FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bharatanatyam" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bharatanatyam

Bharatanatyam[1] is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu[2][3][4][5][6], a state in Southern India. This popular South Indian dance form called Bharatanatyam is a 20th century reconstruction of Cathir, the art of temple dancers. Cathir in turn, is derived from ancient dance forms. The word Bharata, some believe, signifies the author of the famous Sanskrit treatise on stagecraft, called NatyaShastra, and the word Bharatanatyam is sometimes given a folk etymology as follows:Bha for Bhava or abhinaya and expression, Ra for raga or melody, and Ta for tala or rhythm. For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ...

Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam

Bharata refers to the author of the Natya Shastra, and natya is Sanskrit for the art of sacred dance-drama brought to the stage at the beginning of the 20th century. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian writer whose life has been dated differently from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century Ad. ... The Natya Shastra or Nātyaśāstra is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

Contents

Traditional roots

Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam

Bharatanatyam traces its origins to the Natya Shastra written by Bharata Muni, a Hindu sage. The Natya Shastra is also called the fifth Veda in reference to the foundation of Hindu religion and philosophy, from which sprang the related South Indian musical tradition of Carnatic music. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Natya Shastra or Nātyaśāstra is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Natya Shastra or Nātyaśāstra is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ...


In ancient times it was performed as dasiattam by mandir (Hindu temple) Devadasis. Many of the ancient sculptures in Hindu temples are based on Bharata Natyam dance postures karanas. In fact, it is the celestial dancers, apsaras, who are depicted in many scriptures dancing the heavenly version of what is known on earth as Bharatanatyam. In the most essential sense, a Hindu deity is a revered royal guest in his temple/abode, to be offered a standard set of religious services called Sodasa Upacharas ("sixteen hospitalities") among which are music and dance, pleasing to the senses. Thus, many Hindu temples traditionally maintained complements of trained musicians and dancers, as did Indian rulers. The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... Devadasis (Sanskrit: देवदासी, translation: Servant of God) are cult prostitutes in the service of the Yellamma, the Hindu goddess of fertility. ... Karana may refer to: Karana dance, a reconstructed dance of India one of the EverQuest Deities Karrana, a village in Bahrain Karanam is a caste in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh in India Category: ... For other uses, see Apsara (disambiguation). ...


Bharata Natyam as a dance form and carnatic music set to it are deeply grounded in Bhakti. Bharata Natyam, it is said, is the embodiment of music in visual form, a ceremony, and an act of devotion. Dance and music are inseparable forms; only with Sangeetam (words or syllables set to raga or melody) can dance be conceptualized. Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ...


Essential ideas

Bharatanatyam is considered to be a fire-dance — the mystic manifestation of the metaphysical element of fire in the human body. It is one of the five major styles (one for each element) that include Odissi (element of water), and Mohiniattam (element of air). The movements of an authentic Bharatanatyam dancer resemble the movements of a dancing flame. Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originated in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis (temple dancers). ... Mohiniaattam (മൊഹിനിയാട്ടം) (also spelled as mohiniattam or mohiniyattam) is a traditional South Indian dance form from Kerala, India. ...


Contemporary Bharatanatyam is rarely practiced as Natya Yoga, a sacred Hindu meditational tradition, except by a few orthodox schools (see Yoga and Dance). Bharata natyam dance Natya Yoga, popularly known as Dance Yoga, the all-inclusive spiritual path of action, is a combination of mainly Bhakti Yoga and Karma Yoga with many elements of Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...


Nataraja (King of Dance)

Bharatanatyam is the manifestation of the South Indian idea of the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the material body. In Hindu mythology the whole universe is the dance of the Supreme Dancer, Nataraja, a name for Lord Shiva, the Hindu ascetic yogi and divine purveyor of destruction of evil. Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Åšiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ...


Natya Shastra (I.44) reads, "... I have seen the Kaisiki style during the dance of the blue-throated lord (Shiva). It consists of elaborate gestures (Mridu Angaharas, movements of limbs), sentiments (Rasas), emotional states (Bhavas). Actions (Kriyas) are its soul. The costume should be charmingly beautiful and the erotic sentiment (Sringara) is its foundation. It cannot be adequately portrayed by men. Except for women, none can practise it properly". This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Bhava is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for being or becoming, from the root bhū to be, to become. Synonyms: 有 Cn: yǒu; Jp: u; Vi: hữu Tibetan: In Buddhism, bhava means the continuity of life and death, conditioned upon grasping (upādāna), the desire for further... A kriya (from the Sanskrit, deed, operation, effort) is a technique or practice within a yoga discipline, or more generally any practice with the goal of attaining higher knowledge. ... Sringāra Rasa-abhinaya by Nātyāchārya Padma Shri Māni Mādhava Chākyār Sringara is one of the nine Rasas, usually translated as erotic love or romantic love. ...


The symbolism of the dance of Shiva (in the form of Nataraja) is represented by the attitude called "Ananda Tandavam". Also known as the cosmic dancer, he is here the embodiment and manifestation of the eternal energy in five activities (panca-kriya पन्चक्रिया): creation, pouring forth, unfolding; maintenance or duration (sthiti स्थिति); destruction or taking back (smhara स्म्हर); concealing, veiling, hiding the transcendental essence behind the garb of apparations (tirobhava तिरोभव); and favoring, bestowing grace through a manifestation that accepts the devotee (anugraha अनुग्रह). Shiva is depicted dancing on the dwarfish body of the demon Apasmara purusa, "forgetfulness, loss of memory" called in Tamil Muyalaka (முயலக) -- who represents ignorance, the destruction of which brings enlightenment, true wisdom, and release from the bondage of existences.[7]


Medieval decline

Local kings often invited temple dancers devadasi (Servants of God) to dance in their courts, the occurrence of which created a new category of dancers -- rajanarthakis -- and modified the technique and themes of the recitals. A devadasi had to satisfy her own soul while she danced unwatched and offered herself (surrendered) to the Lord, but the rajanarthaki's dance was meant to be an entertainment.


Although most of the contemporary Bharatanatyam ballets are popularly viewed as a form of entertainment, the Natya Shastra-based dance styles were sacred Hindu ceremonies originally conceived in order to spiritually elevate the spectators. Bharatanatyam proper is a solo dance, with two aspects, lasya, the graceful feminine lines and movements, and tandava (the dance of Shiva), masculine aspect, which is identical to the Yin and Yang in the Chinese culture. Solo dance is danced by an individual dancing alone or individually, as opposed to couples dancing together but independently of others dancing at the same time, if any, and as opposed to groups of people dancing simultaneously in a coordinated manner. ... The term lasya, in the context of Hindu mythology, describes a highly sensuous and languorous dance, which the goddess Parvati performed as a counterpart but in a completely different style. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy the yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ...


The famous quartet of Chinnayya, Ponniah, Sivanandam and Vadivelu of the Tanjore Court, during the rule of Maratha King Saraboji II (1798- 1832), made a rich contribution to music and Bharatanatyam and also completed the process of re-editing the Bharathanatyam programme into its present shape with its various items. The descendants of these four brothers formed the original stock of Nattuvanars or dance teachers of Bharatanatyam in Tanjore. Originally, they formed a community by themselves and most of them were Shaivite non-brahmins. , Tanjore redirects here. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ...


Modern rebirth

Krishna Iyer was one of those who raised the social status of Bharatanatyam and greatly popularized it. Rukmini Devi Arundale was also instrumental in modifying mainly the Pandanallur style of Bharatanatyam and bringing it to the attention of the West. According to Shri Sankara Menon, Rukmini Devi raised Bharatanatyam to a puritan art form, divorced from its recently controversial past by "removing objectionable elements" (mostly, the Sringar, certain emotional elements evocative of the erotic) from the Pandanallur style, which was publicly criticized by Balasaraswati and other representatives of the traditional devadasi culture. Not all love was portrayed, at least outside parameters considered "chaste". Balasaraswati said that "the effort to purify Bharatanatyam through the introduction of novel ideas is like putting a gloss on burnished gold or painting the lotus". The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The Pandanallur style in Bharata Natyam is mainly attributed to a dance Guru called Minakshisundaram Pillai (1869-1954) who lived in the village of Pandanallur, which is in the Thanjavur district in the south Indian state of Tamil nadu. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Balasaraswati (13th May 1918-9th February 1984) was a celebrated Indian dancer, and her rendering of Bharatanatyam, a classical dance style, made this style of dancing of south India well known in different parts of India, as also many parts of the world. ... Devadasis (Sanskrit: देवदासी, translation: Servant of God) are cult prostitutes in the service of the Yellamma, the Hindu goddess of fertility. ... Balasaraswati (13th May 1918-9th February 1984) was a celebrated Indian dancer, and her rendering of Bharatanatyam, a classical dance style, made this style of dancing of south India well known in different parts of India, as also many parts of the world. ...


While the Pandanallur style, Tanjore or Thanjavur, Vazhuvoor, Mysore, Kancheepuram were based on the art of rajadasis and are exoteric in nature, some others, like the Melattur style and Balasaraswati's style grew out of the devadasis' distinctly different esoteric art. The Pandanallur style in Bharata Natyam is mainly attributed to a dance Guru called Minakshisundaram Pillai (1869-1954) who lived in the village of Pandanallur, which is in the Thanjavur district in the south Indian state of Tamil nadu. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... Vazhuvoor (or Vizhuvur) is one of the original styles of Bharatanatyam. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... Kanchipuram or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and district in Tamil Nadu, Indias southernmost state. ... Exoteric knowledge is knowledge that is publicly available, in contrast with esoteric knowledge, which is kept from everyone except the initiated. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which...


The development of the Bharatnatyam dance form has therefore been surrounded by controversy as some including Ashish Khokar the Indian dance historian have seen it as a means by which many women, often Brahmin women, have appropriated certain Devadasi traditions while disassociating themselves with other aspects of the contemporary devadasis' practices.[1] Devadasis (Sanskrit: देवदासी, translation: Servant of God) are cult prostitutes in the service of the Yellamma, the Hindu goddess of fertility. ...


Having studied Bharatanatyam for three years, in 1936 Rukmini Devi Arundale founded the school Kalakshetra outside the city of Madras to teach it and to promote other studies in Indian music and art. She was one of first teachers to instruct a few men to perform the dance. The dance, at that time, was exclusively performed by women, while men, called Nattuvanars, had only been teaching Bharatanatyam without actually performing it. It is worth noticing that most of the contemporary Bharatanatyam dancers do not satisfy the criteria for a professional danceuse stated in the scriptures. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Kalakshetra is a cultural academy for preservation of traditional values in Indian art, especially in the field of dance and music. ... , Madras redirects here. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


At present, Bharatanatyam recitals are usually not performed inside the temple shrine but outside it, and even outside the temple compounds at various festivals. Most contemporary performances are given on the stage with a live ensemble. In popular culture, the adapted, or "semi-classical", Bharatanatyam has been exposed largely through depiction in popular movies and TV programs.


Learning Bharatanatyam normally takes many years before the arangetram (debut). There are academic and commercialized dance institutes in many countries. Many people choose to learn Carnatic music along with Bharatanatyam as they go together, since both Carnatic music and Bharatanatyam are of purely Indian origins, while Hindustani music and Kathak are a mix of Persian and Indian art. Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Stamp issued in honour of Kathak Kathak is one of the classical dance forms of India (originally from North India), and the national dance of Pakistan. ...


At present, not only the Hindus but many Christians and Muslims learn it, bringing it beyond the rigid forms of religious boundaries.


Technique

This Bharata Natyam dancer's right hand is in the Bhramara Hasta (yoga, upward offering to the Divine), the 3 joined fingers symbolizing the sacred syllable Aum.The left hand's fingers are in Alapadma Hasta, the rotating lotus of spiritual light. The eyes are directed towards the Supreme Lord. The left leg is lifted, symbolizing the swift ascent of the consciousness in one step from the Earth to the Heaven.
This Bharata Natyam dancer's right hand is in the Bhramara Hasta (yoga, upward offering to the Divine), the 3 joined fingers symbolizing the sacred syllable Aum.The left hand's fingers are in Alapadma Hasta, the rotating lotus of spiritual light. The eyes are directed towards the Supreme Lord. The left leg is lifted, symbolizing the swift ascent of the consciousness in one step from the Earth to the Heaven.

Includes Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The mystic symbols of Hinduism revealed The right hand is in the Bhramara (bumblebee) Hasta. ... The mystic symbols of Hinduism revealed The right hand is in the Bhramara (bumblebee) Hasta. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... “Om” redirects here. ...

  • Abhinaya or Natya - dramatic art of story-telling in Bharatanatyam
  • Nritta - pure dance movements usually performed as an opening item in Bharatanatyam, reflecting different rhythms of the universe
  • Nritya combination of abhinaya and nritta

Karanas

Karanas are the 108 key poses and transitions that punctuate Bharatanatyam and other classical Indian dances. Most of these 108 are not static postures, nor are they merely transitional, i.e. the dancer is usually supposed to stop and maintain these for a very brief duration (0.5 sec). Padma Subrahmaniam and some other researchers have made attempts to reconstruct these since the 1960s, from 108 brief movement phrases describing specific leg, hip, body, and arm movements accompanied by hasta mudras described in the Natya Shastra, and from depictions of the movements in sculpture in five South Indian temples. Karana may refer to: Karana dance, a reconstructed dance of India one of the EverQuest Deities Karrana, a village in Bahrain Karanam is a caste in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh in India Category: ...


Hasta Mudras

A distinctive feature of Bharata Natyam Dance is the use of expressive hand gestures as a way of communication. Hasta Mudras refers to the varieties of hand symbols that a dancer can use. Many of these hand gestures are well known. For example, Anjali is often used as a salutation when a person greets another person.


There are two types of Hasta Mudras: Asamyuta and Samyuta (single and combined, respectively).


There are 28 Asamyuta Mudras which are: Pataka, Tripataka, Ardhya-pataka, Kartari-mukha, Mayura, Ardha-chandra, Arala, Shukatundaka, Mushti, Shikhara, Kapittha, Kataka-mukha, Suchi, Chandra-kala, Padma-kosha, Sarpa-shirsha, Mriga-shirsha, Simha-mukha, Langula, Sola-padma, Chatura, Bhramara, Hamsaya, Hamsa-paksha, Samdasma, Mukula, Tamrachuda, and Trishula. Note that hand "mudras" are usually spoken in sanskrit (which is the proper language, used for saying the gestures in the Kalakshetra style)


There are 24 Samyuta Hastas which are: Anjali, Kapota, Karkata, Svastika, Dola, Pushpaputa, Utsanga, Shivalinga, Kataka-Vardhana, Kartari-svastika, Shaktata, Sankha, Chakra, Samputa, Pasha, Kilaka, Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Garuda, Nagabandha, Khatva, Bherunda, and Avahittha. Note that these too are not in Sanskrit form as it should be.


Each of the above hasta mudras has its own origin, usage, and patron deity. Many hasta mudras can be used in more than one way (the usage is called viniyogas), depending on the song accompanying the dance, and what the dancer is trying to convey to the audience. Viniyoga is a word originally used to distinguish the yoga style of T. K. V. Desikachar (in the lineage of T. Krishnamacharya). ...


Items

Typically a regular performance includes:

  • Ganapati Vandana - A traditional opening prayer to the Hindu god Ganesh, who removes obstacles.
  • Alarippu - A presentation of the Tala punctuated by simple syllables spoken by the dancer. This really is sort of an invocation to the gods to bless the performance.
  • Jatiswaram - An abstract dance where the drums set the beat. Here the dancer displays her versatility in elaborate footwork and graceful movements of the body.
  • Shabdam - The dancing is accompanied by a poem or song with a devotional or amorous theme.
  • Varnam - The center piece of the performance. It is the longest section of the dance punctuated with the most complex and difficult movements. Positions of the hands and body tell a story, usually of love and the longing for the lover.
  • Padam - Probably the most lyrical section where the dancer "speaks" of some aspect of love: devotion to the Supreme Being; or of love of mother for child; or the love of lovers separated and reunited.
  • Thillana - The final section is a pure dance (nritta) when the virtuosity of the music is reflected in the complex footwork and captivating poses of the dancer.

Apart from these, there are items such as Kautuvam, Koothu, Shlokam, Swarajathi, Krithi etc. The performance concludes with the chanting of a few religious verses as a form of benediction. Certain styles include more advanced items, such as Tharanga Nritham and Suddha Nritham. When a dancer has mastered all the elements of dance, as a coming out performance, he or she generally performs an Arangetram (debut). Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ... {unref}} The Alarippu, which means flowerbud in Tamil, is traditionally the first full dance piece that most Bharatanatyam dancers learn. ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Devotional songs are hymns that accompany religious rituals. ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... The term Supreme Being is often defined simply as God,[1] and it is used with this meaning by theologians of many religious faiths, including, but not limited to, Christianity,[2] Islam,[3] Hinduism,[4] Deism[5] and Scientology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Krithi is one of the most common form of the carnatic music and is usually the main part of compositions. ... For other uses, see Benediction (disambiguation). ...


Other aspects

A male Bharatanatyam performer
A male Bharatanatyam performer
  • Costume - From the ancient texts and sculptures, one can see that the original costume did not cover most of the dancers' bodies. The medieval times, with the puritanistic drive, caused the devadasis to wear a special, heavy saree that severely restricted the dance movements. There are several varieties of Bharatanatyam costumes, some of which do not restrict the dancer's movements, while the others do. The modern costumes are deeply symbolic, as their purpose is to project the dancer's sukshma sharira (cf.aura), in the material world.
  • Music - The accompanying music is in the Carnatic style of South India.
  • Ensemble - Mostly, South Indian instruments are used in the ensemble. These include, the mridangam (drum), nagaswaram (long pipe horn made from a black wood), the flute, violin and veena (stringed instrument traditionally associated with Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of the arts and learning).
  • Languages - Tamil, Sanskrit, Telugu and Kannada are traditionally used in Bharatanatyam.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 773 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 794 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 773 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 794 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... Devadasis (Sanskrit: देवदासी, translation: Servant of God) are cult prostitutes in the service of the Yellamma, the Hindu goddess of fertility. ... Sari has two meanings: name of an Indian garment worn by women. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Look up aura in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... The mridangam is a percussion instrument from South India. ... Nadaswaram, also spelt Nadhaswaram, and also called Nagaswaram, is one of the most popular classical instruments of south India and the worlds loudest non-brass acoustic instrument. ... ♠ This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Woman playing the Veena. ... For the Vedic river, see Saraswati River. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ...

Ideal Qualities of Dancers

A professional Bharatanatyam dancer must demonstrate a number of qualities. As Sangitaratnakara puts it, the true dance is connected to the beauty of the body, therefore any other dance is simply a parody (VII.1246).


The AbhinayaDarpana has a sloka that describes Patra Prana Dasha Smrutaha - the ten essentials of the dancer: Javaha (Agility), Sthirathvam (Steadiness), Rekha (graceful lines), Bhramari(balance in pirouettes), Drishti (glance), Shramaha (hard work), Medha (intelligence), Shraddha(devotion), Vacho (good speech), and Geetam (singing ability). Rekha (Tamil: ரேகா, Hindi: रेखा, Urdu: ریکھا), born October 10, 1954, is an award-winning popular Bollywood actress. ... Drishti (meaning vision or insight in Sanskrit) is a multi-platform, open-source Volume Exploration and Presentation Tool. ... Shraddha are the funeral rites and funeral offerings for the dead among the Hindus. ...


A professional danseuse (patra), according to Abhinayadarpanam (one of the two most authoritative texts on Bharatanatyam), must possess the following qualities. She has to be youthful, slender, beautiful, with large eyes, with well-rounded breasts, self-confident, witty, pleasing, well aware of when to dance and when to stop, able to follow the flow of songs and music, and to dance to the time (thalam), with splendid costumes, and of a happy disposition.[citation needed]


See also

  • Odissi - dance of Orissa
  • Kathakali - Malayalam classical dance
  • Kuchipudi - Telugu classical dance
  • Mohiniaattam - Malayalam classical dance
  • Yakshagana - Kannada classical dance
  • Kathak - classical dance prevalent in Northern India
  • Folk dances of Tamil Nadu- Non-classical dances

Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originated in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis (temple dancers). ... Kathakali (IPA: [kat̪ʰakaɭi], Malayalam:�·ഥ�·ളി , Sanskrit:�·थ�·ळि) is a form of Indian dance-drama. ... Kuchipudi (కుచిపుడి) is a Classical Indian dance form from Andhra Pradesh, a state of South India. ... Mohiniaattam performers Mohiniaattam performers Mohiniaattam (മൊഹിനിയാട്ടം) (also spelled as mohiniattam or mohiniyattam) is a traditional South Indian dance form from Kerala, India. ... A Yakshagana artist wearing pagaDe, one type of head-wear. ... Stamp issued in honour of Kathak Kathak is one of the classical dance forms of India (originally from North India), and the national dance of Pakistan. ... Tamil Nadu had developed the art of entertainment to its pristine heights at early age. ...

References

  1. ^ It is also spelled Bharathanatyam, Bharatnatyam or Bharata Natyam. In the Indic scripts it is written as Kannada:ಭರತನಾಟ್ಯ, Tamil:பரதநாட்டியம், Sanskrit:भारतनाट्यम
  2. ^ International Tamil Language Foundation (2000). The Handbook of Tamil Culture and Heritiage. Chicago: International Tamil Language Foundation, p. 1201. 
  3. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9079037/bharata-natya
  4. ^ Samson, Leela (1987). Rhythm in Joy: Classical Indian Dance Traditions. New Delhi: Lustre Press Pvt. Ltd., p. 29. 
  5. ^ Banerjee, Projesh (1983). Indian Ballet Dancing. New Jersey: Abhinav Publications, p. 43. 
  6. ^ Bowers, Faubion (1967). The Dance in India. New York: AMS Press, Inc., pp. 13 & 15. 
  7. ^ Nayagam, X.S. Thani (1970). Tamil Culture and Civilization. London: Asia Publishing House, pp. 120-121. 

Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bharata natyam


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


Indian classical dance is performed in different styles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Stamp issued in honour of Kathak Kathak is one of the classical dance forms of India (originally from North India), and the national dance of Pakistan. ... Kathakali (IPA: [kat̪ʰakaɭi], Malayalam:�·ഥ�·ളി , Sanskrit:�·थ�·ळि) is a form of Indian dance-drama. ... Kuchipudi (కుచిపుడి) is a Classical Indian dance form from Andhra Pradesh, a state of South India. ... Stamp issued in honour of the Manipuri dance Full Manipuri dance costume for Radha Manipuri dance is one of the major Indian classical dance forms. ... Mohiniaattam performers Mohiniaattam performers Mohiniaattam (മൊഹിനിയാട്ടം) (also spelled as mohiniattam or mohiniyattam) is a traditional South Indian dance form from Kerala, India. ... Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originated in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis (temple dancers). ... image of Sattriya dance Sattriya dance or Sattriya Nritya is one among the eight principal classical dance traditions of India. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Article on Bharatanatyam (3009 words)
The contribution of Udayshankar, Rukminidevi Arundale and Balasaraswathi, in the 20th century, cannot be forgotten at this juncture.
Bharatanatyam is evenly divided between three elements Nritta, Nritya and Natya.
After learning bharatanatyam under the guidance of an accomplished guru, this is the occation for the proud guru to present his/her deciple to the public.
Dances - Bharatanatyam (183 words)
It is in effect a tradition that demands of the performer - total dedication,detachment from wordly ties and a sublimation of self to the art.
Bharatanatyam dancers are usually women and, like the sculptures theytake their positions from, always dance bent-kneed.
Bharatanatyam is vibrant and very demanding of the dancer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m