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Encyclopedia > Biblical Aramaic

Biblical Aramaic is the form of the Aramaic language that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible. See the article on the Aramaic of Jesus for the use of the Aramaic language in the New Testament. Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The Book of Daniel, written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a book in both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... It is often accepted that Aramaic was the mother tongue of Jesus of Nazareth. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ...


Aramaic and Hebrew

Hebrew is the main language of the Hebrew Bible. Aramaic only accounts for about ten chapters of the whole. Biblical Aramaic is closely related to Hebrew (perhaps a bit like Spanish and Portuguese), and they are written with the same alphabet. Jewish tradition regards Aramaic as the other half of the Holy Tongue: Aramaic script, which replaced the older script for writing Hebrew, makes up the Hebrew letters G-d used to create the World. Hebrew redirects here. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ...


During the eighth century BCE, Aramaic became the lingua franca of the Near East. Before that period, it had been the native language of the Aramaean city-states to the east. In 701 BCE, King Hezekiah of Judah negotiated with King Sennacherib of Assyria, as his army besieged Jerusalem. The account in 2 Kings 18:26 sets the meeting of the ambassadors of both camps just outside the city walls. Hezekiah's envoys pleaded that the Assyrians make terms in Aramaic so that the people listening could not understand. Thus, Aramaic had become the language of international dialogue, but not of the common people. In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon destroyed Jerusalem and exiled many of the people of Judah to the east. Aramaic became the language of necessity for the exiles, and after the Persian Empire's capture of Babylon, it became the language of culture and learning. King Darius I declared that Aramaic was to be the official language of the western half of his empire in 500 BCE, and it is this Imperial Aramaic language that forms the basis of Biblical Aramaic. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Events and trends Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... The Arameans or Aramaeans (also called Syriacs) were a Semitic, nomadic people who dwelt in Aram-Naharaim or Aram of the two rivers, also known as Mesopotamia a region including modern Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Iran that is mentioned six times in the Hebrew Bible. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... It has been proposed that Sennacherib be renamed and moved to Sin-ahhe-eriba. ... The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created...


Occurrence of Aramaic in the Hebrew Bible

Aramaic occurs in four discrete places in the Hebrew Bible:

The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was the primary resting place of the Gods presence (shechina) in the physical world according to classical Judaism. ... The Book of Daniel, written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a book in both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament. ... Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyel, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... A story from the Book of Daniel, chapter 3. ... For other uses, see Apocalypse (disambiguation). ... Bold text The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is a book that is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ...

Other occurrences, according to some scholars

  • Genesis 15:1 — the word במחזה (ba-maħaze, "in a vision"). According to the Zohar (I:88b), this word is Aramaic, as the usual Hebrew word would be במראה (ba-mar’e).
  • Numbers 23:10 — the word רבע (rôḇa‘, usually translated as "stock" or "fourth part"). Rabbi J.H. Hertz, in his commentary on this verse, cites an unnamed scholar's claim that this is an Aramaic word meaning "dust."
  • Job 36:2a — Rashi, in his commentary on this verse, states that this phrase is in Aramaic.



Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Chief Rabbi Hertz, 1920 Joseph Herman Hertz, 25 September 1872–14 January 1946, was the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), or רבי שלמה ירחי (Rabbi Shlomo Yarchi) (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ...

  Jewish Languages [edit]  
Afro-Asiatic
Hebrew eras: Biblical | Mishnaic | Medieval | Modern
dialects: Ashkenazi | Sephardi | Yemenite | Sanaani | Tiberian | Mizrahi | Samaritan Hebrew
Judeo-Aramaic (Aramaic): Biblical | Barzani | Hulaulá | Lishana Deni | Lishán Didán | Lishanid Noshan | Targum | Samaritan Aramaic
Judeo-Arabic (Arabic): Judeo-Iraqi | Judeo-Moroccan | Judeo-Yemenite | Judeo-Libyan | Judeo-Algerian
Other: Cushitic: Kayla | Qwara Berber: Judeo-Berber
Indo-European
Yiddish (Germanic) dialects: Eastern | Western | Litvish | Poylish | Ukrainish | Klezmer-loshn
derivates: Yeshivish | Yinglish
institutions: YIVO | Yiddish Theater | National Yiddish Book Center
Judeo-Romance (Romance): Catalanic | Judeo-Italian | Ladino | Haketia | Tetuani | La‘az | Shuadit | Zarphatic | Lusitanic | Judeo-Aragonese
Judeo-Persian (Aryan): Bukhori | Juhuri | Dzhidi | Judeo-Hamedani | Judeo-Shirazi | Judeo-Esfahani | Judeo-Kurdish | Judeo-Yazdi
Judeo-Kermani | Judeo-Kashani | Judeo-Borujerdi | Judeo-Khunsari | Judeo-Golpaygani | Judeo-Nehevandi
Other: Yevanic (Hellenic) | Knaanic (Slavic) | Judæo-Marathi (Indic)
Turkic Dravidian Kartvelian
Krymchak | Karaim Judeo-Malayalam Gruzinic

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biblical Aramaic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (490 words)
Biblical Aramaic is the form of the Aramaic language that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible.
Aramaic became the language of necessity for the exiles, and after the Persian Empire's capture of Babylon, it became the language of culture and learning.
King Darius I declared that Aramaic was to be the official language of the western half of his empire in 500 BCE, and it is this Imperial Aramaic language that forms the basis of Biblical Aramaic.
Aramaic: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (6231 words)
The Aramaic of the Talmuds, Targumim, and Midrashim.
It influenced the Biblical Aramaic of the Qumran texts, and was the main language of non-biblical theological texts of that community.
Palmyrene Aramaic is the dialect that was in use in the city of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert from 44 BCE to 274 CE.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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