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Encyclopedia > Bias
For Wikipedia's policy on avoiding bias, see Wikipedia:Neutral point of view.

Bias is a term used to describe a tendency or preference towards a particular perspective, ideology or result. All information and points of view have some form of bias. A person is generally said to be biased if a reasonable observer would conclude that the person is markedly influenced by inner biases, rendering it unlikely for them to be able to be objective. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The term bias has many uses: In its most widely used form, bias is prejudice of some sort in terms of point of view, usually manifesting itself in written works as in editorial bias. ... Look up Tendency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Tendency may refer to: Bleeding tendency Central tendency Debs Tendency Direct Action Tendency Fist and Rose Tendency Fourth Internationalist Tendency International Bolshevik Tendency International Marxist Tendency International Revolutionary Marxist Tendency International Socialist Tendency International Spartacist Tendency Irish Militant Tendency Johnson-Forrest Tendency... Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. ... Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... In science, the ideal of objectivity is an essential aspect of the scientific method, and is generally considered by the scientific community to come about as a result of strict observance of the scientific method, including the scientists willingness to submit their methods and results to an open debate by...

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In practice

Bias may result from opining on a subject while holding a particular viewpoint on the subject, and not applying neutral point of view correction to the process, whether consciously or unconsciously. In practice, an accusation of bias often results from a perception of unacknowledged favoritism on the part of a critic or judge, or indeed any person in a position requiring the careful and disinterested exercise of arbitration or assessment. Any tendency to favour a certain set of values naturally leads to an uneven dispensation of judgment. It may also be noted that, if a person were to take their own preexisting view as a priori balanced without acknowledging their own personal inclinations, any person or organization that disagrees with their views is likely to be viewed as biased regardless of that person or organization's actual efforts at balance. It may be observed that bias is, in a sense, reflexive, unacknowledged or unrecognized bias potentially leading to its apprehension (with or without good reason) in others. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite— a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below)— are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ...


Effects of biases

A bias could lead one to accept or deny the truth of a claim, not on the basis of the strength of the arguments in support of the claim themselves, but because of the extent of the claim's correspondence with one's own preconceived ideas. This is called confirmation bias. it can change the results of certain results Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... The logical assertion is a statement that asserts that a certain premise is true, and is useful for statements in proof. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... It has been suggested that Myside bias be merged into this article or section. ...


Forms of biases

These are just a few popular ones.

  • Class: bias favoring one social class and bias ignoring social or class divisions.
  • Commercial: advertising, coverage of political campaigns favoring corporate interests, or reporting favoring media owner interests.
  • Cognitive bias
  • Cultural bias: interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to one's own culture.
  • Ethnic or racial: racism, nationalism, regionalism and tribalism.
  • Geographical: describing a dispute as it is conducted in one country, when the dispute is framed differently elsewhere.
  • Inductive bias
  • Media bias: real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered
  • Nationalistic: favoring or opposing the interests or views of a particular nation.
  • Gender: including sexism and heteronormativity.
  • Linguistic: bias, favoring certain languages
  • Political: bias in favor of or against a particular political party, philosophy, policy or candidate.
  • Religious: bias for or against religion, faith or beliefs;
  • Sensationalist: favoring the exceptional over the ordinary. This includes emphasizing, distorting, or fabricating exceptional news to boost commercial ratings.
  • Scientific (including anti-scientific and scientific skepticism): favoring (or disfavoring) a scientist, inventor, or theory for non-scientific reasons. This can also include excessive favoring (or disfavoring) prevalent scientific opinion, if in doing so, notable viewpoints are no longer being treated neutrally.
  • Statistical: one example is a biased sample.
  • Systematic: bias resulting from a flaw integral to the system within which the bias arises (for example, an incorrectly calibrated thermostat may consistently read — that is 'be biased' — several degrees hotter or colder than actual temperature). As a consequence, systematic bias commonly leads to systematic errors, as opposed to random errors, which tend to cancel one another out.

Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... // Advert redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cultural bias is the phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to ones own culture. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Regionalism is a term in international relations that refers to the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express a particular identity and shape collective action within a geographical region. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Informally speaking, the inductive bias of a machine learning algorithm refers to additional assumptions, that the learner will use to predict correct outputs for situations that have not been encountered so far. ... Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Heteronormativity is the reinforcement of certain viewpoints by many social institutions and social policies. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Sensationalism is a manner of being extremely controversial, loud, attention-grabbing, or otherwise sensationalistic. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Antiscience is a position critical of science and the scientific method. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In statistics, the term bias is used for two different concepts. ... A biased sample is one that is falsely taken to be typical of a population from which it is drawn. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the systems temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Italic textSystematic errorsBold text are biases in measurement which lead to measured values being systematically too high or too low. ... In statistics, the concepts of error and residual are easily confused with each other. ...

See also

The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as the bias, is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft threads. ... Cognitive bias is distortion in the way humans perceive reality (see also cognitive distortion). ... Scholarly method - or as it is more commonly called, scholarship - is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. ... A weasel word is a word intended to soften the force of a statement and/or make an assertion as though one is just conveying some others opinion. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Bias
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Media (2526 words)
It simply is. Bias is a small word that identifies the collective influences of the entire context of a message.
Status Quo bias: The news media believe "the system works." During the "fiasco in Florida," recall that the news media were compelled to remind us that the Constitution was safe, the process was working, and all would be well.
This bias helps journalists establish and maintain a cultural identity as knowledgeable insiders (although many journalists reject the notion that follows from this--that they are players in the game and not merely observers).
Bias - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (495 words)
A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a preference to one particular point of view or ideological perspective.
A bias could, for example, lead one to accept or deny the truth of a claim, not on the basis of the strength of the arguments in support of the claim themselves, but because of the extent of the claim's correspondence with one's own preconceived ideas.
A systematic bias is a bias resulting from a flaw integral to the system within which the bias arises (for example, an incorrectly calibrated thermostat may consistently read – that is 'be biased' – several degrees hotter or colder than actual temperature).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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