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Encyclopedia > Biblical archaeology

Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. As with the historical records from any other civilization, the manuscripts must be compared to other accounts from contemporary societies in Europe, Mesopotamia, and Africa; additionally, records from neighbors must be compared with them. The scientific techniques employed are those of archaeology in general including excavations as well as chance discoveries. The Bible (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity (The Bible actually refers to... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. ...


By contrast Near Eastern archaeology is simply the archaeology of the Ancient Near East without any particular consideration of how its discoveries relate to the Bible. Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider, global discipline of Archaeology. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from...


Biblical archaeology is a controversial subject with differing opinions on what its purpose and goals are or should be. Professional opinions of Biblical archaeology have been set aside in a separate commentary section.

Contents


Milestones prior to 1914

Biblical Archaeology began after publication by Edward Robinson (American professor of Biblical literature; 1794-1863) of his travels through Palestine during the first half of the 19th century (a time when the oldest complete Hebrew scripture only dated to the Middle Ages), which highlighted similarities between modern Arabic place-names and Biblical city names. Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 7 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The Palestine Exploration Fund sponsored detailed surveys led by Charles Warren during the late 1860s (initially financed by Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts in 1864 to improve Jerusalem's sanitary conditions), which culminated with the formal publication of "The Survey of Western Palestine" from 1871-1877. General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S. (1840–1927) was a British soldier and police commissioner. ... Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, Baroness Burdett-Coutts (born Angela Burdett 24 April 1814 in Piccadilly, London - 30 December 1906) was the daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, Baronet, an MP, and Sophia Coutts, who was the daughter of Thomas Coutts, the wealthy banker who founded Coutts bank. ... 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ...


The highlight of this period was Warren's work around the Temple Mount of Jerusalem, where he discovered the foundation stones of Herod's Temple, the first Israelite inscriptions on several jar handles with LMLK seals, and water shafts under the City of David. The Temple Mount (Hebrew: (without niqqud: הר הבית), Har haBáyit) or Noble Sanctuary (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, ▶ (help· info)) is a hotly contested religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Herods Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Second Temple along with renovations of the entire Temple Mount. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28. ... LMLK seals were stamped on the handles of large storage jars in and around Jerusalem during the reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) based on several complete jars found in situ buried under a destruction layer caused by Sennacherib at Lachish. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Silwan. ...

  • 1890 Sir W.M.F. Petrie noticed strata exposed by waterflow adjacent to Tell el-Hesi (originally believed to be Biblical Lachish, now probably Eglon) and popularized details of pottery groups excavated therefrom. F.J. Bliss continued digging there in 1891-2.

Subsequent highlights of major sites mentioned in the Bible where excavations spanned more than one season: Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... A Biblical name, Eglon refers to either: A Canaanite city, whose king Debir joined a confederacy against Gibeon when that city made peace with Israel. ...

  • 1898-1900 F.J. Bliss and R.A.S. Macalister excavated 4 major sites in the Shephelah region of Israel:
    • Tell es-Safi (probably Biblical Gath)
    • Tell Zakariya (probably Biblical Azekah)
    • Tell ej-Judeideh (possibly Biblical Moresheth-Gath or Libnah)
    • Tell Sandahannah (probably Biblical Mareshah)
  • 1902-3, 1907-9 R.A.S. Macalister excavated Gezer, where the oldest Hebrew inscription (Gezer Calendar) was found on the surface
  • 1902-4 E. Sellin excavated Taanach
  • 1903-5 G. Schumacher excavated Megiddo
  • 1907-9 E. Sellin and C. Watzinger excavated Shechem
  • 1908, 1910-1 D.G. Lyon, C.S. Fisher, and G.A. Reisner excavated Samaria
  • 1911-3 D. Mackenzie excavated Beth Shemesh

Shephelah (Hebrew: הַשְפֵלָה) - which means lowland - is a designation usually applied to the region of low hills between Israels central mountain range and the coastal plains of Philistia. ... Tell es-Safi is a large multi-period site (ancient mound; Tell) that is located in central Israel, approximately half way between Jerusalem and Ashkelon, on the border between the southern Coastal Plain of Israel and the Judean foothills. ... Gath (Hebrew: winepress) was one of the five Philistine city states established in southwestern Philistia. ... Azekah - dug over - a town in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah. ... Libnah, meaning white; whiteness A town of Judah. ... Gezer was a town in ancient Israel. ... Megiddo is the English designation for an important ancient settlement and city site in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel, known alternatively as Tel Megiddo (Hebrew) and Tell es-Mutesellim (Arabic). ... A synagogue (בית כנסת beit knesset in Hebrew meaning a house of assembly or שול shul in Yiddish) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Shechem, Sichem or Shkhem (שְׁכֶם / שְׁכָם Shoulder, Standard Hebrew Šəḫem / Šəḫam, Tiberian Hebrew Šəḵem / Šəḵām (situated at Tell Balatah 32° 12′ 11″ N, 35° 18′ 40″ E, 2 km east of present-day Nablus) was the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel. ... Samaria, or Shomron (Hebrew שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Šoməron, Tiberian Hebrew Šōmərôn, Arabic سامريّون Sāmariyyūn (but commonly called in Arabic جبال نابلس Jibal Nablus), (in the New Testament Greek Σαμαρεία, in Russian Самария ) is a term used for the mountainous northern part of the area on the west bank of the Jordan...

Milestones during 1914 - 1945

Following World War I, during the British Mandate of Palestine, antiquities laws were established for Palestinian territory along with a Department of Antiquities (later to become the modern Israel Antiquities Authority) and the Palestine Archaeological Museum in Jerusalem (now named the Rockefeller Museum). Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world conflict... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Rockefeller Museum located in Eastern Jerusalem, houses a vast collection of regional archeology unearthed in excavations conducted in the country mainly during the time of the British Mandate (1919-1948). ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... The Rockefeller Museum located in Eastern Jerusalem, houses a vast collection of regional archeology unearthed in excavations conducted in the country mainly during the time of the British Mandate (1919-1948). ...


J. Garstang was instrumental in these accomplishments. W.F. Albright dominated the scholarship of this period and had long-lasting influence on Biblical historians based on his analysis of Bronze Age and Iron Age pottery. William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ...

  • 1921-3, 1925-8, 1930-3 C.S. Fisher, A. Rowe, and G.M. Fitzgerald excavated Beth Shean
  • 1925-39 C.S. Fisher, P.L.O. Guy, and G. Loud excavated Megiddo
  • 1926, 1928, 1930, 1932 W.F. Albright excavated Tell Beit Mirsim (possibly Biblical Eglon or Debir--Kirjath Sepher)
  • 1926-7, 1929, 1932, 1935 W.F. Bade excavated Mizpah
  • 1928-33 E. Grant excavated Beth Shemesh
  • 1930-6 J. Garstang excavated Jericho
  • 1931-3, 1935 J. Crowfoot excavated Samaria
  • 1932-38 J.L. Starkey excavated Lachish (the excavation terminated when he was killed by Arab bandits near Hebron while on his way to the opening ceremonies of the Palestine Archaeological Museum)
  • 1936-40 B. Mazar excavated Beth Shearim

Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... Name Gibeah – could be a variation of the Hebrew word of Geba, meaning “hill”, other names include Gibeah of Benjamin and Gibeah of Saul Tell el Ful – modern name of the Arabic town, meaning “mound of horse beans” Location Central Benjamin Plateau 3 miles north of Jerusalem along the Watershed... Megiddo is the English designation for an important ancient settlement and city site in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel, known alternatively as Tel Megiddo (Hebrew) and Tell es-Mutesellim (Arabic). ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... A Biblical name, Eglon refers to either: A Canaanite city, whose king Debir joined a confederacy against Gibeon when that city made peace with Israel. ... A Biblical name, Debir may refer to: The most inner and sacred part of Solomons Temple, most commonly known as Sanctum Santorum. A Canaanite king of Eglon, slain by Joshua. ... Mizpah - or Mizpeh, watch-tower; the look-out. ... Jericho (Arabic أريحا [â–¶]; ʼArīḥā; Hebrew יְרִיחוֹ [â–¶]; Standard Hebrew YÉ™riḥo; Tiberian Hebrew YÉ™rîḫô, YÉ™rîḥô) is a town in the West Bank, near the Jordan River. ... Samaria, or Shomron (Hebrew שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Å omÉ™ron, Tiberian Hebrew ŠōmÉ™rôn, Arabic سامريّون SāmariyyÅ«n (but commonly called in Arabic جبال نابلس Jibal Nablus), (in the New Testament Greek Σαμαρεία, in Russian Самария ) is a term used for the mountainous northern part of the area on the west bank of the Jordan... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... Hebron (Arabic â–¶ (help· info) al-ḪalÄ«l; Hebrew â–¶ (help· info), Standard Hebrew Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥeḇrôn: derived from the word friend) is a town in the southern West Bank of around 130,000 Palestinians and 500 Israeli settlers. ... The Rockefeller Museum located in Eastern Jerusalem, houses a vast collection of regional archeology unearthed in excavations conducted in the country mainly during the time of the British Mandate (1919-1948). ... Benjamin Mazar (June 28, 1906 - September 9, 1995) was a pioneering Israeli archaeologist who shared the national passion for the archaeology of Israel that also attracts considerable international interest due to the regions Biblical links. ...

Milestones after 1945

The Dead Sea Scrolls and other ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible manuscripts do not qualify as artifacts representing something mentioned in the Bible, although they are an important testimony to the antiquity of the texts, and the reliable manner in which they were preserved through the centuries. Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 850 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ...


The first seven scrolls had initially appeared on the antiquities market, but when their enormous importance was recognized, archaeologists eventually found their source in a series of caves above the Dead Sea, and subsequent searches located thousands of similar fragments. The Jordan River flowing into the Dead Sea The Dead Sea (Arabic البحر الميت, Hebrew ים המלח) is the lowest exposed point on the Earths surface. ...


Following the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 and the declaration of the state of Israel in 1948, Biblical Archaeology gained new momentum. The science of archaeology had been digested and refined by new excavators who conducted numerous surveys of smaller sites during the second half of the 20th century, and re-excavations at major sites using modernized techniques. Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 850 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...

  • 1948-50, 1952-5 J. Kaplan excavated Jaffa
  • 1962-7 Y. Aharoni and R. Amiran excavated Arad
  • 1962-3, 1965-72 M. Dothan excavated Ashdod
  • 1964-74 G.E. Wright, W.G. Dever, and J. Seger excavated Gezer
    • This was the first Palestinian excavation to operate as a school by granting academic/college credit.
  • 1969-76 Y. Aharoni and Z. Herzog excavated Beersheba
  • 1973-94 D. Ussishkin excavated Lachish
  • 1975-82 A. Biran excavated Aroer
  • 1979, 1981-2, 1984-7, 1990-1, 1993-2000 D. Livingston excavated Khirbet Nisya
  • 1981-2, 1984-8, 1990, 1992-6 T. Dothan and S. Gitin excavated Ekron
  • 1996-2002, 2004-2005 A. Maeir excavated Tell es-Safi (probably Biblical Gath)
  • 1999-2001, 2005 R.E. Tappy excavated Tel Zayit (Zeitah)

The famous silver scrolls found in 1979 during G. Barkay's excavations at Ketef Hinnom uniquely preserve Biblical texts older than the Dead Sea Scrolls. Both of these amulets contain the Priestly blessing from the Book of Numbers; one also contains a quote found in parallel verses of Exodus (20:6) and Deuteronomy (5:10 and 7:9). The same verses appear again even later in Daniel (9:4) and Nehemiah (1:5). Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا â–¶ (help· info); also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters, Yapu), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Ramat Rachel is a kibbutz in Israel just south of the city center of Jerusalem, overlooking Bethlehem. ... Yigael Yadin (March 20, 1917 - June 28, 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Hazor - courtyyard or settlement Name of several places in ancient Israel: One of the most important Caananite towns. ... The American archaeologist James Bennett Pritchard (October 4, 1909 – January 1, 1997) explicated the interrelationships of the religions of ancient Israel, Canaan, Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon. ... The city of Gibeon in Canaan (about 6 miles north of the center of Jerusalem in the West Bank) was one of the four cities of the Hivites, which did not easily fall to the Hebrews. ... Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon (5 January 1906–24 August 1978), important archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent and excavator of Jericho in Jordan from 1952 to 1958. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Silwan. ... Arad is: Arad County is located in the Western corner of Transylvania, Romania. ... Ashdod (Hebrew אַשְׁדּוֹד, Standard Hebrew AÅ¡dod;, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡dôḏ, Arabic إسدود ʾIsdÅ«d) is a port city in Israel located halfway between Tel Aviv and Gaza, in the Southern District of Israel. ... Yigael Yadin (March 20, 1917 - June 28, 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... This article is about the Judean fortress. ... Gezer was a town in ancient Israel. ... Benjamin Mazar (June 28, 1906 - September 9, 1995) was a pioneering Israeli archaeologist who shared the national passion for the archaeology of Israel that also attracts considerable international interest due to the regions Biblical links. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: (without niqqud: הר הבית), Har haBáyit) or Noble Sanctuary (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, â–¶ (help· info)) is a hotly contested religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem. ... Soroka Hospital, Beersheba Beersheba or Beer-sheva (Hebrew: â–¶ (help· info), Standard Hebrew Bəʼer ŠévaÊ», Tiberian Hebrew Bəʼer ŠéḇaÊ» or בְּאֶר שָׁבַע Bəʼer ŠāḇaÊ»; Arabic بِئْرْ اَلْسَبْعْ â–¶ (help· info)) is a city in Israel. ... A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... Aroer is a town on the north bank of the River Arnon to the west of the Dead Sea. ... Amihai Ami Mazar (born 1942) is an Israeli archaeologist. ... Biblical Timnah, identified with the modern archeological site of Tel Batash, in the Sorek Valley of Israel, near Kibbutz Tal Shahar. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Silwan. ... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Tell es-Safi is a large multi-period site (ancient mound; Tell) that is located in central Israel, approximately half way between Jerusalem and Ashkelon, on the border between the southern Coastal Plain of Israel and the Judean foothills. ... Gath (Hebrew: winepress) was one of the five Philistine city states established in southwestern Philistia. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... One of a series of rock-hewn burial caves at Ketef Hinnom (shoulder of Hinnom) near Jerusalem is the archaeological site in Israel that is most famous for the recovery in 1979 of two silver scrolls that were used as amulets, bearing in inscribed the well-known apotropaic priestlyblessings of... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 850 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the Pentateuch) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), and Christian Old Testament. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical book. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ...


Confirmed Biblical structures

  • Jericho's walls
    • They date to sometime in the mid-second millenium BC and may have been destroyed by a siege or an earthquake. Opinions differ as to whether they are the walls referred to in the Bible. The walls were originally dated by John Garstang to c. 1400 BC. Kathleen Kenyon later disputed Garstang's dating and instead placed them c. 1550 BC, a date supported by the majority of archaeologists. Bryant Wood has recently argued that Garstang's dating was correct. Garstang and Wood's date is consistent with the dating of Joshua used by many Christian Bible scholars. However traditional Jewish dating places Joshua in the 13th century and the earliest archaeological evidence of an Israelite presence also dates to this period.
  • Second Temple (confirmed by Western/Wailing wall constructed by Herod the Great)
  • 19 tumuli located west of Jerusalem, undoubtedly dating to the Judean monarchy, but possibly representing sites of memorial ceremonies for the kings as mentioned in 2 Chronicles 16:14, 21:19, 32:33, and the book of Jeremiah 34:5

The city of Gibeon in Canaan (about 6 miles north of the center of Jerusalem in the West Bank) was one of the four cities of the Hivites, which did not easily fall to the Hebrews. ... Hezekiah (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, whom God has strengthened) was king of Judah, the son of Ahaz and Abi (2 Kings 18:1-2) or Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1). ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Jericho (Arabic أريحا [▶]; ʼArīḥā; Hebrew יְרִיחוֹ [▶]; Standard Hebrew Yəriḥo; Tiberian Hebrew Yərîḫô, Yərîḥô) is a town in the West Bank, near the Jordan River. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... It has been proposed that Sennacherib be renamed and moved to Sin-ahhe-eriba. ... An inscription from Siloam, from the lintel of Shebna-yahus tomb The pre-Israelite settlement of Siloam is now the Arab community of Silwan in East Jerusalem, south of the Old City. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Drawing of the Second Temple in Jerusalem during the time of Herod the Great A stone (2. ... Herod I, also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman client-king of Judaea (c. ... Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... (Redirected from 2 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ...

Artifacts from documented excavations

  • Balaam texts (ink/paint on plaster found at Deir 'Alla in Jordan that parallels Numbers chapters 22-24)
  • Ebla (Tell Mardikh) cuneiform archives
    • They include a king of Ebla named Ebrum, who some identify as the Biblical patriarch Eber (or Heber), after whom the Hebrews were named. Also reported are references to people with Semitic names and gods similar to those in the Bible. They are also rumored to contain references to the same five cities mentioned in the book of Genesis: Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Bela/Zoar in the same order as in Genesis 14. The government of Syria continues to withhold complete publication of the texts, and this story remains a rumor. Quoting Paolo Matthiae:

The tablets cover a thousand years before Abraham, and a thousand years, even in the fourth millennium before Christ, was a very, very long time. They tell us much, but what they don't tell us - what they can't tell us - is whether the Bible is true or not. They have nothing to do with the Bible, at least not directly, and what we have here is not a biblical expedition. If we have tablets with legends similar to those of the Bible it means only that such legends existed round here long before the Bible." ( C. Bermant and M. Weitzman, Ebla: A Revelation In Archaeology, Op. Cit., p. 2.) Arad (Hebrew: ערד) is a modern city in southern Israel, on the border of the Judean Desert, 25 km west of the Dead Sea and 45 km east of Beer-Sheva, near the famous Masada (Metzada), in the South District of Israel. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ... Balaam (Hebrew בִּלְעָם, Standard Hebrew Bilʻam, Tiberian Hebrew Bilʻām; could mean glutton or foreigner, but this etymology is uncertain), is a prophet in the Bible, his story occurring in the Book of Numbers. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC) is a black limestone Neo-Assyrian bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. ... Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... Jehu (יְהוּא The LORD is he, Standard Hebrew Yəhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhû) was king of Israel, and the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 9:2), and grandson of Nimshi. ... Omri (Hebrew עָמְרִי, Standard Hebrew ʿOmri, Tiberian Hebrew ʿOmrî; short for Hebrew עָמְרִיָּה The LORD is my life, Standard Hebrew ʿOmriyya, Tiberian Hebrew ʿOmriyyāh) was king of Israel and father of Ahab. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... In the New Testament, Caiaphas was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus crucifixion. ... This article is about the year. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Ebla was an ancient city located in northern Syria, about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Sodom can refer to: Sodom, a Biblical city that was said to be destroyed by God for the sins of its inhabitants. ... This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). ... Paolo Matthiae is Professor of Archaeology and History of Art of the Ancient Near East in the University La Sapienza of Rome; he has been Director of the Ebla Expedition since 1963, and has published many articles and books about Ebla, and about the History of Art of Mesopotamia and...

  • Ekron inscription (discovered in 1993 at Tel Miqne)
  • Gath ostracon
    • Found by A. Maeir while excavating Tell es-Safi in 2005
    • Incised with 9 letters representing 2 names (אלות ולת) etymologically related to Goliath (גלית)
  • GBON (גבען) jar handles recovered from the Gibeon pool
  • Gemariah the son of Shaphan seal impression stamped on bulla
    • Found during Yigal Shiloh's excavations of Jerusalem in 1983, it probably belonged to the person recorded in Jeremiah 36:10
  • Izbet Sartah ostracon; 2 fragments excavated in 1976
    • 5 incised lines of 80-83 letters (readings of epigraphers vary), the last line being an abecedary
    • Found in the silo of an unfortified village (possibly Biblical Ebenezer 2 miles east of Philistine Aphek) occupied from 1200-1000 BC
  • Jaazaniah, servant of the king (ליאזניהו עבד המלך) striated agate seal with fighting cock icon
    • Found in Tomb 19 at Tell en-Nasbeh (probably Biblical Mizpah)
    • Possibly belonged to an army captain at Mizpah mentioned in 2 Kings 25:23
  • Jehucal, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Shobi (יהוכל בן שלמיהו בן שבי) seal impression stamped on bulla
  • Lachish ostraca
    • Most of these terse texts, discovered in the 1930s, depict conditions during the end of the 7th century BCE shortly before the Chaldean conquest.
    • Letter #3 mentions a warning from the prophet.
    • Letter #4 names Lachish and Azekah as among the last places being conquered as recorded in Jeremiah 34:7.
    • Letter #6 describes a conspiracy reminiscent of Jeremiah 38:19 and 39:9 using phraseology nearly identical to 38:4.
  • Pontius Pilate inscription found in secondary use in a stairway of the Roman theater in Caesarea
    • "The prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, erected the Tiberium (in honor of Tiberius Caesar)"
    • Actual text of 3-line inscription (eroded portion in brackets is speculative but undisputed):
TIBERIEUM
[PON]TIUS PILATUS
[PRAEF]ECTUS IUDA[EA]E
  • Sargon II's Conquest of Samaria inscription (ANET 284) found by P.E. Botta at Khorsabad in 1843: "I besieged and conquered Samaria, led away as booty 27,290 inhabitants of it. ... The town I rebuilt better than it was before and settled therein people from countries which I myself had conquered." (2 Kings 17:23-24)
  • Tiglath-Pileser III's inscriptions found by A.H. Layard at Nimrud:
    • ANET 282: "I received the tribute of ... Jehoahaz of Judah" (incident not mentioned in the Bible)
    • ANET 283: "As for Menahem I overwhelmed him ... I placed Hoshea as king over them." (alternate perspective in 2 Kings 15:19 and 17:3)
  • Zayit Stone
    • Limestone boulder incised with a Paleo-Hebrew abecedary and remnants of several other inscriptions found at Zeitah (Tel Zayit) in-situ in a stratum dated to the 10th century BC

The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Cite error 4; Invalid call; no input specified 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Gath (Hebrew: winepress) was one of the five Philistine city states established in southwestern Philistia. ... Tell es-Safi is a large multi-period site (ancient mound; Tell) that is located in central Israel, approximately half way between Jerusalem and Ashkelon, on the border between the southern Coastal Plain of Israel and the Judean foothills. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David faces Goliath in single combat. ... The city of Gibeon in Canaan (about 6 miles north of the center of Jerusalem in the West Bank) was one of the four cities of the Hivites, which did not easily fall to the Hebrews. ... A Hebrew name meaning God is Gracious. The name of several characters in the Bible, including: Hananiah (prophet), a false prophet who opposed Jeremiah Hananiah (Book of Daniel), a young man taken captive from Israel to Babylon and companion of Daniel, usually referred to as Shadrach (the Babylonian name imposed... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... The city of Gibeon in Canaan (about 6 miles north of the center of Jerusalem in the West Bank) was one of the four cities of the Hivites, which did not easily fall to the Hebrews. ... Categories: Hebrew Bible/Tanakh-related stubs | Hebrew Bible/Tanakh people ... Azariah, meaning God[s] help[ed] in Hebrew, is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible, including the following: Azariah in the Books of Kings 2 Kings 15:1-12 he is the king of Judah [1], (also known as Uzziah of Judah in rabbinical scholarship). ... A Hebrew name meaning God is Gracious. The name of several characters in the Bible, including: Hananiah (prophet), a false prophet who opposed Jeremiah Hananiah (Book of Daniel), a young man taken captive from Israel to Babylon and companion of Daniel, usually referred to as Shadrach (the Babylonian name imposed... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... Hezekiah (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, whom God has strengthened) was king of Judah, the son of Ahaz and Abi (2 Kings 18:1-2) or Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1). ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Tel Dan Stele The Tel Dan Stele, found at Tel Dan in Israel in 1993/1994, is a fragment (in three sections) of an Aramaic inscription on basalt, which appears to be from a stele erected for Ben-Hadad of the Aramaean nation, an enemy of the kingdom of... Cite error 4; Invalid call; no input specified 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... An abecedarium is an inscription consisting of the letters of the alphabet in order. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The name Aphek refers to either: A city of the tribe of Asher. ... Mizpah - or Mizpeh, watch-tower; the look-out. ... Mizpah - or Mizpeh, watch-tower; the look-out. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Dr. Eilat Mazar is a third-generation Israeli archaeologist. ... The alleged Palace of David site is a large 10th to 9th century BC public building in East Jerusalem whose discovery was announced on August 4, 2005 by Israeli archaeologist Eilat Mazar, who identifies it as the palace of the Biblical King David. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kurkh Monolith is an Assyrian document that contains the Battle of Qarqar at the end. ... Shalmaneser III (Å ulmānu-aÅ¡arÄ“du, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... Diyarbakırs early Byzantine city walls stretch unbroken for 6 kilometres A busy food market in central Diyarbakır The 12th century Ulu Cami dominates the city skyline Diyarbakır (Kurdish: Amed or Diyarbekir; Syriac: ; Greek: Amida; Armenian: Տիգրանակերտ Tigranakert) is a major city in the Kurdish dominated southeastern Turkey... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Ahab or Achav (אַחְאָב Brother of the father, Standard Hebrew Aḥʼav, Tiberian Hebrew ʼAḥăʼāḇ, ʼAḫʼāḇ) was King of the province of Samaria in the greater Kingdom of Israel, and the son and successor of Omri (1 Kings 16:29-34). ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... // Events and trends A public speech by Benito Mussolini, founder of the Fascist movement The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... Chaldea was a nation in the southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used to refer to the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... Azekah - dug over - a town in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah. ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... Detail from the Elgin Marbles, an example of bas-relief. ... It has been proposed that Sennacherib be renamed and moved to Sin-ahhe-eriba. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The stele as photographed circa 1891 The Mesha Stele (popularized in the 19th century as the Moabite Stone) is a black basalt stone, bearing an inscription by the 9th century BC Moabite King Mesha, discovered in 1868. ... Moab (מוֹאָב, Standard Hebrew Moʾav, Tiberian Hebrew Môʾāḇ Greek Μωάβ; Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28. ... Canaan or Knáan (Arabic کنعان, Hebrew כְּנַעַן, Septuagint Greek Χανααν) is an ancient term for a region roughly corresponding to present-day Israel/Palestine including the West Bank, western Jordan, southern and coastal Syria and Lebanon continuing up until the border of modern Turkey. ... Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who reigned from 556 BC to 539 BC. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in his region. ... Cuneiform (from the Latin word for wedge-shaped) can refer to: Mesopotamian clay tablet 492 BCE, Field Museum of Natural History,Chicago, Illinois. ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... Belshazzar (or Baltasar; Akkadian Bel-sarra-usur) was a prince of Babylon, the son of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: , , modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... This article is about the Biblical book. ... Belshazzar (or Baltasar; Akkadian Bel-sarra-usur) was a prince of Babylon, the son of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... Akkadian language city of Akkad or Agad Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad the Amarna letters and Amarna Letters EA 296(Yahtiru) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Belshazzar (or Baltasar; Akkadian Bel-sarra-usur) was a prince of Babylon, the son of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to the people of Jerusalem Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the Roman province of Judea from AD 26 until around AD 36. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia in Turkey Caesarea Mauretania (Cherchell) in Algeria Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh) in Turkey Caesarea Palaestina (Qesarriya) in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (r. ... Samaria, or Shomron (Hebrew שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Å omÉ™ron, Tiberian Hebrew ŠōmÉ™rôn, Arabic سامريّون SāmariyyÅ«n (but commonly called in Arabic جبال نابلس Jibal Nablus), (in the New Testament Greek Σαμαρεία, in Russian Самария ) is a term used for the mountainous northern part of the area on the west bank of the Jordan... Paul-Émile Botta (December 6, 1802 in Torino, Italy - March 29, 1870 in Achères, France) was French Consul in Mosul (then in the Ottoman Empire, now in Iraq) since 1842. ... Khorsabad (Khursabad), village in Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul, with well-preserved ruins of the large, rectangular Dur-Sharrukin. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: (without niqqud: הר הבית), Har haBáyit) or Noble Sanctuary (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, â–¶ (help· info)) is a hotly contested religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem. ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Artist depiction of the Temple (Drawing by Christian van Adrichom (1584). ... For jer, an alternate spelling for the reduced vowels in Common Slavic, see yer. ... Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London) Tiglath-Pileser III (Tukulti-Apal-Esharra), was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC). ... Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817 - 5 July 1894) was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Jehoahaz (meaning Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth) was the name of several people mentioned in the Old Testament. ... Menahem (Hebrew מְנַחֵם comforting, Standard Hebrew Mənaḥem, Tiberian Hebrew Mənaḥēm) was king of Israel and the son of Gadi. ... See also Hosea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Zayit Stone is a 38-pound limestone boulder excavated from Tel Zayit (Zeitah) in southwest Israel (the Beth Guvrin Valley about 35 miles from Jerusalem), territory belonging to the kingdom of Judah, with an incised Paleo-Hebrew abecedary (19 letters carved in the first line; 3 in the second... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... An abecedarium is an inscription consisting of the letters of the alphabet in order. ... In situ (in place in Latin), a term used in: biology, where it means to examine the phenomenon exactly in place where it occurs (without removing it in some special medium etc. ...

Artifacts with unknown, disputed, or disproved provenance

Items in this list mostly come from private collections via the antiquities market, but also from chance finds prior to the establishment of antiquities laws. Their authenticity is highly controversial and in some cases has been demonstrated to be fraudulent.

  • Artifacts originating from the antiquities dealer, Oded Golan. In December 2004 he was indicted by the Israeli police, together with several accomplices, for forging the following artifacts:
    • The James Ossuary inscribed James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus suspected of being forged on a genuine ancient ossuary.
    • The Joash (Jehoash) tablet recording repairs to the Temple in Jerusalem suspected of being forged on a genuine ancient stone panel.
    • Various ostraca mentioning the Temple or place names from the Bible.
    • A seven-nozzle stone lamp, bearing decorations of a Temple menorah and the seven species
    • A stone seal with gold rim, attributed to King Manasseh of Judah.
    • A quartz bowl bearing an inscription in ancient Egyptian, indicating that the Minister of the Army of King Shishek conquered the ancient city of Meggido.
    • An ivory pomegranate inscribed Property of the priests of the temple… forged on a genuine ancient piece of ivory.
    • A pottery jug bearing an inscription claiming that it was given as a contribution to the Temple.
    • Numerous bullae including ones which mention Biblical figures including King Hezekiah of Judah, the scribe Baruch and the prophet Isaiah.
  • Nazareth Inscription
    • Marble tablet with "Edict of Caesar" proscribing capital punishment for tomb-breakers, datable to the first century A.D., and allegedly acquired by the Frohner Collection in 1878 from Nazareth.
  • The remains of Noah's Ark have been allegedly located by a number of archaeological groups and individuals. Most academics discount their findings as pseudoarchaeology.
    • Archaeologist Ron Wyatt claimed to have possibly located the Ark's final resting place. Since his death he has been acclaimed by many Bible believers. A plethora of internet sites concerning him have come into existence, and some have fabricated information about him and his discoveries.
    • An Italian creationist archaeological group named La Narkas is the most recent of numerous groups claiming to have pinpointed the location of Noah's Ark close to the top of Mount Ararat, which straddles the border of Turkey and Armenia. Photographs of this alleged discovery are available on their website [1].
    • In 2004, yet another expedition went to Mount Ararat in Turkey to try to locate the Ark. Samples from Turkey tested by Geological and Nuclear Sciences, a New Zealand government research institute, were found to be volcanic rock rather than petrified wood. [2]
  • Shroud of Turin
    • Critics claim it contains a painted image of Jesus forged in the Middle Ages; others maintain the image was formed by some energetic process that darkened the fibers (such as a flash of light the instant the resurrection occurred). Radiocarbon dating seemed to limit its origin to the Middle Ages, but some analysts suggest the tests were erroneously performed using samples taken from patches sewn onto the ancient cloth during the Middle Ages, or contaminated from fires it was exposed to. Other analysts suggest that the dating results are skewed by limestone residue which is present on the shroud.
  • Stone of Scone, also known as Jacob's Pillar
    • For centuries, this rock has been an integral compenent of coronation ceremonies for kings in the British isles. It is believed to be the rock upon which Jacob (later renamed Israel) received a vision, and a crack in it may have resulted from Moses striking it to bring forth water. None of this can be proven, and attempts to link it to Palestine via Jeremiah lack foundation.

A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container built at the command... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... Axum, also Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia, located at the base of the Adoua mountains. ... Menelik I first Emperor of Ethiopia, traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. ... Solomon (Hebrew, Shlomo from Shalom for peace, also Arabic as Suleiman or Sulyaman meaning peace) can mean any of the following: 1. ... The James Ossuary is a sepulchral urn for containing bones, which was found in Israel in 2002 and was claimed to have been the ossuary of James, the brother of Jesus. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ... Manasseh of Judah was the king of Judah and only son and successor of Hezekiah. ... In Christian apocalyptic literature (the Book of Revelation), Armageddon or Har-Mageddon is the site of the final battle between the kings of the earth (incited by Satan) and the Christian God. ... Species L. Balf. ... An elaborately carved ivory decoration Ivory is a hard, white, opaque substance that is the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals such as the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, mammoth, etc. ... Hezekiah (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, whom God has strengthened) was king of Judah, the son of Ahaz and Abi (2 Kings 18:1-2) or Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1). ... Baruch (בָּרוּךְ Blessed, Standard Hebrew Baruḫ, Tiberian Hebrew Bārûḵ) is the name of three people in the Hebrew Bible: // Baruch son of Zabbai In the Book of Nehemiah Baruch son of Zabbai is listed as helping Nehemiah to repair the walls of Jerusalem [1]. Later someone called Baruch seals the... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... The Nazareth Inscription is a 24 x 15 marble tablet with a 14-line Edict of Caesar proscribing capital punishment for tomb-breakers, allegedly acquired by the Frohner Collection in 1878 from Nazareth. ... Michelangelo Buonarroti In the Hebrew Bibles account (Gen. ... Pseudoarchaeology is an aspect of pseudohistory. ... Ronald Eldon Wyatt (1933 - August 4, 1999) was a controversial archaeologist who claimed to have found many significant biblical sites and artifacts. ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... Narkas is an Italian scientific and archaeological organisation dedicated to finding Noahs Ark and to support the biblical account of the origin of the world. ... Mount Ararat (Turkish Ağrı Dağı; Armenian Արարատ; Kurdish Çîyayê Agirî; Persian آرارات Ararat; Hebrew אררט, Standard Hebrew Ararat, Tiberian Hebrew ), the tallest peak in modern Turkey, is a snow-capped dormant volcanic cone, located in the far northeast of Turkey, 16 km west of Iran and 32 km south of Armenia. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first photo of the Shroud of Turin, taken in 1898, had the surprising feature that the image on the negative was clearer than the positive image. ... Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene (circa 4 BC/BCE – 30 AD/CE), is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ being a title meaning Anointed One or Messiah. Christian viewpoints on Jesus (known as Christology) are... It has been suggested that Resurrection of the dead be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Stone of Scone, (pronounced scoon) also commonly known as the Stone of Destiny or the Coronation Stone (though the former name sometimes refers to Lia Fáil) is a block of sandstone historically kept at the now-ruined abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (יַעֲקֹב Holder of the heel, Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ; Arabic يعقوب Yaʿqūb), later known as Israel (יִשְׂרָאֵל Prince with God, Standard Hebrew Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Yiśrāʾēl; Arabic اسرائيل Isrāʾīl) is a Biblical... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (יַעֲקֹב Holder of the heel, Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ; Arabic يعقوب Yaʿqūb), later known as Israel (יִשְׂרָאֵל Prince with God, Standard Hebrew Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Yiśrāʾēl; Arabic اسرائيل Isrāʾīl) is a Biblical... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...

Professional commentary

"The purpose of Biblical archaeology is the clarification and illumination of the Biblical text and content through archaeological investigation of the Biblical world," wrote J.K. Eakins in an essay (1977) in Benchmarks in Time and Culture [3].


Bryant G. Wood wrote, "The purpose of Biblical archaeology is to enhance our comprehension of the Bible, and so its greatest achievement, in my view, has been the extraordinary illumination of the... time of the Israelite monarchy" (in Biblical Archaeology Review, May-June, 1995, p. 33). Dr. Bryant G. Wood is currently Director of the Associates for Biblical Research. ...


In a statement of a more nuanced opinion of Biblical archaeology, Robert I.Bradshaw notes, "It is virtually universally agreed that the purpose of biblical archaeology is not to 'prove' the Bible, however ...in as much as archaeology sheds light on that history it is important to biblical studies" [4]


The American archaeologist William Dever contributed to the article "Archaeology" in The Anchor Bible Dictionary (see Anchor Bible Series). There he assessed several negative effects of the close relationship that has existed between Syro-Palestinian archaeology and the Biblical archaeology of the Holy Land, which have especially caused American archaeologists in this field to lag behind the new "processual archaeology" in the region, generally considered: "Underlying much of the skepticism in our own field [about the adaptation of the concepts and methods of the "new archaeology"], one suspects, was the assumption (albeit unspoken, or even unconscious) that ancient Palestine, especially Israel in the biblical period, was unique—somehow 'superhistorical' not governed by the normal principles of cultural evolution," and he claims "...the 'new archaeology' of the 1970s-1980s became passé before we had even caught up with it" (p 357). The Anchor Bible Project, consisting of the Anchor Bible Commentary Series, Anchor Bible Dictionary and Anchor Bible Reference Library is a scholarly and commercial co-venture that began in 1956, when individual volumes in the commentary series began production. ... Processual archaeology is a form of archaeological theory which arguably had its genesis in 1958 with Willey and Phillips work, Method and Theory in American Archeology when the pair stated that American archeology is anthropology or it is nothing (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2). ...


Dever finds that Syro-Palestinian archaeology in American institutions has been treated as a subdiscipline of Biblical studies. American archaeologists in this region were expected to try "to provide historical validation for episodes in the biblical tradition." According to Dever, "[t]he most naïve [misconception about Syro-Palestinian archaeology] is that the rationale and purpose of "biblical archaeology" (and, by extrapolation, Syro-Palestinian archaeology) is simply to elucidate the Bible, or the lands of the Bible" (p 358) [5]. Biblical studies is the academic study of the Christian and Jewish Scriptures. ...


See also

The archaeology of Israel is a national passion that also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (partially the Old Testament, it also consists of the book of the prophets, and the five books of Moses) and other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history... List of Biblical figures identified in extra-Biblical sources ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Supporters and critics alike have long attempted to use archaeology to support their respective views of the origin(s) of the Book of Mormon. ... Pseudoarchaeology is an aspect of pseudohistory. ...

External links

  • Robert I Bradshaw, "Archaeology & the Patriarchs": introductory survey with a full bibliography of accessible material in English
  • Biblical Archaeology Resources - A large collection of resources related to Biblical Archeology.
  • The Biblical Archaeology Society
  • CenturyOne Foundation
  • Archaeology and the Bible - Christian Answers
  • Conservative/Maximalist Bible Archaeology Resource
  • Introduction to Biblical Archaeology
  • The Palestine Exploration Fund
  • All About Archaeology: Bible Archaeology: "Our mission is to lead people to Jesus..."
  • D.W. Wellington and N. King, University of Texas, "Archaeology of the Bible"
  • Digmaster Archaeology Database: An online database of artifacts*Know Why You Believe - Does Archaeology help?

Further reading

  • Chapman, and J.N. Tubb, Archaeology & The Bible (British Museum, 1990)
  • Cornfeld, G.and D.N. Freedman, Archaeology Of The Bible Book By Book (1989)
  • Davies, P.R., In Search of 'Ancient Israel': A Study in Biblical Origins, Sheffield (JSOT Press, 1992). A key resource in the maximalist/minimalist controversy by a leading minimalist scholar.
  • Dever, William G. (2003). Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0802809758.
  • Dever, William G. (2002). What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 080282126X.
  • Dever, William G., "Archaeology and the Bible : Understanding their special relationship", in Biblical Archaeology Review 16:3, (May/June 1990)
  • Finkelstein, Israel, and Neil Asher Silberman (2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, Free Press. ISBN 0684869136.
  • Keller, Werner, The Bible as History, 1955. A widely-read popular account.
  • Lance, H.D. The Old Testament and The Archaeologist. London (1983)
  • Negev, Avraham, and Gibson, Shimon, (eds.) (2003). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, New York, NY: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc.
  • Mazar, A., Archaeology of the Land of the Bible (The Anchor Bible Reference Library, 1990)
  • Ramsey, George W. The Quest For The Historical Israel. London (1982)
  • Robinson, Edward (1856) Biblical Researches in Palestine, 1838-52, Boston, MA: Crocker and Brewster.
  • Thompson, J.A., The Bible And Archaeology, revised edition (1973)
  • Winstone, H.V.F. The Life of Sir Leonard Woolley of Ur, London, 1990
  • Wright, G. Ernest, Biblical Archaeology. Philedelphia: Westminster, (1962).
  • Yamauchi, E. The Stones And The Scriptures. London: IVP, (1973).

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biblical archaeology - HighBeam Encyclopedia (702 words)
biblical archaeology term applied to the archaeology of the biblical lands, especially those of the ancient Middle East.
Biblical archaeology developed in earnest in the early part of the 19th cent.
Archaeology confirms the existence of fertility cults in Canaan and supports the theory that there was not a sudden era of conquest by Hebrew tribes in the premonarchical period.
Biblical Archaeology (894 words)
Biblical archaeology continues to make significant contributions to the body of external evidence that confirms the Bible.
Biblical references to inheritance laws (e.g., Genesis 49, equal distribution to sons; Deuteronomy 21:15-17, double portion for the oldest son) correspond to archaeological discoveries depicting inheritance laws in the respective historical periods.
Biblical archaeology reveals both events that are also recorded in the Bible and events that are not mentioned in the Bible, though the characters associated with these latter events are named in the biblical text.
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