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Encyclopedia > Biathlon
Several biathletes in the shooting area of a competition
Several biathletes in the shooting area of a competition

Biathlon (not to be confused with duathlon) is a term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. However, biathlon usually refers specifically to the winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. Another popular variant is summer biathlon, which combines cross-country running with riflery. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (659 × 768 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Biathlon World Team Challenge in der VELTINS-Arena (Arena AufSchalke) in Gelsenkirchen. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (659 × 768 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Biathlon World Team Challenge in der VELTINS-Arena (Arena AufSchalke) in Gelsenkirchen. ... Duathlon is an athletic event (not to be confused with biathlon) that consists of a running leg, followed by a cycling leg and then another running leg in a format bearing some resemblance to triathlons. ... A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter. ... Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily Northern Europe and Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Unsurprisingly, biathlon events are broadcast most regularly where the sport enjoys its greatest popularity, namely Germany (ARD, ZDF), Austria (ORF), Norway (NRK), Finland (YLE), Estonia (ETV), Poland (TVP), Sweden (SVT), Russia (Sport), Belarus (TVR), Slovenia (RTV), and Bulgaria (BNT); it is also broadcast on European-wide Eurosport. Some events are broadcast on U.S. cable channel Versus. The principal German public national TV channel. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ... ORF (Österreichischer Rundfunk, literally Austrian Broadcasting) is the national Austrian public service broadcaster. ... Norsk rikskringkasting (NRK) - the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation - is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. ... YLE (Yleisradio in Finnish, Rundradion in Swedish), Finlands National Broadcasting Company, was founded in 1926. ... ETV logo Eesti Televisioon (ETV) is the national television station (Estonian: riigitelevisioon) in Estonia. ... TVP may stand for: Textured vegetable protein Telewizja Polska - Polish public television Total Valid Poll - Used to calculate votes. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ... Radiotelevizija Slovenija or RTV Slovenija (English: Radio-Television Slovenia) is the national broadcasting corporation of Slovenia. ... Bulgarian National Television is a Bulgarian language public television station founded in 1959 which began broadcast on December 26. ... Eurosport is the largest European sports satellite and cable network available in 54 countries and broadcasting in 18 different languages. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Versus (previously known as OLN until a name change on September 25, 2006) is a cable television sports channel owned by Comcast and shown in the United States. ...


The broadcast distribution being one indicator, the constellation of a sport's main sponsors usually gives a similar, and correlated, indication of popularity: for biathlon, these are the Germany-based companies E.ON Ruhrgas (energy), Krombacher (beer), and Viessmann (boilers and other heating systems). Sponsorship Porsches during WTA championships in Madrid For other uses, see Sponsor (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that VEBA be merged into this article or section. ... Krombacher is one of the most famous beers in Germany. ...

U.S. biathlete Jeremy Teela at the 2002 Winter Olympics.
U.S. biathlete Jeremy Teela at the 2002 Winter Olympics.

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1125 pixel, file size: 821 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) U.S. Navy photo by Journalist 1st Class Preston Keres Spc. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1125 pixel, file size: 821 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) U.S. Navy photo by Journalist 1st Class Preston Keres Spc. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, were held in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Concise history

Rock carvings in Norway dating from over 4,000 years ago depict two men stalking animals on skis.


The sport has its origins in an exercise for Norwegian soldiers. The first known competition took place in 1767 when border patrol companies competed against each other. Gradually the sport became more common throughout Scandinavia as an alternative training for the military. The world’s first known ski club, the “Trysil Rifle and Ski Club,” was formed in Norway in 1861 to promote national defense at the local level. This article is about a military rank. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


Called military patrol, the combination of skiing and shooting was competed at the Olympic Winter Games in 1924, and then demonstrated in 1928, 1936 and 1948, but did not regain Olympic recognition then, as the small number of competing countries disagreed on the rules (see also Governing body, below). During the mid-1950s, however, biathlon was introduced into the Russian and Swedish winter sport circuits and was widely enjoyed by the public. This newfound popularity aided the effort of having biathlon gain entry into the Winter Olympics, where it has later become one of the most cherished sports. The name biathlon is commonly confused with duathlon, the term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... At the I Winter Olympics, in Chamonix, France, in 1924, a military patrol competition was held. ... At the II Winter Olympics, in St. ... At the IV Winter Olympics, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1936, a military patrol competition was held. ... At the V Winter Olympics, in St. ...


The first World Championship in biathlon was held in 1958 in Austria, and in 1960 the sport was finally included in the Olympic Games. At Albertville in 1992, women were first allowed in Olympic biathlon. The first Biathlon World Championships (BWCH) was held in 1958, with individual (official) and relay (unofficial) contests for men. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States (located in the Lake Tahoe basin). ... The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1992 in Albertville, France. ...


The competitions from 1958 to 1965, used high-power centerfire rifle cartridges (such as .30-06, 7.62 mm NATO, etc.) before the .22LR rimfire cartridge was standardized in 1978. The ammunition was carried in a belt worn around the competitor's waist. With the only competition being the men's 20 km individual, four different ranges and firing distances of 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, and 250 m. The target distance was reduced to 150 m with the addition of the relay in 1966. The shooting range was further reduced to 50 m in 1978 with the mechanical targets making their debut at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. Newer electronic targets (similar to mechanical targets) are now used in all major competitions such as World Cups, World Championships, and the Olympics. The targets, using computerized sensors, are superior to mechanical targets as they require fewer officials for recording and reseting the targets and they allow for instant shot recording, needed for live television broadcasts. The mechanical targets were also shown in the 1981 James Bond film For Your Eyes Only when Bond was in Cortina d'Ampezzo while a biathlon competition was ongoing. The 1980 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIII Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1980 in Lake Placid, New York, United States of America. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Flemings image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... For Your Eyes Only is the 12th film in the James Bond series and the fifth to star Roger Moore as MI6 agent James Bond. ... Cortina dAmpezzo is a town and municipality in the province of Belluno, Veneto, northern Italy. ...


Governing body

In 1948, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne et Biathlon (UIPMB) was founded, to standardise the rules for biathlon and modern pentathlon. In 1993, the biathlon branch of the UIPMB created the International Biathlon Union (IBU), which officially separated from the UIPMB in 1998. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Presidents of the UIPMB/IBU:

1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov (Russian: ) (born November 10, 1935 in Moscow) is a Russian (and former Soviet) theoretical astrophysicist and cosmologist. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

Championships

The following articles list major international biathlon events and medalists. Contrary to the Olympics and World Championships (BWCH), the World Cup (BWC) is an entire winter season of (mostly) weekly races, where the medalists are those with the highest sums of World Cup points at the end of the season.

Biathlon debuted at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley with the Mens 20km Individual event. ... The first Biathlon World Championships (BWCH) was held in 1958, with individual (official) and relay (unofficial) contests for men. ... The Biathlon World Cup (BWC) has been held since the winter seasons of 1977/78 and 1982/83, for men and women, respectively (for women, the seasons through 1986/87 were called the European Cup, although participation was not restricted to Europeans). ...

Rules and equipment

Andrea Nahrgang prepares to shoot from the prone position at the 2002 Winter Olympics.
Andrea Nahrgang prepares to shoot from the prone position at the 2002 Winter Olympics.
Jeremy Teela shoots from the standing position at the 2006 Winter Olympics.
Jeremy Teela shoots from the standing position at the 2006 Winter Olympics.

The complete rules of biathlon is given in the official IBU rule book (see External links, below). However, the concise description given below, along with the section on competition format, should be enough for a spectator to understand what is going on at a biathlon stadium whether actually being there or at home watching a televised biathlon event. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (903 × 1365 pixel, file size: 690 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) U.S. Navy photo by Journalist 1st Class Preston Keres; World Class Athlete Spc. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (903 × 1365 pixel, file size: 690 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) U.S. Navy photo by Journalist 1st Class Preston Keres; World Class Athlete Spc. ... The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, were held in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2100, 763 KB) Description: Spc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2100, 763 KB) Description: Spc. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ...


Basic concepts

In short, a biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski around a cross-country track, and where the total distance is broken up by either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing. Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total running distance/time. As in most races, the contestant with the shortest total time wins.


For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets; each missed target must be "atoned for" in one of three ways, depending on the competition format:

  • by making a skiing round in a 150 m penalty loop, typically taking 20–30 seconds for top-level biathletes to complete (running time depending on weather/snow conditions),
  • by having one minute added to one's total skiing time, or
  • by having to use an "extra cartridge" (placed at the shooting range) to finish off the target; only three such "extras" are available for each round, and a penalty loop must be made for each of the targets in order to keep track of the contestants' progress and relative standing throughout a race, split times (intermediate times) are taken at several points along the skiing track and upon finishing each shooting round. The large display screens commonly set up at biathlon arenas, as well as the information graphics shown as part of the TV picture, will typically list the split time of the fastest contestant at each intermediate point and the times and time differences to the closest runners-up.

The metre or meter is a measure of length. ...

Skiing details

All cross-country skiing techniques are permitted in biathlon, which means that the free technique is usually the preferred one, being the fastest. No other equipment than skis and ski poles may be used for moving along the track. Minimal ski length is 4 cm less than the height of the skier. Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily Northern Europe and Canada. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Shooting details

The biathlete carries the 3.7 kg small bore rifle including ammunition in magazines on her/his back during the race. The rifles use .22 LR ammunition and are bolt action. The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The . ... A bolt-action firearm is one that is manually operated (i. ...


The target range shooting distance is 50 m or 164 feet. There are five circular targets to be hit in each shooting round. When shooting in the prone position the target diameter is 45 mm or 1.7 inches, when shooting in the standing position the target diameter is 115 mm or 4.5 inches. On all modern biathlon ranges, the targets are self-indicating, in that they flip from black to white when hit, giving the biathlete as well as the spectators instant visual feedback for each shot fired. The metre or meter is a measure of length. ... In Prone position in competitive shooting the shooter lies face down on the ground. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...


Competition format

Individual

The 20 km Individual race (15 km for women) is the oldest biathlon event. The biathlete shoots four times at any shooting lane[1], in the order of prone, standing, prone, standing, totalling 20 targets. For each missed target a fixed penalty time, usually one minute, is added to the skiing time of the biathlete. Competitors' starts are staggered, normally by 30 seconds. A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ...


Sprint

The sprint is 10 km for men and 7.5 km for women. The biathlete shoots twice at any shooting lane, once prone and once standing, for a total of 10 shots. For each miss, a penalty loop of 150 m must be skied before the race can be continued. As in the Individual competition, the biathletes start in intervals. The metre or meter is a measure of length. ...


Pursuit

In a Pursuit, biathletes' starts are separated by their time differences from a previous race,[2] most commonly a Sprint. The contestant crossing the finish line first is the winner. The distance is 12.5 km for men and 10 km for women, there are four shooting bouts (two prone, two standing, in that order), and each miss means a penalty loop of 150 m. To prevent awkward and/or dangerous crowding of the skiing loops, and overcapacity at the shooting range, World Cup Pursuits are held with only the 60 top ranking biathletes after the preceding race. The biathletes shoot at the lane corresponding to the position they arrived (Arrive at the range in 5th place, you shoot in lane five.) for all shooting bouts


Mass start

In the Mass start, all biathletes start at the same time and the first across the finish line wins. In this 15 km (12.5 km for women) competition, there are four bouts of shooting (two prone, two standing, in that order) with the first shooting bout being at the lane corresponding to your bib (Bib #10 shoots at lane #10 regardless of position in race.) with rest of the shooting bouts being at the lane in the position they arrived (Arrive at the lane in 5th place, you shoot at lane five.). As in Sprint races, competitors must ski one 150 m penalty loop for each miss. Here again, to avoid unwanted congestion, World Cup Mass starts are held with only the 30 top ranking athletes on the start line (half that of the Pursuit since here all contestants start simultaneously).


Relay

The Relay teams consist of four biathletes, who each ski 7.5 km (men) or 6 km (women), with two shooting rounds; one prone, one standing. For every round of five targets there are eight bullets available, though the last three can only be single-loaded manually one at a time from spare round holders or bullets deposited by the competitor into trays or onto the mat at the firing line. If after eight bullets there are still misses, one 150 m penalty loop must be taken for each missed target remaining. The first-leg participants start all at the same time, and as in cross-country skiing relays, every athlete of a team must touch the team's next-leg participant to perform a valid changeover. On the first shooting stage of the first leg, the participant must shoot in the lane corresponding to their bib number (Bib #10 shoots at lane #10 regardless of position in race.), then for the remainder of the relay, the relay team shoots at the lane in the position they arrived (Arrive at the range in 5th place, you shoot at lane five.).


Mixed relay

The most recent addition to the number of biathlon competition variants, the Mixed relay, is similar to the ordinary Relay but for the composition of the teams, each of which consists of two women and two men. Legs 1 and 2 are done by the women, legs 3 and 4 by the men. The legs are 6 km, as in the ordinary women's Relay competition.


Team (obsolete)

A team consists of four biathletes, but unlike the case of the Relay competition, all team members start at the same time. Two athletes must shoot in the prone shooting round, the other two in the standing round. In case of a miss, the two non-shooting biathletes must ski a penalty loop of 150 m. The skiers must enter the shooting area together, and must also finish within 15 seconds of each other, otherwise a time penalty of 1 minute is added to the total time. Since 2004, this race format has been obsolete at the World Cup level.


Biathlon venues

World Cup events and World Championships in biathlon have traditionally been held at the following few locations. (Due to the complicated shooting range equipment, which absolutely has to work in order to hold successful races, biathlon is a highly demanding sport for organisers.)

Country Major biathlon venues
Flag of Austria Austria Hochfilzen Saalfelden
Flag of Canada Canada Canmore Valcartier
Flag of Finland Finland Kontiolahti Kuusamo Lahti
Flag of Germany Germany Oberhof Ruhpolding Veltins-Arena*
Flag of Italy Italy Antholz-Anterselva Cesana-San Sicario
Flag of Norway Norway Beitostølen Holmenkollen Lillehammer
Flag of Russia Russia Khanty-Mansiysk Novosibirsk
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia Brezno-Osrblie
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia Pokljuka
Flag of Sweden Sweden Östersund
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria Bansko Borovets
Flag of United States United States Fort Kent, ME Presque Isle, ME Lake Placid, NY Soldier Hollow, UT

*The Veltins-Arena, located in Gelsenkirchen and renamed from Arena AufSchalke in July 2005, is the stadium of German football club FC Schalke 04. Since 2002 the stadium has hosted a special end-of-year mixed team event, now called the "Veltins Biathlon World Team Challenge". Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Hochfilzen is a small village in Tyrol, Austria, in the Kitzbühel district. ... Saalfelden (full name Saalfelden am Steinernen Meer) is a city in the Austrian state of Salzburg and is the administrative centre of the Pinzgauer Saalachtal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... Location of Canmore within Alberta Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  Alberta Region Albertas Rockies Census division 15 Municipal District Bighorn Incorporated 1965 Government [1]  - Mayor Ron Casey  - Governing body Canmore town council  - MP Myron Thompson (Wild Rose)  - MLA Janis Tarchuk Area  - Town 68. ... Canadian Forces Base Valcartier is located 25 km west of Quebec City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Kontiolahti is a municipality of Finland. ... Kuusamo is a municipality of Finland. ... Location within Finland Lahti (Lahtis in Swedish) is a Finnish city of 100,049 inhabitants (2006), bordering the Vesijärvi lake. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The small city of Oberhof, in the Schmalkalden-Meiningen district of Thuringia, Germany, is a winter sports center and health resort. ... Ruhpolding is a small village in the south-eastern part of Bavaria, Germany, in the Traunstein district. ... Veltins Arena during a Pur concert. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Rasen-Antholz (German) or Rasun Anterselva (Italian) is a municipality in South Tyrol in the Italian region Trentino-South Tyrol, located about 110 km northeast of Trento and about 60 km northeast of Bolzano, on the border with Austria. ... Cesana San Sicario, located in Cesana, Italy is the location of two Olympic venues for the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... County Oppland District Valdres Municipality NO-0544 Administrative centre Heggenes Mayor (2003) Gro Lundby (Ap) Official language form Nynorsk Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 109 963 km² 881 km² 0. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... County Oppland District Gudbrandsdal Municipality NO-0501 Administrative centre Lillehammer Mayor (2005) Synnøve Brenden Klemetrud (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 211 477 km² 450 km² 0. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Khanty-Mansiysk (Russian: ) is a town in Russia, the administrative center of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. ... Location of Novosibirsk in Russia and the Oblast Coordinates: Oblast Novosibirsk  - Mayor Vladimir Gorodetskiy Area    - City 447. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Escutcheon of Brezno Brezno is a town in central Slovakia, with a current population of 22,875 (2001). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Pokljuka is a foresty plateau situated in the municipality of Bled in northwestern Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Östersund Municipality  listen? is a municipality in the middle of Sweden where the city Östersund is the seat with a population of 43,536. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Bansko (Bulgarian: ) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, located at the foot of Pirin at an altitude of 1936 m above sea level. ... Borovets in winter Borovets in summer Borovets (Боровец), known as Chamkoriya (Чамкория) until the middle of the 20th century, is a popular Bulgarian mountain resort situated in Sofia Province, on the northern slopes of Rila, at an altitude of 1350 m. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Location of Fort Kent in Aroostook County, Maine Fort Kent is a town in Aroostook County, Maine, United States. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Presque Isle is a city in Aroostook County, Maine, United States. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Lake Placid is a village of 2,638 in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, near the center of the Town of North Elba and named after an adjacent lake. ... NY redirects here. ... The Soldier Hollow cross-country skiing venue in Wasatch Mountain State Park, Utah, USA, hosted the cross-country skiing and biathlon events, a total of 23 competitions, during the Salt Lake City 2002 Olympic Winter Games. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,889 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... Brauerei C & A Veltins, is a German beer brewery in the west German city of Meschede-Grevenstein. ... Gelsenkirchen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... FC Schalke 04 is a German football club originally from the Schalke district of Gelsenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia. ...


Other Biathlon variants

Two common variations on biathlon are summer biathlon, where skiing is replaced by a cross-country run, and archery biathlon (or ski archery), where the rifle is replaced by a recurve bow. It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ... Modern recurve bow // A recurve bow is a form of bow defined by the side-view profile; in contrast to the simple longbow, a recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is aimed. ...


There have also been summer competitions in roller-ski biathlon, mountain bike biathlon and orienteering biathlon. Primitive Biathlon uses snowshoes and muzzleloaders. Roller skiing is a warm weather equivalent to cross-country skiing, instead of skis one uses elongated roller blades with one wheel at either end. ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ... The international orienteering symbol. ... For the town and ski resort in West Virginia, see Snowshoe, West Virginia. ... Muzzleloading is a term used to describe any firearm, but more particularly historical firearms, which are loaded at the muzzle, or open end of the gun barrel. ...


The Boy Scouts of America offers a Bikeathlon variant at their national Scout jamboree that mixes BMX biking with air rifle shooting at biathlon type targets[1], and Philmont Scout Ranch has recently begun offering a similar activity[2]. The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is a United States Scouting organization, with some presence in other countries. ... The national Scout jamboree is a gathering, or jamboree of thousands of members of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), usually held every four years and organized by the BSA National Council. ... A BMX Race. ... Air guns are weapons that propel a bullet using compressed air or another gas, possibly liquefied. ... Philmont Scout Ranch is a large, rugged, mountainous ranch located near the town of Cimarron in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico. ...


Cadets Canada also offers biathlon to cadets across Canada, with 3 stages; zones, provincial and national. Zone competitions are occasionaly, due to lack of snow in some southern areas, held as summer biathlon. A .22 caliber rifle is used at all levels. Races are shorter than world class events. More information can be found at [3] the National Cadet Biathlon Championship website Cadets Canada is a marketing name representing the Canadian cadet organizations:Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, Army Cadets, Air Cadets and their sponsors; The Canadian Forces, the Department of National Defence, The Navy League, The Army Cadet League and the Air Cadet League, as well as local community sponsors and parents...


Notes

  1. ^ Even in English speaking countries such as Canada and the United States each country may use different terms for the same thing in biathlon. For example: Stage (USA) vs. Bout (Canada), Shooting Point (USA) vs. Shooting Lane (Canada)
  2. ^ To be precise; the Pursuit competition start intervals are determined by common rounding to the nearest whole second of the biathletes' time differences from the previous race—the amount of time each biathlete lagged after the winner to the finish line.

Rounding is the process of reducing the number of significant digits in a number. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Biathlon's two sports disciplines: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Other multi-discipline sports (otherwise unrelated to biathlon): Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archery for more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). ...

Duathlon is an athletic event (not to be confused with biathlon) that consists of a running leg, followed by a cycling leg and then another running leg in a format bearing some resemblance to triathlons. ... The Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in both cross-country skiing and ski jumping. ... The three components of triathlon: Swimming, Cycling, Running A triathlon is an athletic event consisting of swimming, cycling and running over various distances. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ... A heptathlon is a sportive contest made up of seven events (from the Greek hepta (seven) and athlon (contest)). More specifically, the term heptathlon refers to an athletic (track and field) event consisting of seven events. ... // The Decathlon Day 1: 100 m long jump shot put High Jump 400 m Day 2: 110m hurdles discus throw pole vault javelin throw 1500 m Decathlon sprouted from the ancient game pentathlon. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Biathlon History and Description (735 words)
Biathlon is a Winter Olympic Sport which combines cross country skiing with precision target shooting.
There is also a warm weather variant called Summer Biathlon which replaces skiing with running.
It was not until the 44th session of the International Olympic Committee in Rome in 1949 however that a proposal by Sweden to include a combination of cross-country skiing and shooting as an individual competition open to civilian competitors was accepted.
Biathlon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1177 words)
Biathlon, however, refers specifically to the winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.
Biathlon events are broadcast most regularly where the sport enjoys its greatest popularity, namely Germany (ARD, ZDF), Norway (NRK), Finland (YLE), Sweden (SVT), Russia (RTR), Belarus (TVR), Slovenia (RTV), and Estonia (ETV); it is also broadcast on European-wide Eurosport.
Two common variations on biathlon are summer biathlon, where skiing is replaced by a cross-country run, and archery biathlon (or ski archery), where the rifle is replaced by a longbow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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