hebrew יבנה, Arabic يبنة Yibnah) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ...


Today, there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Jewish canon was set.


Samaritan canon

The small community of the remnants of the Samaritans in Palestine includes only their version of the Torah in their canon.[citation needed] The Samaritan community possesses a copy of the Torah that they believe to have been penned by Abisha, a grandson of Aaron.[citation needed] For other senses of this word, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ...


Christian canons

Early Christianity

Early Christianity had no well-defined set of scriptures outside of the Septuagint.[5] The New Testament refers to the "Law and Prophets", for example the Gospel of Luke 24:44-45 records Jesus stating: "written… in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms… the Scriptures" and Acts of the Apostles 24:14 records Paul of Tarsus stating: "I believe everything that agrees with the Law and that is written in the Prophets". The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus in the early 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... “Tora” redirects here. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


Earliest canon

Perhaps the earliest Christian canon is the so-called Bryennios List proposed by J.-P. Audet[6] and dated around 100; written in Koine Greek, Aramaic and Hebrew, it is this 27-book Old Testament: Koine redirects here. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...

"Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Jesus Nave, Deuteronomy, Numbers, Judges, Ruth, 4 of Kings (Samuel and Kings), 2 of Chronicles, 2 of Esdras, Esther, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job, Minor prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel"

2 of Esdras might include 1 Esdras; Esther, Jeremiah and Daniel might include their Septuagint additions; Jesus Nave[7] is an early translation of Joshua son of Nun. This list might be found in Codex Hierosolymitanus which was discovered by Philotheos Bryennios and might include a 27-book NT list as well[citation needed]. Genesis (‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... 1. ... Megillah redirects here. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Isaiah (Hebrew: Sefer Yshayah ספר ישעיה) is one of the books of Judaisms Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... Codex Hierosolymitanus (the Jerusalem Codex, often designated simply H in scholarly discourse) is an 11th-century Greek book, written by an unknown scribe named Leo, who dated it 1056. ... Philotheos Bryennios (March 26 (old style) 1833 - 1914 or 1918) was a Greek Orthodox metropolitan of Nicomedia, and the discoverer in 1873 of an important manuscript with copies of early Church documents. ...


According to J. N. D. Kelly, "It should be observed that the Old Testament thus admitted as authoritative in the Church… always included, though with varying degrees of recognition, the so-called Apocrypha or deuterocanonical books."[8]


New Testament canon

Early Christianity also relied on the Sacred Oral Tradition of what Jesus had said and done, as reported by the apostles and other followers. These oral traditions were later written down as gospels. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia article on the Canon of the New Testament: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history. The Canon of the New Testament, like that of the Old, is the result of a development, of a process at once stimulated by disputes with doubters, both within and without the Church, and retarded by certain obscurities and natural hesitations, and which did not reach its final term until the dogmatic definition of the Tridentine Council. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

By the end of the 1st century, some letters of Paul were collected and circulated, and were known to Clement of Rome (c. 96), Ignatius of Antioch (died 117), and Polycarp of Smyrna (c. 115) but they weren't usually called scripture/graphe as the Septuagint was[9] and they weren't without critics. In the late 4th century Epiphanius of Salamis (died 402) Panarion 29 says the Nazarenes had rejected the Pauline epistles and Irenaeus Against Heresies 26.2 says the Ebionites rejected him. Acts 21:21 records a rumor that Paul aimed to subvert the Old Testament (against this rumor see Romans 3:8, 3:31). 2 Peter 3:16 says his letters have been abused by heretics who twist them around "as they do with the other scriptures." In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Eusebius Ecclesiastical History 6.38 says the Elchasai "made use of texts from every part of the Old Testament and the Gospels; it rejects the Apostle (Paul) entirely"; 4.29.5 says Tatian the Assyrian rejected Paul's Letters and Acts of the Apostles; 6.25 says Origen accepted 22 canonical books of the Hebrews plus Maccabees plus the four Gospels but Paul "did not so much as write to all the churches that he taught; and even to those to which he wrote he sent but a few lines."[10] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pope Clement I, the bishop of Rome from roughly 88-98 AD who is also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, is considered to be the fourth pope, after Anacletus, according to Catholic tradition. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Polycarp of Smyrna (69?-155?, 80?-166?, 81?-167?, 79?-165?, or 70?-156?) was a Christian bishop of Smyrna (now in Asiatic Turkey) in the second century. ... Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ... -1... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... The Ebionites were a religious communal sect dedicated to following Jewish Law but through Jesus expounding of the Law, which he said to have revealed during his sermon on the mount. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Elkasites were members of an ancient Jewish sect, whose name was taken from its founder, Elxai. ... Tatian was an early Assyrian[1] Christian writer and theologian of the second century. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... The Books of the Maccabees are deuterocanonical books giving the history of the Maccabees, a Jewish family who rebelled against the Seleucid dynasty and founded the Hasmonean Kingdom in Israel in the 2nd and 1st century BC: 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Category: ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


Bruce Metzger in his Canon of the New Testament, 1987, draws the following conclusion about Clement: Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ...

Clement's Bible is the Old Testament, to which he refers repeatedly as Scripture (graphe), quoting it with more or less exactness. Clement also makes occasional reference to certain words of Jesus; though they are authoritative for him, he does not appear to enquire how their authenticity is ensured. In two of the three instances that he speaks of remembering 'the words' of Christ or of the Lord Jesus, it seems that he has a written record in mind, but he does not call it a 'gospel'. He knows several of Paul's epistles, and values them highly for their content; the same can be said of the Epistle to the Hebrews, with which he is well acquainted. Although these writings obviously possess for Clement considerable significance, he never refers to them as authoritative 'Scripture'.

Justin Martyr, in the early second century, mentions the "memoirs of the apostles", which Christians called "gospels" and which were regarded as on par with the Old Testament.[11] Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ...


Marcion of Sinope: c. 150, was the first of record to propose a definitive, exclusive, unique canon of Christian scriptures. (Though Ignatius did address Christian scripture[12], before Marcion, against the heresies of the Judaizers and Dociests, he did not publish a canon.) Marcion rejected the theology of the Old Testament, which he claimed was incompatible with the teaching of Jesus regarding God and morality. The Gospel of Luke, which Marcion called simply the Gospel of the Lord, he edited to remove any passages that connected Jesus with the Old Testament. This was because he believed that the god of the Jews, YHWH, who gave them the Jewish Scriptures, was an entirely different god than the Supreme God who sent Jesus and inspired the New Testament. He used ten letters of Paul as well (excluding Hebrews and the Pastoral epistles) assuming his Epistle to the Laodiceans referred to canonical Ephesians and not the apocryphal Epistle to the Laodiceans or another text no longer extant. He also edited these in a similar way. To these, which he called the Gospel and the Apostolicon, he added his Antithesis which contrasted the New Testament view of God and morality with the Old Testament view of God and morality. By editing he thought he was removing judaizing corruptions and recovering the original inspired words of Jesus and Paul. Marcion harshly edited the ten epistles by Paul as well as the Gospel of Luke. Marcion's canon and theology were rejected as heretical by the early church; however, he forced other Christians to consider which texts were canonical and why. He spread his beliefs widely; they became known as Marcionism. Henry Wace in his introduction[13] of 1911 stated: "A modern divine… could not refuse to discuss the question raised by Marcion, whether there is such opposition between different parts of what he regards as the word of God, that all cannot come from the same author." The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 stated: "they were perhaps the most dangerous foe Christianity has ever known." Adolf von Harnack in Origin of the New Testament[14], 1914, argued that Marcion viewed the church at this time as largely an Old Testament church (one that "follows the Testament of the Creator-God") without a firmly established New Testament canon, and that it gradually formulated its New Testament canon in response to the challenge posed by Marcion. Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 Events and trends Significant people Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor (138-161) Categories: 150s ... Ignatius of Antioch (probably died AD 107) was the third patriarch of Antioch, after Saint Peter and Euodius, who died around AD 68. ... Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek [dokeō], to seem) is the belief that Jesus physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Gospel of Marcion or the Gospel of the Lord was a text used by the mid-second century anti-Christian teacher Marcion to the exclusion of the other gospels. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Epistle to the Laodiceans An Epistle to the Laodiceans, consisting of 20 short lines, is found in some editions of the Vulgate, known only in Latin, purporting to be the epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans mentioned in the Epistle to the... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Judaize, from the Greek Ioudaizo (ιουδαιζω), means literally to live as a Jew, however it was used primarily in a derogatory sense for Christians who chose to live more in accord with the Jesus described in the Bible, often this meant observing the... The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ... In Early Christianity Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144 (115 years and 6 months from the Crucifixion, according to Tertullians reckoning in Adversus Marcionem, xv). ... Very Reverend Henry Wace (December 10, 1836 - January 9, 1924) was the Dean of Canterbury from 1903, edited in and contributed to publications in Christian and Ecclesiastical history. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ...


The so-called Muratorian Canon[15] is the earliest known example of a canon list that includes New Testament books.[16] It survives, damaged and thus incomplete, as a bad Latin translation of an original, no longer extant, Greek text that is usually dated in the late second century,[17] although a few scholars have preferred a fourth century date.[18] This is an excerpt from Metzger's translation: Among Christians, the Muratorian fragment is known as a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of New Testament books that were accepted as canonical by the churches known to its anonymous compiler. ...

The third book of the Gospel is that according to Luke… The fourth… is that of John… the acts of all the apostles… As for the Epistles of Paul… To the Corinthians first, to the Ephesians second, to the Philippians third, to the Colossians fourth, to the Galatians fifth, to the Thessalonians sixth, to the Romans seventh… once more to the Corinthians and to the Thessalonians… one to Philemon, one to Titus, and two to Timothy… to the Laodiceans, [and] another to the Alexandrians, [both] forged in Paul's name to [further] the heresy of Marcion… the epistle of Jude and two of the above-mentioned (or, bearing the name of) John… and [the book of] Wisdom… We receive only the apocalypses of John and Peter, though some of us are not willing that the latter be read in church. But Hermas wrote the Shepherd very recently… And therefore it ought indeed to be read; but it cannot be read publicly to the people in church. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Epistle to the Laodiceans An Epistle to the Laodiceans, consisting of 20 short lines, is found in some editions of the Vulgate, known only in Latin, purporting to be the epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans mentioned in the Epistle to the... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The recovered Apocalypse of Peter or Revelation of Peter is extant in two translations of a lost original, one Greek, one Ethiopic, which diverge considerably. ... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ...

This shows that, by 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the New Testament, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them.[19] Also in the early 200's it is claimed Origen (ca. 185-ca. 254) was using the same 27 books as in the modern New Testament, though there were still lingering disputes over Hebrews, James, II Peter, II and III John, and Revelation.[20] A four gospel canon (the Tetramorph) was in place by the time of Irenaeus of Lyons, c. 160, who refers to it directly.[21] He argued that it was illogical to reject Acts of the Apostles but accept the Gospel of Luke, as both were from the same author. In Against Heresies 3.12.12[22] he ridiculed those who think they are wiser than the Apostles because the Apostles were still under Jewish influence. This was crucial to refuting Marcion's anti-Judaism, as Acts gives honor to James, Peter, John and Paul alike. At the time, Jewish Christians tended to honor James (a prominent Christian in Jerusalem described in the New Testament as an apostle and pillar, and by Eusebius and other church historians as the first Bishop of Jerusalem) but not Paul, while Pauline Christianity tended to honor Paul more than James[23]. Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... St. ... For other uses, see Twelve Apostles (disambiguation). ... Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... The Apostle Peter, also known as Saint Peter, Shimon Keipha Ben-Yonah/Bar-Yonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Keipha—original name Shimon or Simeon (Acts 15:14)—was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose as his original disciples. ... John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pillars of the Church, in the first Christian century, seems to have referred to the leaders of the Nazarenes, as the Jerusalem Jesus movement was called, principally, the Family of Jesus, later known as the Desposyni, including his bothers James, Joses or Joseph, Simon or Simeon, and Jude or Judas... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ...


The Diatessaron, c. 173, is a one-volume harmony of the four Gospels, translated and compiled by Tatian the Assyrian into Syriac. In Syriac speaking churches, it effectively served as the only New Testament scripture until Paul's letters were added during the 3rd century. Some believe that Acts was also used in Syrian churches alongside the Diatessaron, however, Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History 4.29.5 states: "They, indeed, use the Law and Prophets and Gospels, but interpret in their own way the utterances of the Sacred Scriptures. And they abuse Paul the apostle and reject his epistles, and do not accept even the Acts of the Apostles." In the 4th century, the Doctrine of Addai lists a 17 book NT canon using the Diatessaron and Acts and 15 Pauline epistles (including 3rd Corinthians). The Diatessaron was eventually replaced in the 5th century by the Peshitta, which contains a translation of all the books of the 27-book NT except for 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude and Revelation and is the Bible of the Syriac Orthodox Church where some members believe it is the original New Testament, see Aramaic primacy. Tatians Diatessaron was one of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. ... Tatian was an early Assyrian[1] Christian writer and theologian of the second century. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Doctrine of Addai is a controversial book about Saint Addai. ... Tatians Diatessaron was one of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. ... The Third Epistle to the Corinthians is believed to be a pseudepigraphical text under the name of Paul of Tarsus. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... The Second Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Third Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Aramaic primacy is the view that the Christian New Testament and/or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language. ...


There were those who rejected the Gospel of John (and possibly also Revelation) as either not apostolic or as written by the Gnostic Cerinthus or as not compatible with the Synoptic Gospels. Epiphanius of Salamis called these people the Alogi, because they rejected the Logos doctrine of John and because he claimed they were illogical. There may have also been a dispute over the doctrine of the Paraclete.[24] The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Christs original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, and the like. ... Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ... The Alogi were a group of heretics to the Christian church in the second century. ... Look up logos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, general sources such as the Cambridge History of the Bible claim the major writings were accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the second century.[25]


The Codex Claromontanus canon[26], c. 250, a page found inserted into a 6th century copy of the Epistles of Paul and Hebrews, has the 27-book OT plus Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, 1–2,4 Maccabees, and the 27-book NT plus 3rd Corinthians, Acts of Paul, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, and Hermas, but missing Philippians, 1–2 Thessalonians, and Hebrews. Codex Claromontanus is a 6th-century manuscript in an uncial hand on vellum of the Epistles of Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews in Greek and Latin on facing pages (thus a diglot manuscript, like Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis). ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Third Epistle to the Corinthians is believed to be a pseudepigraphical text under the name of Paul of Tarsus. ... The Acts of Paul and Thecla (Acta Pauli et Theclae) is an apocryphal story of St Pauls influence on the young virgin, Thecla. ... The recovered Apocalypse of Peter or Revelation of Peter is extant in two translations of a lost original, one Greek, one Ethiopic, which diverge considerably. ...


7 Ecumenical councils era

See also: Ecumenical council#The first seven Ecumenical Councils

Eusebius, around the year 325, recorded this New Testament canon:[27] In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...

1… First then must be put the holy quaternion of the Gospels; following them the Acts of the Apostles… the epistles of Paul… the epistle of John… the epistle of Peter… After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Apocalypse of John, concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. These then belong among the accepted writings. For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Revelation of St. ...


3 Among the disputed writings [Antilegomena], which are nevertheless recognized by many, are extant the so-called epistle of James and that of Jude, also the second epistle of Peter, and those that are called the second and third of John, whether they belong to the evangelist or to another person of the same name. Among the rejected [Kirsopp. Lake translation: "not genuine"] writings must be reckoned also the Acts of Paul, and the so-called Shepherd, and the Apocalypse of Peter, and in addition to these the extant epistle of Barnabas, and the so-called Teachings of the Apostles; and besides, as I said, the Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. And among these some have placed also the Gospel according to the Hebrews… And all these may be reckoned among the disputed books Antilegomena (αντιλεγομενα, contradicted or disputed), an epithet used by the early Christian writers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable amount of time considered to be genuine, or received into the canon of Scripture. ... The Epistle of James Engelbert is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) is the 64th book of the Bible. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ... The Acts of Paul and Thecla (Acta Pauli et Theclae) is an apocryphal story of St Pauls influence on the young virgin, Thecla. ... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ... The recovered Apocalypse of Peter or Revelation of Peter is extant in two translations of a lost original, one Greek, one Ethiopic, which diverge considerably. ... The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek treatise with some features of an epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament. ... The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ...


6… such books as the Gospels of Peter, of Thomas, of Matthias, or of any others besides them, and the Acts of Andrew and John and the other apostles… they clearly show themselves to be the fictions of heretics. Wherefore they are not to be placed even among the rejected writings, but are all of them to be cast aside as absurd and impious. The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ... The Gospel of Matthias is a lost text from the New Testament apocrypha, ascribed to Matthias, the apostle chosen by lots to replace Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:15-26). ... The Acts of Andrew in the surviving version is probably a 3rd century work, according to Jean-Marc Prieur in The Anchor Bible Dictionary (vol. ... The Acts of John is a 2nd-century Christian collection of narratives and traditions, well described as a library of materials [1], inspired by the Gospel of John, long known in fragmentary form. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...

The Apocalypse of John, also called Revelation, is counted as both accepted (Kirsopp. Lake translation: "Recognized") and disputed, which has caused some confusion over what exactly Eusebius meant by doing so. From other writings of the Church Fathers, we know that it was disputed with several canon lists rejecting its canonicity. EH 3.3.5 adds further detail on Paul: "Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed. It is not indeed right to overlook the fact that some have rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed by the Church of Rome, on the ground that it was not written by Paul." EH 4.29.6 mentions the Diatessaron: "But their original founder, Tatian, formed a certain combination and collection of the Gospels, I know not how, to which he gave the title Diatessaron, and which is still in the hands of some. But they say that he ventured to paraphrase certain words of the apostle [Paul], in order to improve their style." Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Tatians Diatessaron was one of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. ...


The Cheltenham Canon,[28][29] c. 350, a page found inserted in a 10th century manuscript, has a 24 book OT and 24 book NT which provides syllable and line counts but omits Hebrews, Jude and James, and seems to question the epistles of John and Peter beyond the first.


The Synod of Laodicea, c. 363, was one of the first synods that set out to judge which books were to be read aloud in churches. The decrees issued by the thirty or so clerics attending were called canons. Canon 59 decreed that only canonical books should be read, but no list was appended in the Latin and Syriac manuscripts recording the decrees. The list of canonical books, Canon 60,[30] sometimes attributed to the Synod of Laodicea is a later addition according to most scholars and has a 22 book OT and 26-book NT (excludes Revelation). The Council of Laodicea was a regional synod of approximately 30 clerics from Anatolia, (now modern Turkey). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of exactly the same books as what would become the New Testament canon,[31] and he used the word "canonized" (kanonizomena) in regards to them.[32] He also listed a 22 book OT and 7 books not in the canon but to be read: Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Sirach, Esther, Judith, Tobit, Didache, and the Shepherd. This list is very similar to the modern Protestant canon (WCF); the only differences are his exclusion of Esther and his inclusion of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah as part of Jeremiah. Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... Megillah redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ...


In c. 380, the redactor of the Apostolic Constitutions attributed a canon to the Twelve Apostles themselves[33] as the 85th of his list of such apostolic decrees: Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Decades: 330s - 340s - 350s - 360s - 370s - 380s - 390s - 400s - 410s - 420s 430s Years: 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 Events: Categories: 380s ... The Apostolic Constitutions is a late 4th century collection, in 8 books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Early Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity. ... For other uses, see Twelve Apostles (disambiguation). ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles[1] is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in the Western Church) concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with...

Canon 85. Let the following books be esteemed venerable and holy by all of you, both clergy and laity. [A list of books of the Old Testament …] And our sacred books, that is, of the New Testament, are the four Gospels, of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; the fourteen Epistles of Paul; two Epistles of Peter; three of John; one of James; one of Jude; two Epistles of Clement; and the Constitutions dedicated to you, the bishops, by me, Clement, in eight books, which is not appropriate to make public before all, because of the mysteries contained in them; and the Acts of us, the Apostles.—(From the Latin version.) The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament but they are part of the Apostolic Fathers collection. ... Pope Clement I, the bishop of Rome from roughly 88-98 AD who is also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, is considered to be the fourth pope, after Anacletus, according to Catholic tradition. ...

Some later Coptic and Arabic translations add Revelation.[citation needed]


In the late 380s, Gregory of Nazianus produced a canon[34] in verse which agreed with that of his contemporary Athanasius, other than placing the "Catholic Epistles" after the Pauline Epistles and omitting Revelation. An icon of Saint Gregory Nazianzen the theologian holding a Gospel Book Saint Gregory Nazianzen (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ...


Bishop Amphilocus of Iconium, in his poem Iambics for Seleucus[35] written some time after 394, discusses debate over the canonical inclusion of a number of books, and almost certainly rejects the later Epistles of Peter and John, Jude, and Revelation. Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ...


The African Synod of Hippo, in 393, approved the New Testament, as it stands today, together with the Septuagint books, a decision that was repeated by Councils of Carthage in 397 and 419. These councils were under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed.[36] This list, given below, was purportedly endorsed by Pope Damasus I: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Synods of Carthage During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries the town of Carthage in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number of church synods, of which, however, only the most important can be treated here. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Pope Damasus I ( 305-383) was Pope from 366. ...

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth, 4 books of Kings, 2 books of Chronicles, Job, Psalter of David, 5 books of Solomon, 12 books of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Maccabees, and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Jude, and the Apocalypse of John.

Pope Damasus I is often considered to be the father of the modern Catholic canon (Trent). Purporting to date from a "Council of Rome" under Pope Damasus I in 382, the so-called "Damasian list" appended to the pseudepigraphical Decretum Gelasianum[37] gives a list identical to what would be the Canon of Trent,[38] and, though the text may in fact not be Damasian, it is at least a valuable sixth century compliation.[39] Pope Damasus I ( 305-383) was Pope from 366. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Council of Rome was a meeting of Western church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I. The previous year, the Emperor Theodosius I had appointed the dark horse candidate Nectarius Patriarch of Constantinople. ... The so-called Decretum Gelasianum or Gelasian Decree was traditionally attributed to the prolific Pope Gelasius I, bishop of Rome 492 – 496. ...


Likewise, Damasus's commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible, c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West.[40] The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...


In 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse identical to Trent[citation needed][41] (without the distinction between protocanonicals and deuterocanonicals). Saint Innocent I, pope (402 - 417), was, according to his biographer in the Liber Pontificalis, the son of a man called Innocent of Albano; but according to his contemporary Jerome, his father was Pope Anastasius I, whom he was called by the unanimous voice of the clergy and laity to... Saint Exuperius (also Exsuperius) (French: ) (died c. ... Protocanonical books is a term used to describe those scriptural texts contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ...


When these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new, but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church".[42]


In his prologues, Jerome, who translated the Bible into Latin, producing the Vulgate bible c. 400, argued for Veritas Hebraica, meaning the truth of the Jewish Bible over the Septuagint translation. He described an Old Testament canon apparently identical to that of the Jews. “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Early 407 — Constantine III seizes control of the Roman garrison in Britain, declares himself emperor, and crosses into Gaul. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible, based upon the initial Hebrew letters of each part: Torah [תורה] (The Law; also: Teaching or Instruction), Chumash [חומש] (The... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...

Igitur Sapienta, quae vulgo Salomonis inscribitur, et Iesu filii Sirach liber et Iudith et Tobias et Pastor non sunt in canone.


Therefore, Wisdom, which is commonly ascribed to Solomon, and the book of Jesus ben Sirach and Judith and Tobit and The Shepherd are not in the canon. Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sira, (or The Wisdom of Yeshua Ben Sira or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BCE. The author, Yeshua ben Sira, was a Jew who had been living in Jerusalem, who may in... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence) The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ...


— Jerome, Vulgate Prologue to Samuel and Kings[43]

Under duress and against his will,[44] however, he made translations of Tobit and Judith, which he made clear in his prologues he considered apocryphal. In addition to these, the Vulgate Old Testament included books outside of the 24, many from the Vetus Latina, which Jerome did not translate anew. Also, Vulgate Fuldensis, dated between 541 and 546, includes the Epistle to the Laodiceans. The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... The Codex Fuldensis is a manuscript based on the Latin Vulgate made between 541 and 546. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Epistle to the Laodiceans An Epistle to the Laodiceans, consisting of 20 short lines, is found in some editions of the Vulgate, known only in Latin, purporting to be the epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans mentioned in the Epistle to the...


Thus, from the fourth century, there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament canon (as it is today),[45] and by the fifth century the East, with a few exceptions, had come to accept the Book of Revelation and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the canon, at least for the New Testament.[46]


This period marks the beginning of a more widely recognized canon, although the inclusion of some books was still debated: Epistle to Hebrews, James, 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude and Revelation. Grounds for debate included the question of authorship of these books (note that the so-called Damasian "Council at Rome" had already rejected John the Apostle's authorship of 2 and 3 John, while retaining the books), their suitability for use (Revelation at that time was already being interpreted in a wide variety of heretical ways), and how widely they were actually being used (2 Peter being amongst the most weakly attested of all the books in the Christian canon). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ... The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ...


The late-5th or early-6th century Peshitta of the Syrian Orthodox Church[47] includes a 22-book NT, excluding II Peter, II John, III John, Jude, and Revelation. (The Lee Peshitta of 1823 follows the Protestant canon) The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


The List of the Sixty Books,[48] dated to the 7th century, has 34 OT books and 26-book NT (excludes Revelation) and 9 books "outside the sixty": Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, 1–4 Maccabees, Esther, Judith, Tobit and a 25 book apocrypha. Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ...


The Orthodox Synod in Trullo in 692, rejected by Pope Constantine, approved Gregory Theologus' 22 book OT and 26-book NT (excludes Revelation) and the Canons of the Apostles of the Apostolic Constitutions of which Canon #85[49] is a list of the 27-book OT plus Judith, Sirach, 1–3Maccabees, Didache, 1–2Clement, and 26-book NT (excludes Revelation), and the Apostolic Constitutions which themselves were rejected because they were said to contain heretical interpolations. Both the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council failed to produce disciplinary norms, for which reason the emperor Justinian II convoked an assembly in 692 to meet in Constantinople in the same domed hall where the Sixth Council had been held, called in Trullo (= under the dome). ... Constantinus (d. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles[1] is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in the Western Church) concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with... The Apostolic Constitutions is a late 4th century collection, in 8 books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Early Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity. ...


John of Damascus, c. 654–749,[50] accepted the Didache and Apostolic Constitutions. John of Damascus (Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Arabic: Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ...


Medieval developments

Nicephorus: the Patriarch of Jerusalem, 806–815, in a Stichometria [2] appended to the end of his Chronography rejected Esther, Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Maccabees, Psalms of Solomon, Enoch, Didache, Barnabas, Hermas, Clement, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of the Hebrews, 3rd Corinthians, Acts of Paul, Revelation, Apocalypse of Peter. Saint Nicephorus (c. ... Wisdom, also known as the Wisdom of Solomon, is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible that are not translations of Hebrew originals. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, (or The Wisdom of Joshua Ben Sirach or merely Sirach), called Ecclesiasticus by Christians, is a book written circa 180 BCE in Hebrew. ... The Psalms of Solomon are a group of eighteen psalms (religious songs or poems) that are not part of any scriptural canon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament but they are part of the Apostolic Fathers collection. ... The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is an important constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Old Testament, comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob. ...


Reformation era

See also: Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther proposed removing the Antilegomena, the books of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation from the canon [3] [4], echoing the consensus of several Catholics, also labeled Christian Humanists — such as Cardinal Ximenez, Cardinal Cajetan, and Erasmus — and partially because they were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola gratia and sola fide, but this was not generally accepted among his followers. However, these books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible to this day.[51] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Antilegomena (αντιλεγομενα, contradicted or disputed), an epithet used by the early Christian writers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable amount of time considered to be genuine, or received into the canon of Scripture. ... Cisneros (sitting) directs the construction of the Hospital of the Charity. ... Cardinal Cajetan (or Gaetanus) (1470 - August 9, 1534), was born at Gaeta in the kingdom of Naples. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Sola gratia, one of the five solas propounded to summarise the Reformers basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation, it is a Latin term meaning grace alone. ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ...


Bruce Metzger's Canon of the New Testament says in 1596 Jacob Lucius published a Bible at Hamburg which labeled Luther's four as "Apocrypha"; David Wolder the pastor of Hamburg's Church of St. Peter published in the same year a triglot Bible which labeled them as "non canonical"; J. Vogt published a Bible at Goslar in 1614 similar to Lucius'; Gustavus Adolphus of Stockholm in 1618 published a Bible with them labeled as "Apocr(yphal) New Testament."


Luther removed the deuterocanonical books from the Old Testament of his translation of the Bible, placing them in the "Apocrypha, that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read".[52] He also argued unsuccessfully for the relocation of Esther from the Canon to the Apocrypha, since without the deuterocanonical sections, it never mentions God. As a result Catholics and Protestants continue to use different canons, which differ in respect to the Old Testament. The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Megillah redirects here. ... Megillah redirects here. ...


Charles Caldwell Ryrie's Basic Theology counters in 1986 the claim that Luther rejected the Book of James as being canonical. Here's what Luther wrote in his preface to the New Testament in which he ascribes to the several books of the New Testament different degrees of doctrinal value: "St. John's Gospel and his first Epistle, St. Paul's Epistles, especially those to the Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, and St. Peter's Epistle-these are the books which show to thee Christ, and teach everything that is necessary and blessed for thee to know, even if you were never to see or hear any other book of doctrine. Therefore, St. James' Epistle is a perfect straw-epistle compared with them, for it has in it nothing of an evangelic kind." Thus Luther was comparing (in his opinion) doctrinal value, not canonical validity. Charles Caldwell Ryrie (born 1925) is a Christian writer and theologian. ...


However, Ryrie's theory is countered by other Biblical scholars, including William Barclay, who note that Luther stated plainly, if not bluntly: "I think highly of the epistle of James, and regard it as valuable although it was rejected in early days. It does not expound human doctrines, but lays much emphasis on God’s law. …I do not hold it to be of apostolic authorship."[53] If Luther regarded the book of James as not being of "apostolic authorship" then he could not at all have regarded it as authoritative or worthy of canonization.[citation needed] For William Barclay, Scottish jurist in the 16th and early 17th centuries, see William Barclay (jurist). ...


Philip Schaff's History of the Christian Church, book 7, chapter 4 The Protestant Spirit of Luther’s Version states: Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ...

The most important example of dogmatic influence in Luther’s version is the famous interpolation of the word alone in Rom. 3:28 (allein durch den Glauben), by which he intended to emphasize his solifidian doctrine of justification, on the plea that the German idiom required the insertion for the sake of clearness. But he thereby brought Paul into direct verbal conflict with James, who says (James 2:24), "by works a man is justified, and not only by faith" ("nicht durch den Glauben allein"). It is well known that Luther deemed it impossible to harmonize the two apostles in this article, and characterized the Epistle of James as an "epistle of straw," because it had no evangelical character ("keine evangelische Art"). Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ...

There is some evidence that the first decision to omit these books entirely from the Bible was made by Protestant laity rather than clergy. Bibles dating from shortly after the Reformation have been found whose tables of contents included the entire Roman Catholic canon, but which did not actually contain the disputed books, leading some historians to think that the workers at the printing presses took it upon themselves to omit them. However, Anglican and Lutheran Bibles usually still contained these books until the 20th century, while Calvinist Bibles did not. Several reasons are proposed for the omission of these books from the canon. One is the support for Catholic doctrines such as Purgatory and Prayer for the dead found in 2 Maccabees. Luther himself said he was following Jerome's teaching about the Veritas Hebraica. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré. Purgatory refers to the Catholic doctrine of the the final purification of the elect which states that, all who die in Gods grace and friendship, but still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their eternal salvation; but after death they... Wherever there is a belief in the continued existence of mans personality through and after death, religion naturally concerns itself with the relations between the living and the dead. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ...


The Council of Trent on April 8, 1546, by vote (24 yea, 15 nay, 16 abstain) approved the present Roman Catholic Bible Canon including the Deuterocanonical Books. This is said to be the same list as produced at the Council of Florence in 1451, this list was defined as canonical in the profession of faith proposed for the Jacobite Orthodox Church. Because of its placement, the list was not considered binding for the Catholic church, and in light of Martin Luther's demands, the Catholic Church examined the question of the Canon again at the Council of Trent, which reaffirmed the Canon of the Council of Florence. The Old Testament books that had been in doubt were termed deuterocanonical, not indicating a lesser degree of inspiration, but a later time of final approval. Beyond these books, some editions of the Latin Vulgate include Psalm 151, the Prayer of Manasseh, 1 Esdras (called 3 Esdras), 2 Esdras (called 4 Esdras), and the Epistle to the Laodiceans in an appendix, styled "Apogryphi", see also Biblical apocrypha#Modern editions. The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Epistle to the Laodiceans An Epistle to the Laodiceans, consisting of 20 short lines, is found in some editions of the Vulgate, known only in Latin, purporting to be the epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans mentioned in the Epistle to the... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The Church of England published its Thirty-Nine Articles in Latin in 1563 and in Elizabethan English in 1571[54]. Article 6 of the 1801 American revision is titled: "OF THE SUFFICIENCY OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES FOR SALVATION": Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Early Modern English is a name for the modern English language the way it was used between around 1485 and 1650. ...

...In the name of Holy Scripture we do understand those Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church. Of the names and Number of the Canonical Books: Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers; Deuteronomy; Joshua; Judges; Ruth; The I Book of Samuel; The II Book of Samuel; The I Book of Kings; The II Book of Kings; The I Book of Chronicles; The II Book of Chronicles; The I Book of Esdras; The II Book of Esdras; The Book of Esther; The Book of Job; The Psalms; The Proverbs; Ecclesiastes, or the Preacher; Cantica, or Songs of Solomon; Four Prophets the Greater; Twelve Prophets the Less. And the other Books (as Heirome [The Old English form of Hieronymus, or Jerome...] saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners; but yet it doth not apply them to establish any doctrine. Such are these following: The III Book of Esdras; The IV Book of Esdras; The Book of Tobias; The Book of Judith; The rest of the Book of Esther†; The Book of Wisdom; Jesus the Son of Sirach; Baruch the Prophet†; The Song of the Three Children†; The Story of Suzanna; Of Bel and the Dragon†; The Prayer of Manasses†; The I Book of Maccabees; The II Book of Maccabees. All the Books of the New Testament, as they are commonly received, we do receive and account them Canonical. [books marked † were added in 1571.] A major prophet is a book in the Major Prophets section of the Christian Old Testament in the Bible. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The original King James Bible of 1611 included King James Version Apocrypha which is frequently omitted in modern printings. These texts are: Additions to Daniel, Judith, Esdras, Additions to Esther, Susanna, 1-2 Maccabees , 4 Ezra, Prayer of Manassheh, Sirach, Wisdom of Solomon, Baruch (including the Epistle of Jeremiah), Tobit, Bel.[55] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Megillah redirects here. ...


The English Civil War broke out in 1642 and lasted till 1649. The Long Parliament of 1644 decreed that only the Hebrew Canon would be read in the Church of England, and in 1647 the Westminster Confession of Faith[5] was issued which decreed a 39-book OT and 27-book NT, the others commonly labelled as Apocrypha were excluded[56]. Today this decree is a Protestant distinctive, a consensus of Protestant churches, not limited to the Church of Scotland, Presbyterianism, and Calvinism, but shared with Baptist and Anabaptist confessions of faith also.[57] The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ...


With the restoration of the monarchy to Charles II of England (1660-1685), the Church of England was once again governed by the Thirty-Nine Articles, as printed in the Book of Common Prayer (1662), which explicitly excludes the Apocrypha from the inspired writings as unsuitable for forming doctrine, while eirenically conceding them value for education so permitting public reading and study. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


According to The Apocrypha, Bridge of the Testaments at orthodoxanglican.net:

On the other hand, the Anglican Communion emphatically maintains that the Apocrypha is part of the Bible and is to be read with respect by her members. Two of the hymns used in the American Prayer Book office of Morning Prayer, the Benedictus es and Benedicite, are taken from the Apocrypha. One of the offertory sentences in Holy Communion comes from an apocryphal book (Tob. 4: 8-9). Lessons from the Apocrypha are regularly appointed to be read in the daily, Sunday, and special services of Morning and Evening Prayer. There are altogether 111 such lessons in the latest revised American Prayer Book Lectionary [The books used are: II Esdras, Tobit, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Three Holy Children, and I Maccabees.] The position of the Church is best summarized in the words of Article Six of the Thirty-nine Articles: “In the name of Holy Scripture we do understand those canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of whose authority there was never any doubt in the Church. . . . And the other Books (as Hierome [St. Jerome] saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners; but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine . . .”

The Synod of Jerusalem[6] in 1672 decreed the Greek Orthodox Canon which is the same as Trent but adds Psalm 151, 1 Esdras, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, and Prayer of Manasseh. The Greek Orthodox generally consider the Septuagint to be divinely inspired. By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over the passions. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Thomas Jefferson in 1819 produced the Jefferson Bible, by excluding sayings of Jesus which he felt were easily determined to be inauthentic ("like picking diamonds from dunghills" -To Adams, 24 January 1814). Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth as it is formally titled, was an attempt by Thomas Jefferson to glean the teachings of Jesus from the Christian Gospels. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Vatican I on April 24, 1870 approved the additions to Mark (v.16:9–20), Luke, (22:19b–20,43–44) and John, (7:53–8:11) which are not present in early manuscripts. April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Pericope Adulteræ (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; Latin for the passage of the adulterous woman) is the name traditionally given to verses 7:53–8:11 of the Gospel of John, which describe the attempted stoning by Pharisees of an accused adulterous woman, and Jesus defense of her. ...


Pope Pius XI on June 2, 1927 decreed the Comma Johanneum was open to dispute. Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Comma Johanneum was a clause present in most translations of the First Epistle of John published from 1522 until the later part of the 19th century, owing to the widespread use of the third edition of the Textus Receptus (TR) as a sole source for translation. ...


The Jesus Seminar in 1993 ranked sayings of Jesus for authenticity by consensus vote and published The Five Gospels : What Did Jesus Really Say? The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus. In addition to the canonical four gospels, the fifth gospel is the Gospel of Thomas. The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about two hundred New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ...


Other canons

The Syriac Peshitta, used by all the various Syrian Churches, originally did not include 2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and Revelation (and this canon of 22 books is the one cited by John Chrysostom (~347–407) and Theodoret (393–466) from the School of Antioch). It also includes Psalm 151 and Psalm 152–155 and 2 Baruch. Western Syrians have added the remaining 5 books to their NT canons in modern times (such as the Lee Peshitta of 1823). Today, the official lectionaries followed by the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, with headquarters at Kottayam (India), and the Chaldean Syrian Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), with headquarters at Trichur (India), still present lessons from only the 22 books of the original Peshitta.[58] Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... John Chrysostom (349–407, Greek: , Ioannes Chrysostomos) was the archbishop of Constantinople. ... Theodoret (393 – c. ... During the first Christian centuries the schools of Alexandria and Antioch were the main theological centers. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... These are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta and some Greek Septuagint and at Qumran: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian...


The Armenian Apostolic church at times has included the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs in its Old Testament and the Third Epistle to the Corinthians, but does not always list it with the other 27 canonical New Testament books. This Church did not accept the Revelation into its Bible until A.D. 1200.[59] The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ... The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is an important constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Old Testament, comprising the dying commands of the twelve sons of Jacob. ... The Third Epistle to the Corinthians is believed to be a pseudepigraphical text under the name of Paul of Tarsus. ...


The New Testament of the Coptic Bible, adopted by the Egyptian Church, includes the two Epistles of Clement.[59] The canon of the Tewahedo Churches is somewhat looser than for other traditional Christian groups, and the order, naming, and chapter/verse division of some of the books is also slightly different. The Ethiopian "narrow" canon includes 81 books altogether: The 27 book New Testament; those Old Testament books found in the Septuagint and accepted by the Orthodox; as well as Enoch, Jubilees, 1 Esdras and 2 Esdras, and 3 books of Maccabees; however, the three Ethiopian books of Maccabees are entirely different in content from the four Books of Maccabees known elsewhere. Tewahedo Church may refer to any of the following: The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... The Books of the Maccabees are deuterocanonical books giving the history of the Maccabees, a Jewish family who rebelled against the Seleucid dynasty and founded the Hasmonean Kingdom in Israel in the 2nd and 1st century BC: 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Category: ...


The "broader" Ethiopian New Testament canon includes four books of "Sinodos" (church practices), two "Books of Covenant", "Ethiopic Clement", and "Ethiopic Didascalia" (Apostolic Church-Ordinances). However, these books have never been printed or widely studied. This "broader" canon is also sometimes said to include, with the Old Testament, an eight part history of the Jews based on the writings of Flavius Josephus, and known as "Pseudo-Josephus" or "Joseph ben Gurion" (Yosēf walda Koryon).[60][61] The Apostolic Church-Ordinances is a 3rd century pseudo-Apostolic collection of moral and hierarchical rules and instructions, compiled from early Christian sources. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ...


Various books that were never canonized by any church, but are known to have existed in antiquity, are similar to the New Testament and often claim apostolic authorship, and are known as the New Testament apocrypha. In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ...


Modern interpretation

Many Evangelical Christian groups do not accept the theory that the Christian Bible was not known until various local and Ecumenical Councils, which they deem to be "Roman-dominated", made their official declarations. The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... See also General Council (disambiguation). ...


These groups believe that the New Testament supports that Paul (2 Timothy 4:11–13), Peter (2 Peter 3:15–16), and ultimately John (Revelation 22:18–19) finalized the canon of the New Testament. Some note that Peter, John, and Paul wrote 20 (or 21) of the 27 books of the NT and personally knew all the other NT writers. (Books not attributed to these three are: Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, James, and Jude. The authorship of Hebrews has long been disputed.)


Evangelicals tend not to accept the Septuagint as the inspired Hebrew Bible, though many of them recognize its wide use by Greek-speaking Jews in the first century. They note that early Christians knew the Hebrew Bible since around 170 Melito of Sardis listed all the books of the Old Testament that those in the Evangelical faiths now use (except, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Book of Esther, and with the addition of the Book of Wisdom). Melito's canon is found in Eusebius EH4.26.13–14[62]: The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s - 210s - 220s 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 Marcomannic Wars. ... Melito of Sardis, or Melito of Sardes, a Christian saint, was the was the bishop of Sardis in Asia Minor. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ...

Accordingly when I went East and came to the place where these things were preached and done, I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job; of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book ; Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books. Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... 1. ...

However, Melito's account still does not determine that the specific documentary tradition used by the Jews necessarily was that which was eventually assembled into the Masoretic text, several centuries later.


Many modern Protestants point to four "Criteria for Canonicity" to justify the books that have been included in the Old and New Testament, which are judged to have satisfied the following:

  1. Apostolic Origin — attributed to and based on the preaching/teaching of the first-generation apostles (or their close companions).
  2. Universal Acceptance — acknowledged by all major Christian communities in the ancient world (by the end of the fourth century).
  3. Liturgical Use — read publicly when early Christian communities gathered for the Lord's Supper (their weekly worship services).
  4. Consistent Message — containing a theological outlook similar or complementary to other accepted Christian writings.

The basic factor for recognizing a book's canonicity for the New Testament was divine inspiration, and the chief test for this was apostolicity. The term apostolic as used for the test of canonicity does not necessarily mean apostolic authorship or derivation, but rather apostolic authority. Apostolic authority is never detached from the authority of the Lord. See Apostolic succession. In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ...


It is sometimes difficult to apply these criteria to all books in the accepted canon, however, and some point to books that Protestants hold as apocryphal which would fulfill these requirements. In practice, Protestants hold to the Jewish canon for the Old Testament and the Catholic canon for the New Testament.


See also

  • Books of the Bible for a side-by-side comparison of Jewish, Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant canons.
  • Table of books of Judeo-Christian Scripture
  • Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible

The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... Below is a table of books of Jewish TaNaKh and Christian Scripture, organized by the Jewish use and Christian churches who hold these books to be sacred. ... Several texts are mentioned in the Bible, yet do not appear in the canon. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Bible Canon: "Sirach… knew the Law and Prophets in their present form and sequence; for he glorifies (ch. xliv.-xlix.) the great men of antiquity in the order in which they successively follow in Holy Writ. He not only knew the name [Hebrew omitted] ("The Twelve Prophets"), but cites Malachi iii. 23, and is acquainted with by far the greatest part of the Hagiographa, as is certain from the Hebrew original of his writings recently discovered. He knew the Psalms, which he ascribes to David (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlvii. 8, 9), and the Proverbs: "There were those who found out musical harmonies, and set forth proverbs [A. V., "poetical compositions"] in writing" (xliv. 5). An allusion to Proverbs and probably to the Song of Solomon is contained in his words on King Solomon: "The countries marveled at thee for thy songs, and proverbs, and parables [or "dark sayings"], and interpretations" (xlvii. 17); the last three words being taken from Prov. i. 6, while the Song of Solomon is alluded to in "songs." He would have had no authority to speak of "songs" at all from I Kings v. 12; he must have known them. While he had no knowledge of Ecclesiastes, his didactic style proves that he used Job, as is also indicated by the words [Hebrew omitted] (xliv. 4, and afterward, [Hebrew omitted]). Ecclesiastes, Esther, and Daniel are not included in his canon (see Halévy, "Etude sur la Partie du Texte Hébreux de l'Ecclésiastique," pp. 67 et seq., Paris, 1897); he considers Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah as Holy Scripture (xlix. 12 = Ezra iii. 2; xlix. 13 = Neh. iii. and vi.; compare Neh. vi. 12); he mentions distinctly "the laws and prophets" (xxxix. 1); in the following sentences there are allusions to other writings; and verse 6 of the same chapter leads to the supposition that in his time only wisdom-writings and prayers were being written."
  2. ^ University of Michigan.
  3. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Bible Canon: "It is true, Lucius ("Die Therapeuten," Strasburg, 1880) doubts the genuineness of this work; but Leopold Cohn, an authority on Philo ("Einleitung und Chronologie der Schriften Philo's," p. 37, Leipsic, 1899; "Philologus," vii., suppl. volume, p. 421), maintains that there is no reason to do so. Consequently, Siegfried's opinion ("Philo," p. 61, Jena, 1875) that Philo's canon was essentially the same as that of to-day, is probably correct (H. E. Ryle, "Philo and Holy Scripture," London, 1895)."
  4. ^ Against Apion Book 1.8: "For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, [as the Greeks have,] but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life."
  5. ^ Assuming Koine Greek primacy, which is the majority view. A minority assume Aramaic primacy, meaning an original Aramaic Gospel which would cite the Aramaic Old Testament.
  6. ^ published by J.-P. Audet in JTS 1950, v1, pp. 135–154, cited in The Council of Jamnia and the Old Testament Canon, Robert C. Newman, 1983.
  7. ^ According to the Catholic Encyclopedia: "In the Fathers, the book is often called "Jesus Nave". The name dates from the time of Origen, who translated the Hebrew "son of Nun" by uìòs Nauê and insisted upon the Nave as a type of a ship; hence in the name Jesus Nave many of the Fathers see the type of Jesus, the Ship wherein the world is saved."
  8. ^ J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines (Harper Collins) pp. 53–54.
  9. ^ Bruce Metzger, Canon of the New Testament, 1987
  10. ^ Joseph Barber Lightfoot in his Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians writes: "At this point [Gal 6:11] the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name (2 Thess 2:2; 3:17) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries… In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin), that his hand-writing may reflect the energy and determination of his soul."
  11. ^ Everett Ferguson, "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in The Canon Debate. eds. L. M. McDonald & J. A. Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) pp. 302–303; cf. Justin Martyr, First Apology 67.3.
  12. ^ Ignatius, NT Canon.
  13. ^ WACE, Henry, Introduction, Early Christian Writings.
  14. ^ von HARNACK, Adolf, Origin of the New Testatment.
  15. ^ The Muratorian Canon earlychristianwritings.com Accessed April 10, 2007
  16. ^ Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2006), 425–426.
  17. ^ E. Ferguson, ‘Canon Muratori: Date and Provenance’, Studia Patristica 17 (1982), 677–683; E. Ferguson, ‘The Muragorian Fragment and the Development of the Canon”, Journal of Theological Studues 44 (1993), 696; F. F. Bruce, “SomeThoughts on the Beginning of the New Testament Canon”, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 65 (1983), 56–57; B. M. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origins, Development, and Significance (Oxford: Clarendon, 1987), 193–194; P. Henne, La dation du Canon de Muratori”, Revenue Biblique 100 (1993), 54–75; W. Horbury, “The Wisdom of Solomon in the Muratorian Fragment”, Journal of Theological Studies 45 (1994), 146–159; C. E. Hill, “The Debate over the Muratorian Fragment and the Development of the Canon”, Westminster Theological Journal 57 (1995), Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2006), 426.
  18. ^ G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment and the Development of the Canon (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), see also the article in the Anchor Bible Dictionary
  19. ^ H. J. De Jonge, "The New Testament Canon", in The Biblical Canons. eds. de Jonge & J. M. Auwers (Leuven University Press, 2003), p. 315.
  20. ^ Both points taken from Mark A. Noll's Turning Points, pp. 36–37. See References on this page.
  21. ^ Everett Ferguson, "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in The Canon Debate. eds. L. M. McDonald & J. A. Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) pp. 301; cf. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3.11.8.
  22. ^ Irinæus, Adversus Hæreses.
  23. ^ The Tübingen school of historians founded by F. C. Baur holds that in Early Christianity, there was conflict between Pauline Christianity and the Jerusalem Church led by James the Just, Simon Peter, and John the Apostle, the so-called "Jewish Christians" or Pillars of the Church although in many places Paul writes that he was an observant Jew, and that Christians should "uphold the Law" (Romans 3:31).
  24. ^ Metzger, Canon of the New Testament, p. 150; The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, p. 45
  25. ^ The Cambridge History of the Bible (volume 1) eds. P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans (Cambridge University Press, 1970) p. 308.
  26. ^ Codex Claromontanus, Bible Researcher.
  27. ^ Book 3 Ecclesiastical History, Chapter XXV
  28. ^ The Cheltenham List. Bible Research. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  29. ^ The Cheltenham Canon. ntcanon.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.; (also known as Mommsen's)
  30. ^ Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, volume XIV
  31. ^ Carter Lindberg, A Brief History of Christianity (Blackwell Publishing, 2006) p. 15.
  32. ^ David Brakke, "Canon Formation and Social Conflict in Fourth Century Egypt: Athanasius of Alexandria's Thirty Ninth Festal Letter", in Harvard Theological Review 87 (1994) pp. 395–419.
  33. ^ Apostolic Canons
  34. ^ Canon of the New Testament
  35. ^ Canon of the New Testament
  36. ^ Everett Ferguson, "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in The Canon Debate. eds. L. M. McDonald & J. A. Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) p. 320; F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 230; cf. Augustine, De Civitate Dei 22.8.
  37. ^ Decretum Gelasianum
  38. ^ Lindberg, A Brief History of Christianity (Blackwell Publishing, 2006) p. 15.
  39. ^ F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 234; The "Damasian Canon" was published by C. H. Turner in JTS, vol. 1, 1900, pp. 554–560.
  40. ^ F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 225.
  41. ^ partial reference: Henry Barclay Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, page 211 shows Innocent's OT list
  42. ^ Everett Ferguson, "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in The Canon Debate. eds. L. M. McDonald & J. A. Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) p. 320; Bruce Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origins, Development, and Significance (Oxford: Clarendon, 1987) pp. 237–238; F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 97.
  43. ^ Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th revised edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1994), p. 365.; see also Tertullian.org's Jerome's Preface to Kings
  44. ^ Jerome, Prologue to Tobit, translated by Kevin P. Edgecomb (2006).
  45. ^ F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 215
  46. ^ The Cambridge History of the Bible (volume 1) eds. P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans (Cambridge University Press, 1970) p. 305.
  47. ^ Canon of the New Testament
  48. ^ Canon of the New Testament
  49. ^ Apostolic Constitutions at Bible Researcher
  50. ^ Exact Exposition of Orthodox Faith, 4.17
  51. ^ http://www.bibelcenter.de/bibel/lu1545/ note order: …Hebr�er, Jakobus, Judas, Offenbarung; see also http://www.bible-researcher.com/links10.html
  52. ^ The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopædia and Scriptural Dictionary, Fully Defining and Explaining All Religious Terms, Including Biographical, Geographical, Historical, Archæological and Doctrinal Themes, p.521, edited by Samuel Fallows et al, The Howard-Severance company, 1901,1910. - Google Books
  53. ^ Martin Luther, as quoted by William Barclay, The Daily Study Bible Series, The Letters of James and Peter, Revised Edition, Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, KY, 1976, p. 7
  54. ^ Schaff's Creeds of Christendom, The Elizabethan Articles. A.D. 1563 and 1571
  55. ^ KJV and Apocrypha at virginia.edu
  56. ^ WCF 1.3: "The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon of the Scripture, and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings"
  57. ^ Peter Hall, The Harmony of Protestant Confessions, Exhibiting the Faith of the Churches of Christ Reformed after the Pure and Holy Doctrine of the Gospel throughout Europe, Revised edition, (London: J. F. Shaw, 1842).
  58. ^ Peshitta, NT Canon.
  59. ^ a b Reliability, Theological Perspectives.
  60. ^ Ethiopian Canon, Islamic Awareness.
  61. ^ Fathers, CCEL.
  62. ^ Fathers, New Advent.

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Aramaic primacy is the view that the Christian New Testament and/or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language. ... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... Typology is a theological doctrine or theory of types and their antitypes found in scripture. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... Joseph Barber Lightfoot (April 13, 1828–December 21, 1889) was an English theologian and Bishop of Durham. ... A secretary is a person who performs routine, administrative, or personal tasks for a superior. ... The First Apology was an early work of Christian apologetics addressed by Justin Martyr to the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius. ... Westminster Theological Journal is the theological journal published by Westminster Theological Seminary. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. ... The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus in the early 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... Pauline Christianity is an expression which has been used, by those critical of Catholic, Orthodox and traditonal Protestant Christianity, to describe what is regarded as a distortion of the original teachings of Jesus due to the influence of Paul of Tarsus (otherwise St. ... The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pillars of the Church, in the first Christian century, seems to have referred to the leaders of the Nazarenes, as the Jerusalem Jesus movement was called, principally, the Family of Jesus, later known as the Desposyni, including his bothers James, Joses or Joseph, Simon or Simeon, and Jude or Judas... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a German classical scholar, jurist and historian, generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... Cuthbert Hamilton Turner (1860-1930) was an English ecclesiastical historian and Biblical scholar. ... Henry Barclay Swete (Bristol, March 14, 1835-Hitchin1917) was an English Biblical scholar. ... At the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004, Google introduced its Google Print service, now known as Google Book Search. ...

References

  • Anchor Bible Dictionary
  • Ante-Nicene Fathers, Eerdmans Press
  • Apostolic Fathers, Lightfoot-Harmer-Holmes, ISBN 978-0-8010-5676-5
  • Encyclopedia of the Early Church, Oxford
  • Beckwith, R.T. OT Canon of the NT Church ISBN 978-0-8028-3617-5
  • Brakke, David. "Canon formation and social conflict in fourth century Egypt," in Harvard Theological Review 87:4 (1994) pp. 395–419. Athanasius' role in the formation of the N.T. canon.
  • Bruce, F.F., Canon of Scripture ISBN 978-0-8308-1258-5
  • Davis, L.D. First Seven Ecumenical Councils ISBN 978-0-8146-5616-7
  • Ferguson Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
  • Fox, Robin Lane. The Unauthorized Version. 1992.
  • Gamble. NT Canon ISBN 1579109098
  • Hennecke-Schneemelcher. NT Apcrypha
  • Jurgens, W.A. Faith of the Early Fathers ISBN 978-0-8146-5616-7
  • Metzger, Bruce. Canon of the NT ISBN 978-0-19-826180-3
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points. Baker Academic, 1997. ISBN 978-0-8010-6211-7
  • John Salza, Scripture Catholic, Septuagint references
  • Sundberg. OT of the Early Church Harvard Press 1964

Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ...

Further reading

  • Childs, Brevard S., The New Testament as canon: an introduction ISBN 0334022126
  • Gamble, Harry Y., The New Testament canon: its making and meaning ISBN 0800604709
  • McDonald, Lee Martin, The formation of the Christian biblical canon ISBN 0687132932
  • McDonald, Lee Martin, Early Christianity and its sacred literature ISBN 1565632664
  • McDonald, Lee Martin, The Biblical canon: its origin, transmission, and authority ISBN 9781565639256
  • McDonald, Lee Martin, and James A. Sanders (eds.) The canon debate ISBN 1565635175
  • Metzger, Bruce Manning, The Canon of the New Testament: its origin, development, and significance ISBN 0198261802
  • Souter, Alexander, The text and canon of the New Testament, 2nd. ed., Studies in theology; no. 25. London: Duckworth (1954)
  • Wall, Robert W., The New Testament as canon: a reader in canonical criticism ISBN 1850753741
  • Westcott, Brooke Foss, A general survey of the history of the canon of the New Testament, 4th. ed, London: Macmillan (1875)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (325 words)
Canon Law, all legislation adopted by an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church or promulgated by papal decree
Canon (fiction), the body of works that are considered to be "genuine" or "official" within a certain fictional universe.
Canon was originally an ancient Babylonian word for a Reed - a commonly growing plant in the marshes of the fertile crescent which was used for measurement.
Biblical canon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5420 words)
Significant separate manuscript traditions in the canonic Hebrew Bible are represented in the Septuagint translation's variants from the Masoretic text that was established through the Masoretes' scholarly collation of varying manuscripts, and in the independent manuscript traditions that are represented by the Dead Sea scrolls.
This partial canon lists the four gospels and the Letters of Paul, as well as two books of Revelation, one of John, another of Peter (the latter of which it notes is not often read in the churches).
A fourth book in the canon is the Doctrine and Covenants, a continually expanding work written in modern times by the presiding presidents of the LDS church, and believed by members to be the voice of God for the contemporary world.
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