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Encyclopedia > Biblical inspiration
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Inspiration · Hermeneutics The Bible is the collection of sacred writings or books of Judaism and Christianity. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


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Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, and developed in the Anglican Communion. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... Liberal Christianity, sometimes called liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically-informed religious movements and moods within late 18th, 19th and 20th century Christianity. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (First published in 1875). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


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Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


Important Figures
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Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος) (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...

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Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... Divinity has a number of related uses in the field of religious belief and study. ... The Bible is the collection of sacred writings or books of Judaism and Christianity. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word inspiration comes by way of the Latin and the King James translations of the Greek word θεοπνευστος (theopneustos, literally, "God-breathed") found in 2 Tim 3.16-17: Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article or section should be merged with First Epistle to Timothy The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ...

All scripture is given by inspiration of God [theopneustos], and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.

Theopneustos is rendered in the Vulgate with the Latin divinitus inspirata ("divinely breathed into"), but some modern English translations opt for "God-breathed" (NIV) or "breathed out by God" (ESV) and avoid inspiration altogether, since its connotation, unlike its Latin root, leans toward breathing in instead of breathing out. The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... English Standard Version The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Holy Bible, published in the United States by Crossway Books, and in the United Kingdom by Harper-Collins UK. The first edition was completed in 2001. ... For the more specialised meaning of Connotation in semiotics, see connotation (semiotics). ... Inhalation is the movement of air from the external environment, through the airways, into the alveoli during breathing. ... Expiration (2003) is an independent feature film directed by Gavin Heffernan In respiration, expiration is initiated by a decrease in volume and positive pressure exerted upon the intrapleural space upon diaphragm relaxation. ...


Basis for the doctrine

In a number of passages the Bible claims divine inspiration for itself. Besides the direct accounts of written revelation, such as Moses receiving the Ten Commandments, the Prophets of the Old Testament frequently claimed that their message was divine by the formula "Thus says the LORD" (for example, 1 Kgs 12:22–24; 1 Chr 17:3–4; Jer 35:13; Ezek 2:4; Zech 7:9; etc.). In the New Testament, Jesus treats the Old Testament as authoritative and says it "cannot be broken" (John 10:34–36), and the Second Epistle of Peter claims that "no prophecy of Scripture ... was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit" (2 Pet 1:20–21). That epistle also claims divine authority for the Apostles (3:2) and includes Paul's letters as being counted with the Scriptures (3:16). Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Prophets may refer to: The Prophets (Neviim), which is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ...


In addition, theological conservatives sometimes argue that Biblical inspiration can be corroborated by examining the weight of the Bible's moral teaching and its prophecies about the future and their fulfillment. Others maintain that the authority of the Church and its counsels should carry more or less weight in formulating the doctrine of inspiration. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Bible prophecy is the concept held by various people that many Bible verses contain prophecies. ...


An exception common to all the different views of inspiration is that, although the New Testament Scriptures quote, paraphrase, and refer to other works including other New Testament documents, the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Old Testament, including the Apocrypha), and the Greek writers Aratus, Epimenides, Menander, and perhaps Philo, none of the various views of inspiration teach that these referenced works were also necessarily inspired, though each teaches that the use and application of these other materials is inspired, in some sense. Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word απόκρυφα meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Aratus (Greek Aratos) (ca. ... Epimenides of Knossos Epimenides of Knossos (Crete) (Greek: Επιμενίδης) was a semi-mythical 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet, who is said to have fallen asleep for fifty-seven years in a Cretian cave sacred to Zeus, after which he reportedly awoke with the gift of prophecy. ... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judeaus, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ...


Views of the doctrine

Rembrandt's "The Evangelist Matthew Inspired by an Angel."

Those Christians who receive the Bible as authoritative generally accept that the Bible is "breathed out by God", in some sense because the Bible itself explicitly states this. However, different groups understand the meaning and details of inspiration in different ways. Download high resolution version (1210x1545, 231 KB)By Rembrandt. ... Download high resolution version (1210x1545, 231 KB)By Rembrandt. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606– October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


The Evangelical view

Most conservative Christians accept the Bible's statements about itself. At times the traditional view of the Bible has been defended as implying that the Bible is "inerrant in the original manuscripts (or 'autographa')", while other traditionalists have sought to guard against the inference that the Bible would be read as intended if measured by modern scientific values, ways of describing things, or conventions of precision, and prefer the terminology of "Biblical infallibility". On particular issues these preferences of description (although superficially synonymous) represent sharp disagreements about particular approaches to interpretation. Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position [1] that in its original form, the Bible is without error; referring to the complete accuracy of Scripture, including the historical and scientific parts. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Some evangelical Protestants have sought to characterize the conservative or traditional view as "verbal, plenary inspiration" in the original manuscripts, by which they mean that every word (not just the overarching ideas or concepts) is meaningfully chosen under the superintendence of God. These Christians acknowledge that there is textual variation, some of which is accounted for by deviations from the autographa. In other cases two Biblical accounts of apparently identical events and speeches are reported to somewhat different effect, and in different words, which this view accounts for by holding that the deviations are also inspired by God. At times this view has been criticized as tending toward a "dictation theory of inspiration", where God speaks and a human records his words, but the traditional view has always been distinguished from the dictation theory, which none of the parties regard as orthodox. Instead, these Christians argue that the Bible is a truly human product and its creation was superintended by the Holy Spirit, preserving the authors' works from error without eliminating their specific concerns, situation, or style. This divine involvement, it is suggested, allowed the biblical writers to reveal God's own message to the immediate recipients of the writings and to those who would come later, communicating God's message without corrupting it. Look up orthodoxy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ...


One conservative evangelical view can be found in the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy was formulated in October of 1978 by approximately 300 evangelical scholars at a conference sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy, held in Chicago. ...


Criticism

The Evangelical position has been criticized as being circular by non-Christians and as well as Catholic and Orthodox authors, who accept the doctrine but reject the Protestant arguments in favor of it. These critics claim that the Bible can only be used to prove doctrines of biblical inspiration if the doctrine is assumed to begin with.[1] Some defenders of the evangelical doctrine such as B. B. Warfield and Charles Hodge, however, moved away from such circular arguments and "committed themselves to the legitimacy of external verification" to inductively prove the doctrine, though they placed some restrictions on the evidences that could be considered.[2] Others such as Cornelius Van Til and John Frame have accepted circularity as inevitable in the ultimate presuppositions of any system and seek instead to prove the validity of their position by trancendental arguments related to consistency. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ... Benjamin Breckinridge (B.B.) Warfield (1851 - 1921) was the principal of Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921. ... Charles Hodge Charles Hodge (1797-1878) was the principal of Princeton Theological Seminary between 1851 and 1878. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... John Frame Dr. John M. Frame (born 1939) is an American philosopher and a Calvinist theologian especially noted for his work in epistemology and presuppositional apologetics, systematic theology, and ethics. ... In philosophy, transcendental/transcendence, has three different but related primary meanings, all of them derived from the words literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond: one that originated in Ancient philosophy, one in Medieval philosophy and one in modern philosophy. ...


The Catholic view

As summarized by Karl Keating,[3] the Roman Catholic apologetic for the inspiration of scripture first considers the scriptures first as a merely historical source, and then it attempts to derive the divinity of Jesus from the information contained therein, illuminated by the tradition of the Catholic Church and by what they consider to be common knowledge about human nature. After offering evidence that Jesus is indeed God, they argue that his Biblical promise to establish a church that will never perish cannot be empty, and that promise, they believe, implies an infallible teaching authority vested in the church. They conclude that this authoritative Church teaches that the Bible's own doctrine of inspiration is in fact the correct one. Karl Keating (born 1950), a prominent Catholic apologist and author, is the founder and president of Catholic Answers. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... Common knowledge is what everybody knows, usually with reference to the community in which the term is used. ... See also : Human nature (disambiguation) Human nature is the fundamental nature and substance of humans, as well as the range of human behavior that is believed to be invariant over long periods of time and across very different cultural contexts. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


The Catholic church rejects the idea that the Bible is limited in inspiration to moral or dogmatic issues.[4]


The Modernist view

The Modernist (or liberal) doctrine of inspiration typically rejects the Bible's own claims for itself and thus the traditional doctrine. Instead, in this view, other authorities must be established and utilized to determine the validity and truthfulness of the Bible. One such approach is that of Rudolf Bultmann, who argued that Christians must seek to "demythologize" the Bible by removing the layers of myth it has accumulated during its trip through history and thereby encounter the scriptures in a manner unburdened by meanings placed upon it by those whose interests may have been quite different from the interests of those who read scripture today. For example, assertions about the historical Jesus recognize a difference when speaking about Jesus: the man who was born, lived his life as a Jew, and was executed, and Christ: the theological figure central to the Christian church and experience. Today, exegetes such as Walter Brueggemann and John Crossan apply historical, linguistic, literary, and archeological analysis to scripture in order to deepen our understanding of it and demonstrate that the God revealed through exegesis is greater than human conceptions of that God. Such exegesis, following the example of Bultmann or von Rad, represents the main stream of Bibilical hermenutics today. Examples of this approach can be found in the introduction and footnotes to scholarly editions of the NIV or NRSV. Modernism, modernist Christianity, and liberalism are labels applied to proponents of a school of Christian thought which rose as a direct challenge to more conservative traditional Christian orthodoxy. ... Liberal Christianity, sometimes called liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically-informed religious movements and moods within late 18th, 19th and 20th century Christianity. ... Rudolf Karl Bultmann (August 20, 1884 - July 30, 1976) was a German theologian of Lutheran background, who was for three decades professor of New Testament studies at the University of Marburg. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... This article is about Jesus the person, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of a text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Walter Brueggemann (b. ... John Dominic Crossan (born Nenagh, Co. ...


The Neo-orthodox doctrine

The Neo-orthodox doctrine of inspiration is summarized by saying that the Bible is "the word of God" but not "the words of God". It is only when one reads the text that it becomes the word of God to him or her. This view is a reaction to the Modernist doctrine, which, Neo-orthodox proponents argue, eroded the value and significance of the Christian faith, and simultaneously a rejection of the idea of textual inerrancy. Karl Barth and Emil Brunner were primary advocates of this approach. Neo-orthodoxy is an approach to theology that was developed in the aftermath of the First World War (1914-1918). ... Karl Barth. ... Emil Brunner (1889-1966) A higly influential Swiss theologian, who along with Karl Barth, is associated with the movement called neo-orthodoxy or dialectical theology. ...


Other views

Historically, there have been other views of inspiration such as verbal dictation, which was a minor view and is not commonly held today,[citation needed] and thought inspiration, which co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church Ellen G. White advocated but which does not imply infallibility. The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Christian denomination with a worldwide membership of over 14 million and an active presence in most countries of the world. ... Ellen Gould White (née Harmon) (November 26, 1827 – July 16, 1915) born to Robert and Eunice Harmon, was a Christian American leader whose prophetic ministry was instrumental in founding the Sabbatarian Adventist movement that led to the rise of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. ...


See also

Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into John Calvin. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of a text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ...

References

The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

Bibliography

  • Warfield, B. B. (1977 reprint). Inspiration and Authority of Bible, with a lengthy introductory essay by Cornelius Van Til. ISBN 0-8010-9586-7.
  • Sproul, R. C.. Hath God Said? (video series).
  • Geisler, Norman, ed. (1980). Inerrancy. ISBN 0-310-39281-0.

Benjamin Breckinridge (B.B.) Warfield (1851 - 1921) was the principal of Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Inspiration, Authority and Interpretation (3154 words)
The doctrine of Biblical Inspiration is fundamental to evangelical Christianity.
The word "inspiration" is a legacy of the rendering in the King James Version of the Greek word theopneustos in 2 Timothy 3:16, which is a hapax legoma in the New Testament.
Biblical authority extends to the entire Biblical record, unless the context clearly shows that this is not the case.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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