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Encyclopedia > Bhutan

Brug rGyal-Khab
Dru Gäkhap
Kingdom of Bhutan
Flag of Bhutan
Flag Emblem
AnthemDruk Tsendhen Koepay Gyelkhab ("The Glorious Dragon Kingdom of Bhutan")
Capital Thimphu
Official languages Dzongkha
Demonym Bhutanese
Government Democracy, Constitutional Monarchy
 -  King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk
 -  Prime Minister Jigme Thinley (DPT)
Formation Early 17th century 
 -  Wangchuk Dynasty December 17, 1907 
 -  Constitutional Monarchy 2008 
Area
 -  Total 47,000 km² (131st)
18,147 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) Not available yet
Population
 -   estimate 672,425 (2005)1 
 -  Density 45/km² (154th)
117/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $4.39 billion (160th)
 -  Per capita $5,477 (117th)
HDI (2007) 0.579 (medium) (133th)
Currency Ngultrum (BTN)
Time zone BTT (UTC+6:00)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+6:00)
Internet TLD .bt
Calling code +975
1 The population of Bhutan had been estimated based on the reported figure of about 1 million in the 1970s when the country had joined the United Nations and precise statistics were lacking[2]. Thus using the annual increase rate of 2-3%, the most population estimates were around 2 million in the year 2000. A national census was carried out in 2005 and it turned out that the population was 672,425. Consequently, United Nations Population Division had down-estimated the country's population in the 2006 revision [3]for the whole period from 1950 to 2050.

The Kingdom of Bhutan (IPA: /buːˈtɑːn/) is a landlocked nation in South Asia. It is located amid the eastern end of the Himalaya Mountains and is bordered to the south, east and west by India and to the north by China. Bhutan is separated from Nepal by the Indian state of Sikkim. The Bhutanese call their country Druk Yul (land of the thunder dragon).[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Bhutan_emblem. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Bhutan consists of a white dragon over a yellow and orange background. ... The Emblem of Bhutan is in a circular shape. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུག།) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The following is a list of the prime ministers of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... This article is about the military unit. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 109 and 1012. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The ngultrum is the currency of Bhutan, subdivided into 100 chertrums. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Bhutan Time (BTT) is the time zone of Bhutan. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .bt is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bhutan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ...


Bhutan is one of the most isolated and least developed nations in the world.[2] Foreign influences and tourism are regulated by the government to preserve the nation's traditional culture, identity and the environment. In 2006, however, Business Week rated Bhutan the happiest country in Asia and the eighth happiest country in the world.[3] The landscape ranges from subtropical plains in the south to the Himalayan heights in the north, with some peaks exceeding 7,000 metres (23,000 feet). The state religion is Vajrayana Buddhism, and the population is predominantly Buddhist, with Hinduism being the second-largest religion. The capital and largest city is Thimphu. After centuries of direct monarchic rule, Bhutan held its first democratic elections in March 2008. Bhutan is a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Tourist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུག།) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...  Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives  Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka Headquarters Kathmandu, Nepal Statistics Area  - Total 7th if ranked 5,130,746 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 1st if ranked 1,467,255,669 285. ...

Contents

Name

"Bhutan" may be derived from the Sanskrit word Bhu-Utthan (highlands). In another theory of Sanskritisation, Bhots-ant means "End of Tibet", as Bhutan is immediately to Tibet's south. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Sanskritization is a term coined by late M.N.Srinivas, the eminent sociologist from India, to define the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy seek upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper or dominant castes. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Historically Bhutan was known by many names, such as Lho Mon (southern land of darkness), Lho Tsendenjong (southern land of the Tsenden cypress), Lhomen Khazhi (southern land of four approaches) and Lho Men Jong (southern land of medicinal herbs).[1] Bhutan is also commonly known as The Last Shangrila. Monterey Cypresses (Cupressus macrocarpa) planted in Melbourne, Australia Cypress is the name applied to many plants in the conifer family Cupressaceae (cypress family). ... It has been suggested that Medical herbalism be merged into this article or section. ...


History

Main article: History of Bhutan

Stone tools, weapons, elephants, and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 BCE, although there are no existing records from that time. Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon (literally, "southern darkness"), or Monyul ("Dark Land", a reference to the Monpa, the aboriginal peoples of Bhutan) may have existed between 500 BCE and 600 CE.[4]The names Lhomon Tsendenjong (Sandalwood Country), and Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon (country of four approaches) have been found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles.[5] The history of Bhutan: // Archeological finds suggest the mountain valleys of Bhutan have been inhabited for several thousand years. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... (Redirected from 20th century BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ... Look up aborigine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ...

View of Tashichoedzong, Thimphu, seat of the Bhutanese government since 1952
View of Tashichoedzong, Thimphu, seat of the Bhutanese government since 1952

The earliest transcribed event in Bhutan was the passage of the Buddhist saint Padma Sambhava (also known as Guru Rinpoche) in 747.[6] Bhutan's early history is unclear, because most of the records were destroyed after fire ravaged the ancient capital, Punakha, in 1827.[7] By the 10th century, Bhutan's political development was heavily influenced by its religious history. However, there is no sufficient information stating that all historical records were available before the fire. Various sub-sects of Buddhism emerged which were patronised by the various Mongol and Tibetan overlords. After the decline of the Mongols in the 14th century, these sub-sects vied with each other for supremacy in the political and religious landscape, eventually leading to the ascendancy of the Drukpa sub-sect by the 16th century. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4200 × 4200 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4200 × 4200 pixel, file size: 2. ... View of Tashichoedzong, Thimphu Tashichoedzong is a Buddhist monastery and fortress on the northern edge of the city of Thimpu in Bhutan. ... Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུག།) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... Saints redirects here. ... Guru Rinpoche, the patron saint of Sikkim. ... Punakha is a dzong in Punakha District, Bhutan. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Until the early 17th century, Bhutan existed as a patchwork of minor warring fiefdoms, when the area was unified by the Tibeten lama and military leader Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal. To defend the country against intermittent Tibetan forays, Namgyal built a network of impregnable dzong (fortresses), and promulgated a code of law that helped to bring local lords under centralised control. Many such dzong still exist. After Namgyal's death in 1651, Bhutan fell into civil war. Taking advantage of the chaos, the Tibetans attacked Bhutan in 1710, and again in 1730 with the help of the Mongols. Both assaults were successfully thwarted, and an armistice was signed in 1759. Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means... Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (b. ... Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found in the former and present Buddhist kingdoms of the Himalayas, most notably Bhutan. ... Promulgation is the act of formally proclaiming new legislation to the public. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...

Map of Bhutan
Map of Bhutan

In the 18th century, the Bhutanese invaded and occupied the kingdom of Cooch Behar to the south. In 1772, Cooch Behar appealed to the British East India Company who assisted them in ousting the Bhutanese, and later in attacking Bhutan itself in 1774. A peace treaty was signed in which Bhutan agreed to retreat to its pre-1730 borders. However, the peace was tenuous, and border skirmishes with the British were to continue for the next 100 years. The skirmishes eventually led to the Duar War (1864–1865), a confrontation over who would control the Bengal Duars. After Bhutan lost the war, the Treaty of Sinchula was signed between British India and Bhutan. As part of the war reparations, the Duars were ceded to the United Kingdom in exchange for a rent of Rs. 50,000. The treaty ended all hostilities between British India and Bhutan. Image File history File links Bt-map. ... Image File history File links Bt-map. ... , Cooch Behar (Bengali : কোচবিহার) is a district of the state of West Bengal, India, as well as the name of the town which gives its name to the district. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Duar War was a war fought between British India and Bhutan in 1864-1865. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... The Duars or Dooars are flood plains of the River Brahmaputra in the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal, and part of Bhutan. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...


During the 1870s, power struggles between the rival valleys of Paro and Tongsa led to civil war in Bhutan, eventually leading to the ascendancy of Ugyen Wangchuck, the ponlop (governor) of Tongsa. From his power base in central Bhutan, Ugyen Wangchuck defeated his political enemies and united the country following several civil wars and rebellions in the period 1882–1885. location of Paro dzongkhag within Bhutan. ... Trongsa, previously Tongsa, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Ugyen Wangchuck (or Ugyen Wangchuk) (1861–1926) was the first king of Bhutan from 1907 to 1926. ... Trongsa, previously Tongsa, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ...


In 1907, an epochal year for the country, Ugyen Wangchuck was unanimously chosen as the hereditary king of the country by an assembly of leading Buddhist monks, government officials, and heads of important families. The British government promptly recognised the new monarchy, and in 1910 Bhutan signed a treaty which "let" Great Britain "guide" Bhutan's foreign affairs. In reality, this did not mean much given Bhutan's historical reticence. It also did not seem to apply to Bhutan's traditional relations with Tibet. The greatest impact of this treaty seems to be the perception that it meant Bhutan was not totally sovereign. Ugyen Wangchuck (or Ugyen Wangchuk) (1861–1926) was the first king of Bhutan from 1907 to 1926. ... Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After India gained independence from the United Kingdom on August 15, 1947, Bhutan became one of the first countries to recognise India's independence. A treaty similar to the one of 1910 was signed August 8, 1949 with the newly independent India. The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the Indian subcontinent for independence from British colonial rule, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Trongsa Dzong.
The Trongsa Dzong.

In 1953, King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck established the country's legislature – a 130-member National Assembly – to promote a more democratic form of governance. In 1965, he set up a Royal Advisory Council, and in 1968 he formed a Cabinet. In 1971, Bhutan was admitted to the United Nations, having held observer status for three years. In July 1972, Jigme Singye Wangchuck ascended to the throne at the age of 16 after the death of his father, Dorji Wangchuck. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 1494 KB)Trongsa Dzong, Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 1494 KB)Trongsa Dzong, Bhutan. ... Trongsa, previously Tongsa, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... UN redirects here. ... Jigme Singye Wangchuck (born November 11, 1955) was the fourth Dragon King (Druk Gyalpo) of Bhutan from 1972-2006. ...


In the 1980s, in order to strengthen Bhutan’s identity as a nation, the "one nation, one people" campaign was started to foster greater integration of the peripheral ethnic and cultural groups into mainstream Bhutanese society. The age-old code of conduct, known as Driglam namzha, and usage of the official national language, Dzongkha, was promoted. At around the same time, a nationwide census revealed a large population of Nepali origin in southern Bhutan. When the government attempted to remove what it considered as illegal settlers, there was a violent backlash; numerous acts of terrorism were carried out against government schools, hospitals, offices and neutral southern Bhutanese. In order to re-establish order in the south, the government drafted many young men and able-bodied civil servants into a militia force. Thousands of civilians, including a number of political dissidents, were expelled or fled to Nepal, where they were admitted into United Nations-run camps and given refugee status. Despite the best efforts of the Bhutanese government [8] Nepal and India, as well as outside parties such as the United Nations, the European Union and the United States, a viable solution to this problem proves to be still elusive. At present, the United States is working towards resettling around 70,000 of these refugees in the US.[9] Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Conscript redirects here. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... A dissident is a person who actively opposes the established order. ... UN redirects here. ...


In 1998, King Jigme Singye Wangchuck introduced significant political reforms, transferring most of his administrative powers to the Council of Cabinet Ministers and allowing for impeachment of the King by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly.[10] In late 2003, the Bhutanese army successfully launched a large-scale operation to flush out anti-India insurgents who were operating training camps in southern Bhutan. Jigme Singye Wangchuck (born November 11, 1955) was the fourth Dragon King (Druk Gyalpo) of Bhutan from 1972-2006. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... The Royal Bhutan Army (RBA), formed in 1950, is the all-volunteer army of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ...


In 1999, the government lifted a ban on television and the Internet, making Bhutan one of the last countries to introduce television. In his speech, the King said that television was a critical step to the modernisation of Bhutan as well as a major contributor to the country's Gross National Happiness (Bhutan is the only country to measure happiness), but warned that the "misuse" of television could erode traditional Bhutanese values.[11] Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. ... Gross National Happiness (GNH) is an attempt to define a standard of living in more holistic and psychological terms than Gross National Product. ...

The Taktshang Monastery, also known as the "Tiger's Nest". Bhutan is a predominantly Buddhist country, with the religion forming an integral part of everyday life.
The Taktshang Monastery, also known as the "Tiger's Nest". Bhutan is a predominantly Buddhist country, with the religion forming an integral part of everyday life.

A new constitution was presented in early 2005. In December 2005, Jigme Singye Wangchuck announced that he would abdicate the throne in his son's favour in 2008. On December 14, 2005, he announced that he would be abdicating immediately. Bhutan has now entered a new era of democracy, starting with its first national parliamentary elections in December 2007 and March 2008. Image File history File links Takstan-monastery. ... Image File history File links Takstan-monastery. ... Taktshang Monastery Taktshang is the most famous of monasteries in Bhutan. ... December 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 31 December 2005 (Saturday) 25-year-old Scottish human rights worker Kate Burton and her parents are freed unharmed in the Gaza Strip by the Palestinian gunmen who kidnapped them two days earlier. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternative meanings: Parliamentary system, Parliament (band), Parliament (cigarette). ... December 2007 is the twelfth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Bhutan

Over the past decade, Bhutan's political system has developed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. In 1999, the fourth king of Bhutan created a body called the Lhengye Zhungtshog (Council of Ministers). The 'Druk Gyalpo' (King of Druk Yul) is head of state. Executive power is exercised by the Lhengye Zhungtshog, the council of ministers. Legislative power was vested in both the government and the former Grand National Assembly. On the 17th of December 2005, the 4th King, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, announced to a stunned nation that the first general elections would be held in 2008, and that he would abdicate the throne in favour of his eldest son, the crown prince.[12] King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck took the throne on December 14, 2006 upon his father's abdication. The Crowning ceremony is expected to be held in May 2008 and the Coronation Celebrations later in the year. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Lhengye Zhungtshog is a Dzongkha term. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... Lhengye Zhungtshog is a Dzongkha term. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Tshogdu is the unicameral National Assembly of Bhutan (legislature). ... Jigme Singye Wangchuck (born November 11, 1955) was the fourth Dragon King (Druk Gyalpo) of Bhutan from 1972-2006. ... Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck (born February 21, 1980) is the fifth Dragon King of Bhutan and head of the Wangchuck dynasty. ...


The new democratic system comprises an upper and lower house, the latter based on political party affiliations. Elections for the upper house (National Council) were held on December 31, 2007, while elections for the lower house, the 47-seat National Assembly, were held on March 24, 2008. Two political parties, the People's Democratic Party (PDP) headed by Sangay Ngedup, and the Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT) headed by Jigmi Thinley, competed in the National Assembly election. The Druk Phuensum Tshogpa won the elections taking 45 out of 47 seats in the parliament.[13] Bhutan will hold its first general election in 2008. ... The Tshogdu (Also Nacional Assembly) is the unicameral legislature of Bhutan. ... Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup (May 2005) Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup (born 1953) was Prime Minister of Bhutan from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2005 to 2006. ...


Judicial power is vested in the courts of Bhutan. The Chief Justice is the administrative head of the Judiciary. The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... This article is about courts of law. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...


Military and foreign affairs

The Royal Bhutan Army is Bhutan's military service. It includes the Royal Bodyguard and the Royal Bhutan Police. Membership is voluntary, and the minimum age for recruitment is 18. The standing army numbers about 6,000 and is trained by the Indian Army.[14] It has an annual budget of about US$13.7 million — 1.8 percent of the GDP. Military branches of Bhutan: Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguards, Militia, Royal Bhutan Police Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 491,427 (2000 est. ... Foreign Relations of Bhutan // Main article: Suzerainty#Bhutan Peoples Republic of Bangladesh; in Thimphu, Bhutan Canada through the Canadian Cooperation Office [1] as a conduit; in Thimphu, Bhutan Republic of India; in Thimphu, Bhutan Republic of India; in Puntsholing, Bhutan United Nations; in Thimphu, Bhutan See also Bhutanese diplomatic... The Royal Bhutan Army (RBA), formed in 1950, is the all-volunteer army of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... The Royal Bodyguard is a part of the Royal Bhutan Army and is incharge of the security of the King of Bhutan (currently Jigme Singye Wangchuck) and members of the royalty. ... The Royal Bhutan Police is the national police of Bhutan and a part of the Royal Bhutan Army. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ...


Though the 1949 treaty with India is still sometimes misinterpreted to mean that India controlled Bhutan's foreign affairs, Bhutan handled all of its foreign affairs itself including the sensitive (to India) border demarcation issue with China. The 1949 treaty has been superseded by the 2007 treaty with India which made de-jure what was de-facto, that Bhutan was master of its own foreign relations. Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 22 countries, including the European Union, with missions in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Kuwait. It has two UN missions, one in New York and one in Geneva. Only India and Bangladesh have residential embassies in Bhutan, while Thailand has a consulate office in Bhutan. UN redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ...


By a long standing treaty, Indian and Bhutanese citizens may travel to each other's countries without a passport or visa using their national identity cards instead. Bhutanese citizens may also work in India without legal restriction. Bhutan does not have formal diplomatic ties with its northern neighbour, China, although exchanges of visits at various levels between the two have significantly increased in the recent past. The first bilateral agreement between China and Bhutan was signed in 1998, and Bhutan has also set up consulates in Macau and Hong Kong. Bhutan’s border with China is largely not demarcated and thus disputed in some places. [15] For other meanings, see Passport (disambiguation). ... Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ...


On November 13, 2005, Chinese soldiers crossed into Bhutan under the pretext that environmental conditions had forced their retreat south from the Himalayas. The Bhutanese government allowed this incursion (after the fact) on humanitarian grounds.[citation needed] Soon after, the Chinese began building roads and bridges within Bhutanese territory.[16] Bhutanese Foreign Minister Khandu Wangchuk took up the matter with Chinese authorities after the issue was raised in Bhutanese parliament. In response, Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang of the People's Republic of China has said that the border remains in dispute and that the two sides continue to work for a peaceful and cordial resolution of the dispute.[17] An Indian intelligence officer has said that a Chinese delegation in Bhutan told the Bhutanese that they were "overreacting." The Bhutanese newspaper Kuensel has said that China might use the roads to further Chinese claims along the border.[18] Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk (born 1950) is a member of the Council of Ministers of Bhutan. ...


On February 8, 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship TreatyPDF (30.6 KiB) was substantially revised. Whereas in the Treaty of 1949 Article 2 read as "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan. On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations." is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


In the revised treaty it now reads as "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other." The revised treaty also includes in it the preamble "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity", an element that was absent in the earlier version. The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007 strengthens Bhutan's status as an independent and sovereign nation.


Bhutan has no formal relations with the United States,[19] Russia, the United Kingdom or France. Informal contact with the United States is made through the U.S. embassy in New Delhi.[19] , This article is about the capital city of India. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Bhutan
Topographic map of Bhutan
Topographic map of Bhutan
Gangkhar Puensum from Ura La, Bhutan
Gangkhar Puensum from Ura La, Bhutan

The northern region consists of an arc of glaciated mountain peaks with an extremely cold climate at the highest elevations. Most peaks in the north are over 23,000 feet (7,000 m) above sea level; the highest point is claimed to be the Kula Kangri, at 24,780 feet (7,553 m), but detailed topographic studies claim Kula Kangri is wholly in Tibet and modern Chinese measurements claim that Gangkhar Puensum, which has the distinction of being the highest unclimbed mountain in the world, is higher at 24,835 feet (7,570 m). Watered by snow-fed rivers, alpine valleys in this region provide pasture for livestock, tended by a sparse population of migratory shepherds. Topgraphic map of Bhutan The Kingdom of Bhutan is a Himalayan nation, located towards the eastern extreme of the aforementioned mountain range. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x909, 320 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x909, 320 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Kula Kangri is claimed by many authorities to be the highest mountain in Bhutan but this is disputed by others, who claim that Kula Kangri is wholly in Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... [1]Gangkhar Puensum, in Bhutan, is the tallest unclimbed mountain peak in the world, at 22,623 ft. ... The highest unclimbed mountain in a particular region or in the world is often a matter of controversy. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ...


The Black Mountains in central Bhutan form a watershed between two major river systems: the Mo Chhu and the Drangme Chhu. Peaks in the Black Mountains range between 4,900 feet and 8,900 feet (1,500 m and 2,700 m) above sea level, and fast-flowing rivers have carved out deep gorges in the lower mountain areas. Woodlands of the central region provide most of Bhutan's forest production. The Torsa, Raidak, Sankosh, and Manas are the main rivers of Bhutan, flowing through this region. Most of the population lives in the central highlands. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mo Chhu is a major river in Bhutan. ... Drangme Chhu is a major river in Bhutan. ... The Torsa or Torsha river is the second largest river in the North Bengal region after the Teesta River. ... Raidak is a major river in Bhutan. ... Sankosh is a river in India that rises in Bhutan (where it is called Mo Chu) and empties into the Brahmaputra. ... Manas is the name of: A Kyrgyz epic poem (see Manas (epic); A commune in Drôme département, in France (see Manas, Drôme) Level of consciousness in Yogacara Buddhism, the manas-vijnana A river in the state of Assam in India. ...

Jacaranda trees in Bhutan
Jacaranda trees in Bhutan
Terraced farming in the Punakha valley.
Terraced farming in the Punakha valley.

In the south, the Shiwalik Hills are covered with dense, deciduous forests, alluvial lowland river valleys, and mountains up to around 4,900 feet (1,500 m) above sea level. The foothills descend into the subtropical Duars Plain. Most of the Duars is located in India, although a 6–9 mile (10–15 km) wide strip extends into Bhutan. The Bhutan Duars is divided into two parts: the northern and the southern Duars. The northern Duars, which abuts the Himalayan foothills, has rugged, sloping terrain and dry, porous soil with dense vegetation and abundant wildlife. The southern Duars has moderately fertile soil, heavy savannah grass, dense, mixed jungle, and freshwater springs. Mountain rivers, fed by either the melting snow or the monsoon rains, empty into the Brahmaputra River in India. Data released by the Ministry of Agriculture showed that the country had a forest cover of 64% as of October 2005. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Species See text Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. ... Image File history File links Bhutan_landscape. ... Image File history File links Bhutan_landscape. ... Punakha is a dzong in Punakha District, Bhutan. ... The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... A pore, in general, is some form of opening, usually very small. ... This article is about grassland. ... Map of the Brahmaputra Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet. ...


The climate in Bhutan varies with altitude, from subtropical in the south to temperate in the highlands and polar-type climate, with year-round snow, in the north. Bhutan experiences five distinct seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. Western Bhutan has the heavier monsoon rains; southern Bhutan has hot humid summers and cool winters; central and eastern Bhutan is temperate and drier than the west with warm summers and cool winters. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


Economy

The Ngultrum is the currency of Bhutan.
The Ngultrum is the currency of Bhutan.

The Ngultrum is the currency of Bhutan and its value is pegged to the Indian rupee. The rupee is also accepted as legal tender in the country. Image File history File links Nu10Face. ... Image File history File links Nu10Face. ... The ngultrum is the currency of Bhutan, subdivided into 100 chertrums. ... The ngultrum is the currency of Bhutan, subdivided into 100 chertrums. ... A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ...


Though Bhutan's economy is one of the world's smallest, it has grown rapidly in recent years, by eight percent in 2005 and 14 percent in 2006. This was mainly due to the commissioning of the gigantic Tala Hydroelectricity project. As of March 2006, Bhutan's per capita income was US$1,321. March 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Fijian Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase announces that the 2006 Fiji general elections will be held in the second week of May 2006 from the 6th to the 13th. ... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ...


Bhutan's economy is based on agriculture, forestry, tourism and the sale of hydroelectric power to India. Agriculture provides the main livelihood for more than 80 percent of the population. Agrarian practices consist largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Handicrafts, particularly weaving and the manufacture of religious art for home altars, are a small cottage industry. A landscape that varies from hilly to ruggedly mountainous has made the building of roads, and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. This, and a lack of access to the sea, has meant that Bhutan has not been able to benefit from significant trading of its produce. Bhutan does not have any railways, though Indian Railways plans to link southern Bhutan to its vast network under an agreement signed in January 2005.[20] The historic trade routes over the high Himalayas, which connected India to Tibet, have been closed since the 1959 military takeover of Tibet (although smuggling activity still brings Chinese goods into Bhutan). A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... Shepherd with his sheep in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... Indian Railways (Hindi भारतीय रेल), abbreviated as (Hindi भारे ) IR, is a Department of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Railways, and is tasked with operating the rail network in India. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in January • 29 Ephraim Kishon • 25 Philip Johnson • 23 Johnny Carson • 22 Parveen Babi • 20 Jan Nowak-Jeziorański • 17 Virginia Mayo • 17 Zhao Ziyang • 15 Ruth Warrick • 14 Rudolph Moshammer Recent deaths Ongoing events • Tsunami relief... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The industrial sector is in a nascent stage, and though most production is cottage industry type larger industries are being encouraged and some industries such as cement, steel, ferro alloy, etc., have been set up. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian contract labour. Agricultural produce includes rice, chilies, dairy (some yak, mostly cow) products, buckwheat, barley, root crops, apples, and citrus and maize at lower elevations. Industries include cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages and calcium carbide. The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbide is the chemical compound with the formula CaC2. ...


Incomes of over Nu 100,000 per annum are taxed, but very few wage and salary earners qualify. Bhutan's inflation rate was estimated at about three percent in 2003. Bhutan has a Gross Domestic Product of around USD 2.913 billion (adjusted to Purchasing Power Parity), making it the 162nd largest economy in the world. The ngultrum is the currency of Bhutan, subdivided into 100 chertrums. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... GDP redirects here. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ...

Haa Valley, September, 2006
Haa Valley, September, 2006

Per capita income is around $1,400[21] , ranked 124th. Government revenues total $272 million, though expenditures amount to $350 million. 60 percent of the budget expenditure, however, is financed by India's Ministry of External Affairs.[22] Bhutan's exports, principally electricity, cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones and spices, total €128 million (2000 est.). Imports, however, amount to €164 million, leading to a trade deficit. Main items imported include fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery, vehicles, fabrics and rice. Bhutan's main export partner is India, accounting for 87.9 percent of its export goods. Bangladesh (4.6 percent) and the Philippines (two percent)[23] are the other two top export partners. As its border with Tibet is closed, trade between Bhutan and China is now almost non-existent. Bhutan's import partners include India (71.3 percent), Japan (7.8 percent) and Austria (three percent). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1473 pixels, file size: 818 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Haa Valley, Bhutan, Douglas J. McLaughlin, September 6, 2006 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1473 pixels, file size: 818 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Haa Valley, Bhutan, Douglas J. McLaughlin, September 6, 2006 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the herbs. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. ... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ...


In a response to accusations in 1987 by a journalist from UK's Financial Times that the pace of development in Bhutan was slow, the King said that "Gross National Happiness is more important than Gross National Product."[24] This statement appears to have presaged recent findings by western economic psychologists, including 2002 Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman, that question the link between levels of income and happiness. The statement signaled his commitment to building an economy that is appropriate for Bhutan's culture, based on Buddhist spiritual values, and has served as a unifying vision for the economy. In a survey in 2005, 45 percent of Bhutanese reported being very happy, 52 percent reported being happy and only three percent reported not being happy. Based on this data, the Happy Planet Index estimates that the average level of life satisfaction in Bhutan is within the top 10 percent of nations worldwide, and certainly higher than other nations with similar levels of GDP per capita. The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... Gross National Happiness (GNH) is an attempt to define a standard of living in more holistic and psychological terms than Gross National Product. ... ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Daniel Kahneman Daniel Kahneman (born March 5, 1934 in Tel Aviv, in the then British Mandate of Palestine, now in Israel), is a key pioneer and theorist of behavioral finance, which integrates economics and cognitive science to explain seemingly irrational risk management behavior in human beings. ... Happy Planet Index, highest rank to lowest rank . ...


Districts

Main article: Districts of Bhutan

Bhutan is divided into four dzongdey (administrative zones). Each dzongdey is further divided into dzongkhag (districts). There are twenty dzongkhag in Bhutan. Large dzongkhags are further divided into subdistricts known as dungkhag. At the basic level, groups of villages form a constituency called gewog and are administered by a gup, who is elected by the people. Bhutan is divided into 20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural): Bumthang Chukha (old spelling Chhukha) Dagana Gasa Haa Lhuntse (old spelling Lhuntshi) Mongar Paro Pemagatshel (old spelling Pemagatsel) Punakha Samdrup Jongkhar Samtse (old spelling Samchi) Sarpang Thimphu Trashigang (old spelling Tashigang) Trashiyangste Trongsa (old spelling Tongsa) Tsirang (old spelling Chirang... Bhutan is divided into 20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural): Bumthang Chukha (old spelling Chhukha) Dagana Gasa Haa Lhuntse (old spelling Lhuntshi) Mongar Paro Pemagatshel (old spelling Pemagatsel) Punakha Samdrup Jongkhar Samtse (old spelling Samchi) Sarpang Thimphu Trashigang (old spelling Tashigang) Trashiyangste Trongsa (old spelling Tongsa) Tsirang (old spelling Chirang... Dungkhag are the subdistricts of Dzongkhag in Bhutan. ...

Dzongkhags(districts) of Bhutan.
Dzongkhags(districts) of Bhutan.
  1. Bumthang
  2. Chukha (old spelling: Chhukha)
  3. Dagana
  4. Gasa
  5. Haa
  6. Lhuntse
  7. Mongar
  8. Paro
  9. Pemagatshel (Pemagatsel)
  10. Punaka
  1. Samdrup Jongkhar
  2. Samtse (Samchi)
  3. Sarpang
  4. Thimphu
  5. Trashigang (Tashigang)
  6. Trashiyangste
  7. Trongsa (Tongsa)
  8. Tsirang (Chirang)
  9. Wangdue Phodrang (Wangdi Phodrang)
  10. Zhemgang (Shemgang)

Image File history File links Bhutan subdivisions numbered Drawn by me, Nichalp File links The following pages link to this file: Bhutan ... Image File history File links Bhutan subdivisions numbered Drawn by me, Nichalp File links The following pages link to this file: Bhutan ... Location of Bumthang dzongkhag within Bhutan Bumthang is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Chukha dzongkhag within Bhutan Chukha, previously Chhukha, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Dagana dzongkhag within Bhutan Dagana (also spelled Dhakana, previously known as Daga) is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Gasa dzongkhag within Bhutan Gasa is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Haa dzongkhag within Bhutan Haa (alternative spelling Ha) is one of the 20 dzongkhag or districts comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Lhuntse dzongkhag within Bhutan Lhuntse, previously Lhuntshi, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Mongar dzongkhag within Bhutan Mongar is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... location of Paro dzongkhag within Bhutan. ... Location of Pemagatshel dzongkhag within Bhutan Pemagatshel, previously Pemagatsel, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Punakha dzongkhag within Bhutan Punakha (སྤུ་ན་ཁ་) is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Samdrup Jongkhar dzongkhag within Bhutan Samdrup Jongkhar བསམ་གྲུབ་ལྗོངས་མཁར་རྫོང་ཁག་ is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Samtse dzongkhag within Bhutan Samtse (older spelling Samchi), is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Sarpang dzongkhag within Bhutan Sarpang (or Geylegphug) is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Thimphu dzongkhag within Bhutan Thimphu is a district of Bhutan. ... Location of Trashigang dzongkhag within Bhutan Trashigang, also spelled Tashigang, is Bhutans easternmost district. ... Location of Trashiyangste dzongkhag within Bhutan Trashiyangste is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Trongsa dzongkhag within Bhutan Trongsa is one of the districts of Bhutan. ... Location of Tsirang dzongkhag within Bhutan Tsirang, previously Chirang, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Location of Wangdue Phodrang Dzongkhag within Bhutan Wangdue Phodrang (previously spelled Wangdi Phodrang) is a dzongkhag (district), of central Bhutan. ... Location of Zhemgang dzongkhag within Bhutan Zhemgang, previously Shemgang, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ...

Cities and towns

Jakar is a small town in the north-eastern region of Bhutan. ... Location of Bumthang dzongkhag within Bhutan Bumthang is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Mongar is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Paro Airport (IATA code: PBH; ICAO code: VQPR) is an airport in Bhutan 6 km (3 miles) away from Paro at a height of 2,236 m (7,335 ft. ... Punakha is a dzong in Punakha District, Bhutan. ... Phuentsholing is a bordertown in southern Bhutan, opposite the Indian town of Jaigon, situated in Chukha Dzongkang. ... Samdrup Jongkhar is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Thimphu (Tibetan script: ཐིམ་ཕུག།) is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. ... Location of Trashigang dzongkhag within Bhutan Trashigang, also spelled Tashigang, is Bhutans easternmost district. ... Trongsa, previously Tongsa, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found in the former and present Buddhist kingdoms of the Himalayas, most notably Bhutan. ...

Demographics

Senior Bhutanese man in national dress.
Senior Bhutanese man in national dress.

Among the Bhutanese people, several principal ethnic groups may be distinguished. The second dominant group is the Ngalops, a Buddhist group based in the western part of the country. Their culture is closely related to that of Tibet. Much the same could be said of the Sharchops ("Easterners"), the dominant group, who are associated with the eastern part of Bhutan (but who traditionally follow the Nyingmapa rather than the official Drukpa Kagyu form of Himalayan Buddhism). They are called the Western Bhutanese and Eastern Bhutanese respectively. In modern times, with improved transportation infrastructure, there has been much intermarriage between these groups. In the early 1970s, intermarriage between the Lhotshampas and main stream Bhutanese society was encouraged by the government. Bhutanese people in national dress at the Wangdi Phodrang festival // Demographics of Bhutan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Image File history File links Bhutan_man. ... Image File history File links Bhutan_man. ... The Bhutias are people of Tibetan origin, who migrated to Sikkim, India after the 15th century through Bhutan, where they are also known as Ngalop and constitute half of the countrys population. ... Sharchop is a collective term for the indigenious tribals of Bhutan, who constitute around 20% of population. ... The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Drukpa is a major sect within the Kagyupa school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Lhotshampa, or Lhotsampa, means southerners in Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, and refers to the Nepali settlers who reside primarily in the southwest of the country. ...


The national language is Dzongkha, one of 53 languages in the Tibetan language family. The script, here called Chhokey ("Dharma Language"), is identical to classical Tibetan. In the schools English is the medium of instruction and Dzongkha is taught as the national language. Ethnologue lists 24 languages currently spoken in Bhutan, all of them in the Tibeto-Burman family, except Nepali, an Indo-Aryan language. Until the 1980s, the government sponsored the teaching of Nepali in schools in Southern Bhutan. However, after the armed uprising in the south, Nepali was dropped from the curriculum. The languages of Bhutan are still not well-characterized, and several have yet to be recorded in an in-depth academic grammar. Dzongkha is the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...

Religions of Bhutan
religion percent
Buddhism
 
75%
Hinduism
 
24%
Others
 
1%


The literacy rate is 59.5 percent. [25] The country has a median age of 22.3 years. [26] Bhutan has a life expectancy of 62.2 years (61 for males and 64.5 for females) according to the latest data from the World Bank. There are 1,070 males to every 1,000 females in the country. Children reading. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


It is estimated that between two third and three quarter of the Bhutanese population follow Mahayana Buddhism, which is also the state religion. About one quarter to one third are followers of Hinduism. Muslim and non-religious communities account for less then 1 % of the population.[27] The current legal framework in principal guarantees freedom of religion; Proselytism, however, is forbidden by a Royal Government decision.[27] Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Bhutan
Bhutanese thanka of Mt. Meru and the Buddhist Universe, 19th century, Tongsa Dzong, Tongsa, Bhutan
Bhutanese thanka of Mt. Meru and the Buddhist Universe, 19th century, Tongsa Dzong, Tongsa, Bhutan

Bhutan has a rich and unique cultural heritage that has largely remained intact due to its isolation from the rest of the world until the early 1960s. One of the main attractions for tourists is the country's culture and traditions. Bhutanese tradition is deeply steeped in its Buddhist heritage. [28] Hinduism is the second dominant religion in Bhutan, being most prevalent in the southern regions. Both religions co-exist peacefully and receive support from the government, [29] and enjoy royal patronage. The government is increasingly making efforts to preserve and sustain the current culture and traditions of the country. Due to its largely unspoilt natural environment and cultural heritage, Bhutan has aptly been referred to as The Last Shangri-la. Archery is the national sport of Bhutan and competitions are held regularly. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... For the mountain in Tanzania, see Mount Meru, Tanzania. ... Trongsa, previously Tongsa, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Trongsa, previously Tongsa, is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the novel, Lost Horizon, written by British writer James Hilton in 1933. ...


While the Bhutanese are free to travel abroad, Bhutan is seen to be inaccessible to many foreigners. There is a widespread misconception that Bhutan has set limits on tourist visas. However, it is the high tourist tariff and requirement to go on packaged tours that makes Bhutan an exclusive tourist destination. A tourist visa is not available for use for over a long period of time. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...


The National Dress for Bhutanese men is the gho, a knee-length robe tied at the waist by a cloth belt known as the kera. Women wear an ankle-length dress, the kira, which is clipped at one shoulder and tied at the waist. An accompaniment to the kira is a long-sleeved blouse, the toego, which is worn underneath the outer layer. Social status and class determine the texture, colours, and decorations that embellish the garments. Differently coloured scarves and shawls are important indicators of social standing, as Bhutan has traditionally been a feudal society. Jewellery is mostly worn by women, especially during religious festivals and public gatherings. To strengthen Bhutan's identity as an independent country, Bhutanese law requires all Bhutanese citizens to wear the national dress in public areas and as formal wear. Binomial name Bubo virginianus (Gmelin,, 1788) The Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus, is a very large owl. ... KERA may stand for: radio station KERA FM 90. ... Bhutanese women in the kira The kira is the national dress for women in Bhutan. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


Rice, buckwheat, and increasingly maize, are the staple foods of the country. The diet also includes pork, beef, yak meat, chicken, and mutton. Soups and stews of meat and dried vegetables spiced with chillies and cheese are prepared. Ema datshi, made very spicy with cheese and chilies, might be called the national dish for its ubiquity and the pride that Bhutanese have for it. Dairy foods, particularly butter and cheese from yaks and cows, are also popular, and indeed almost all milk is turned to butter and cheese. Popular beverages include butter tea, tea, locally brewed rice wine and beer. Bhutan is the only country in the world to have banned the sale of tobacco. For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mutton may refer to either: The meat of a sheep In parts of Asia, the meat of a goat Category: ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Look up chili, chilli in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Butter tea known as Po Cha is a drink of the Tibetans, and is also consumed in Bhutan. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...

Changlimithang National Stadium, during a parade.
Changlimithang National Stadium, during a parade.

Bhutan's national sport is archery, and competitions are held regularly in most villages. It differs from Olympic standards not only in technical details such as the placement of the targets and atmosphere. There are two targets placed over 100 meters apart and teams shoot from one end of the field to the other. Each member of the team shoots two arrows per round. Traditional Bhutanese archery is a social event and competitions are organized between villages, towns, and amateur teams. There are usually plenty of food and drink complete with singing and dancing. Attempts to distract an opponent include standing around the target and making fun of the shooter's ability. Darts (khuru) is an equally popular outdoor team sport, in which heavy wooden darts pointed with a 10 cm nail are thrown at a paperback-sized target ten to 20 meters away. ImageMetadata File history File links Bhutan_archery. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Bhutan_archery. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... // CM, cM, Cm or cm may stand for: CM Apollo Command/Service Module (command module is one half) Cameroon, ISO and FIPS country code category management Catholic Memorial center of mass Championship Manager, a series of association football computer games Chelmsford British post code region CM Chessmaster Chief Minister of...


Another traditional sport is the digor, which can be best described as shot put combined with horseshoe throwing. Cricket has gained remarkable popularity in Bhutan, especially since the heavy influx of Indian Television. Their national cricket team is one of the more successful associate nations in the region. Football is an increasingly popular sport. In 2002, Bhutan's national football team played Montserrat - billed as The Other Final, the match took place on the same day Brazil played Germany in the World Cup Final, but at the time Bhutan and Montserrat were the world's two lowest ranked teams. The match was held in Thimphu's Changlimithang National Stadium, and Bhutan won 4-0. A documentary of the match was made by the Dutch filmmaker Johan Kramer. Digor is a traditional sport in Bhutan, resembling the sport of shot put. ... Shot put The shot put is an athletics (track and field) event involving putting (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy metal ball (called the shot) as far as possible. ... For other uses, see Horseshoe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The Other Final is a 2003 documentary film, directed by Johan Kramer, about a football match between Bhutan and Montserrat, the then-lowest ranked teams on FIFA World Rankings. ... Changlimithang Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Thimphu, Bhutan. ...


Rigsar is the new emergent style of popular music, played on a mix of traditional instruments and electronic keyboards, and dates back to the early 1990s; it shows the influence of Indian popular music, a hybrid form of traditional and Western popular influences. Traditional genres include the zhungdra and boedra. Rigsar is a music genre,the dominant type of popular music of Bhutan. ... The Zhungdra is a traditional genre of Bhutanese music. ... The Boedra is a traditional genre of Bhutanese music. ...

Chaam, sacred masked dances, are annually performed during religious festivals.
Chaam, sacred masked dances, are annually performed during religious festivals.

Characteristic of the region is a type of castle fortress known as the dzong. Since ancient times, the dzongs have served as the religious and secular administration centres for their respective districts. Image File history File links Bhutan-masked-dance. ... Image File history File links Bhutan-masked-dance. ... Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found in the former and present Buddhist kingdoms of the Himalayas, most notably Bhutan. ...


Bhutan has numerous public holidays, most of which centre around traditional seasonal, secular and religious festivals. They include the winter solstice (around January 1, depending on the lunar calendar), the lunar New Year (February or March), the King's birthday and the anniversary of his coronation, the official start of monsoon season (September 22), National Day (December 17), and various Buddhist and Hindu celebrations. Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...


Masked dances and dance dramas are common traditional features at festivals, usually accompanied by traditional music. Energetic dancers, wearing colourful wooden or composition face masks and stylized costumes, depict heroes, demons, dæmons, death heads, animals, gods, and caricatures of common people. The dancers enjoy royal patronage, and preserve ancient folk and religious customs and perpetuate the ancient lore and art of mask-making. Look up hero, heroine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... The term Daemon, dæmon, or demon has several meanings: For more possible meanings see Demon (disambiguation) and Daimon (alternate spelling) Daemon (mythology) - See also: Agathodaemon, Cacodemon, Demon, Eudaimonia Daemon (computer software), a background process Dæmon (His Dark Materials) in the Philip Pullman trilogy of novels His Dark Materials... Gods can refer to: Plurality of Gods (see polytheism); Postulated preternatural beings (see deity); The upper levels of a theatre (see the gods); A 1991 video game (see Gods (video game)); A sixties rock band (see The Gods (band)). An internet term, common among usenet veterans, for those who engage... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes, see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection). ... Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on the related German...


Inheritance in Bhutan generally goes in the female rather than the male line. Daughters will inherit their parents' house. A man is expected to make his own way in the world and often moves to his wife's home. Love marriages are common in urban areas,[30] but the tradition of arranged marriages is still common in the villages. Although uncommon, polygamy and polyandry are accepted; often being a device to keep property in a contained family unit rather than dispersing it. A love marriage is a union of two parties based upon affection and a mutual attraction between the individuals subconscious minds. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ...


See also

SAARC Portal

Image File history File links Logo_of_SAARC.svg‎ Derivative of by Guilherme Paula File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Wikinews has related news: Asian monsoon rains force millions to flee The 2007 South Asian floods are a series of floods in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Mahayana Sutras Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      Mahayana Buddhism is the state... Telephones - main lines in use in Bhutan: 5,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: 2000 subscribers to a new network set up late 2003 Telephone system: domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones in use international: international telephone and telegraph service is by landline through India; a satellite... Foreign Relations of Bhutan // Main article: Suzerainty#Bhutan Peoples Republic of Bangladesh; in Thimphu, Bhutan Canada through the Canadian Cooperation Office [1] as a conduit; in Thimphu, Bhutan Republic of India; in Thimphu, Bhutan Republic of India; in Puntsholing, Bhutan United Nations; in Thimphu, Bhutan See also Bhutanese diplomatic... This is a list of Bhutan-related articles: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Atsara B Battle of Five Lamas, Bön, Buddha Dordenma statue... According National Assembly Rule no. ... Censorship in Bhutan is comparable to its South Asian neighbours, although not as focused or systematic as censorship in China. ... Military branches of Bhutan: Royal Bhutan Army, Royal Bodyguards, Militia, Royal Bhutan Police Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 491,427 (2000 est. ... Railways: 0 km International Railway Journal of March 2005 reports that Bhutan and India have signed a MOU to connect Bhutan with the Indian Railways network. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b www.loc.gov
  2. ^ List of Least Developed Countries. United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries.
  3. ^ The World's Happiest Countries
  4. ^ http://www.scubish.com/information/276/Asia/Bhutan/
  5. ^ http://www.worldinstituteforasianstudies.org/buthan.html
  6. ^ http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=18,963,0,0,1,0
  7. ^ http://bhutannica.org/index.php?title=Main_Page
  8. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6137136.stm
  9. ^ Bhaumik, Subir. "Bhutan refugees are 'intimidated'", BBC News, November 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. 
  10. ^ Hoffman, Klus; (2006) Democratization from above: The case of Bhutan [1]
  11. ^ Cathy Scott-Clark, Adrian Levy. "Fast forward into trouble", "The Guardian", June 14, 2003. Accessed March 3, 2008.
  12. ^ His Majesty the King’s historic National Day Address - 2005
  13. ^ NDTV.com: Royalist party wins election in Bhutan
  14. ^ Asian Times
  15. ^ Kuensel
  16. ^ Matles Savada, Andrea (ed.) (1991). Bhutan: A Country Study: Government and Politics: China. Government Printing Office. United States Library of Congress.
  17. ^ China.com
  18. ^ HindustanTimes.com
  19. ^ a b Bhutan Country Specific Information. United States Department of State. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  20. ^ The Tribune
  21. ^ CIA World Factbook
  22. ^ India's Ministry of External Affairs provides financial aid to neighbouring countries under "technical and economic cooperation with other countries and advances to foreign governments." The Tribune, Chandigarh
  23. ^ http://bhutannica.org/index.php?title=Main_Page
  24. ^ Yoga Journal
  25. ^ http://devdata.worldbank.org/external/CPProfile.asp?PTYPE=CP&CCODE=BTN
  26. ^ World Population Prospects- The 2006 Revision, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division
  27. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2007 - Bhutan. U.S. Department of State (2007-09-14). Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  28. ^ http://www.buddhadordenma.org/status.html
  29. ^ http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=9222
  30. ^ http://www.bhutantravelers.com/travel_info/index.php

is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Prose contains specific citations in source text which may be viewed in edit mode.

  • A Country Study: Bhutan. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 8, 2005.
  • Bhutan. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved on September 8, 2005.
  • Bhutan. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on September 8, 2005.
  • Bhutan army sees action at last. Asia Times Online. Retrieved on September 8, 2005.
  • Bhutan-China Relations. Bhutan News Online. Retrieved on September 8, 2005.
  • MoUs with Bhutan on rail links, power projects. The Tribune, Chandigarh. Retrieved on September 8, 2005.
  • Border tension pushes MEA allocation. The Tribune, Chandigarh. Retrieved on September 8, 2005.
  • Happy Land. Yoga Journal. Retrieved on September 12, 2005.
  • Fast forward into trouble. The Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on September 16, 2005.
  • A New Measure of Well-Being From a Happy Little Kingdom. The New York Times. Retrieved on October 4, 2005.
  • A.P. Agarwala (2003). Sikkim and Bhutan. Nest and Wings. ISBN 81-87592-07-9. 
  • Sunanda K. Datta-Ray (1984). Smash and Grab: The Annexation of Sikkim. Vikas. ISBN 0-7069-2509-2. 
  • Foning, A.R. (1987). Lepcha, My Vanishing Tribe. Sterling Publishers. ISBN 81-207-0685-4. 
  • A hidden and mysterious kingdom. Toplum Postasi. Retrieved on June 14, 2006.
  • Rose, Leo. The Nepali Ethnic Community in the Northeast of the Subcontinent. 

Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...

External links

Find more about Bhutan on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • Bhutan at the Open Directory Project
  • Bhutannica.org a Wiki site devoted to Bhutan - “initiated to try to 'set the record straight' on the matter of information about Bhutan.”
  • Tourism Council of Bhutan (Official)
  • Government of Bhutan portal
  • Royal University of Bhutan (www.rub.edu.bt)
  • Bhutan Links Page - at the National Library of Bhutan.
  • Bhutan Observer (News)
  • Bhutan travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Bhutan Times (Newspaper)
  • Photographs from The Kingdom of Bhutan
  • Bhutan National Bank (bank)
  • Bhutan - The Last Shangrila

 Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives  Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka Headquarters Kathmandu, Nepal Statistics Area  - Total 7th if ranked 5,130,746 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 1st if ranked 1,467,255,669 285. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


 
 

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