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Encyclopedia > Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
Award Information
Type Civilian
Category General
Instituted 1954
Last Awarded 2001
Total Awarded 41
Awarded by Govt. of India
Description An image of the Sun along
with the words "Bharat Ratna",
inscribed in Devanagari script,
on a peepul leaf
First Awardee(s) Dr.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Last Awardee(s) Lata Mangeshkar
Ustad Bismillah Khan
Award Rank
none ← Bharat Ratna → Padma Vibhushan

Bharat Ratna is India's highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service. This service includes artistic, literary, and scientific achievements, as well as "recognition of public service of the highest order". Unlike knights, holders of the Bharat Ratna carry no special title nor any other honorifics, but they do have a place in the order of precedence. Bharat Ratna roughly translates as 'Gem of India'. It was established by the President of India, on 2 January 1954. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2016x1512, 1810 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of India (Hindi: Bharat Sarkar), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Binomial name Ficus religiosa Linnaeus The Bodhi or Bo or Peepul tree (Ficus religiosa), is a species of fig (Family Moraceae) and a sacred tree for Buddhists. ... Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ... Lata Mangeshkar (Marathi/Hindi:लता मंगेशकर) (born September 28, 1929) is a singer from India. ... Ustad Bismillah Khan Sahib playing the shehnai The legendary Indian shehnai maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan Sahib is the third classical musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna (in 2001), the highest civilian honour in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A list of famous prizes, medals, and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... The order of precedence is the protocol list at which Indian government officials are seated according to their hierachy. ... The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

The Bharta Ratna Citation, the certificate conferred to Late Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran
The Bharta Ratna Citation, the certificate conferred to Late Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran

The order was established by Dr Rajendra Prasad, President of India, on the second of January 1954. The original statutes of January 1954 did not make allowance for posthumous awards (and this perhaps explains why the decoration was never awarded to Mahatma Gandhi), though this provision was added in the January 1955 statute. Subsequently, there have been ten posthumous awards, including the award to Subhash Chandra Bose in 1992, which was later withdrawn due to a legal technicality, the only case of an award being withdrawn. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1512x2016, 2094 KB) Only non-commercial or educational use of this file is permitted. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1512x2016, 2094 KB) Only non-commercial or educational use of this file is permitted. ... Maruthur Gopalamenon Ramachandran (Tamil: மருதூர் கோபால ராமச்சந்திரன், Malayalam:മരത്തൂര്‍ ഗോപാലന്‍ രാമചന്ദ്രന്‍) (January 17, 1917–December 24, 1987), popularly known as MGR எம்.ஜி.ஆர்., Puracthi Nadigar, Ponmana Chemmal, Makkal Thilakam and Puratchi Thalaivar (Tamil: Revolutionary Leader), was a long time leading Tamil film actor and Chief Minister of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu from 1977 until his death. ... Dr. Rajendra Prasad (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963) was the first President of India. ... The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু Shubhash Chôndro Bosh) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj. ...


While there was no formal provision that recipients of the Bharat Ratna should be Indian citizens, this seems to have been the general assumption. There has been one award to a naturalized Indian citizen — Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, better known as Mother Teresa (1980); and two to non-Indians — Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1987) and Nelson Mandela (1990). The awarding of this honour though, has frequently been the subject of litigation questioning the constitutional basis of such state awards. Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu [] (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997), Bharat Ratna, OM, was an Albanian Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity in India. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... Mandela redirects here. ...


Specifications

The original specifications for the award called for a circular gold medal, 35 mm in diameter, with the sun and the Hindi legend "Bharat Ratna" above and a floral wreath below. The reverse was to carry the state emblem and motto. It was to be worn around the neck from a white ribbon. There is no indication that any specimens of this design were ever produced and one year later the design was altered.


Complete list of the Awardees

S.No Name Birth / death Awarded Notes State(If Indian) else Country
1. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 1888–1975 1954 Former President, Philosopher. Tamil Nadu
2. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari 1878–1972 1954 Former Governor-General, Freedom Fighter. Tamil Nadu
3. Dr C.V. Raman 1888–1970 1954 Nobel-prize winning Physicist Tamil Nadu
4. Dr Bhagwan Das 1869–1958 1955 Philosopher, Freedom Fighter Uttar Pradesh
5. Dr Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya 1861–1962 1955 Engineer Karnataka
6. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 1889–1964 1955 Former Prime Minister, Freedom Fighter, Author. Uttar Pradesh
7. Govind Ballabh Pant 1887–1961 1957 Freedom Fighter, Home Minister Uttar Pradesh
8. Dr Dhondo Keshav Karve 1858–1962 1958 Maharashtra
9. Dr B. C. Roy 1882–1962 1961 Scientist West Bengal
10. Purushottam Das Tandon 1882–1962 1961 Freedom Fighter, Educationalist. Uttar Pradesh
11. Dr Rajendra Prasad 1884–1963 1962 Former President, Freedom Fighter, Jurist Bihar
12. Dr Zakir Hussain 1897–1969 1963 Former President, Scholar. Andhra Pradesh
13. Dr Pandurang Vaman Kane 1880–1972 1963 Maharashtra
14. Lal Bahadur Shastri 1904–1966 1966 Posthumous, Former Prime Minister, Freedom Fighter Uttar Pradesh
15. Indira Gandhi 1917–1984 1971 Former Prime Minister Uttar Pradesh
16. V.V. Giri 1894–1980 1975 Former President, Trade Unionist. Andhra Pradesh
17. K. Kamraj 1903–1975 1976 Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, Chief Minister-Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu
18. Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa) 1910–1997 1980 Naturalized Indian citizen, Nobel Laureate (Peace, 1979). West Bengal
19. Acharya Vinoba Bhave 1895–1982 1983 Posthumous, Social Reformer, Freedom Figher. Maharashtra
20. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan 1890–1988 1987 First non-citizen, Freedom Fighter. Pakistan
21. Dr M.G. Ramachandran 1917–1987 1988 Posthumous, Chief Minister-Tamil Nadu, Actor. Kerala
22. Dr Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar 1891–1956 1990 Posthumous, Architect-Indian Constitution, Leader of Dalits Maharashtra
23. Nelson Mandela b. 1918 1990 Second non-citizen and first non-Indian, Leader of Anti-Apartheid movement. South Africa
24. Rajiv Gandhi 1944–1991 1991 Posthumous, Former Prime Minister New Delhi
25. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 1875–1950 1991 Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, First Home Minister of India. Gujarat
26. Morarji Desai 1896–1995 1991 Former Prime Minister, Freedom Fighter. Gujarat
27. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 1888–1958 1992 Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, Educator. West Bengal
28. J.R.D. Tata 1904–1993 1992 Industrialist and philanthropist. Maharashtra
29. Satyajit Ray 1922–1992 1992 Legendary Indian Film Director West Bengal
30. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose 1897–1945(?) 1992 Freedom fighter, Founder of Indian National Army. West Bengal
31. Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam b. 1931 1997 President of India, Scientist. Tamil Nadu
32. Gulzarilal Nanda 1898–1998 1997 Freedom Fighter, former Prime Minister. Punjab
33. Aruna Asaf Ali 1908–1996 1997 Posthumous, Freedom Fighter. West Bengal
34. Dr M.S. Subbulakshmi 1916–2004 1998 Classical singer. Tamil Nadu
35. C Subramaniam 1910–2000 1998 Freedom Fighter, Minister of Agriculture. Tamil Nadu
36. Jayaprakash Narayan 1902–1979 1998 Posthumous, Freedom Fighter, Social Reformer. Uttar Pradesh
37. Pandit Ravi Shankar b. 1920 1999 Classical sitar player. Uttar Pradesh
38. Dr Amartya Sen b. 1933 1999 Nobel Laureate (Economics, 1998). West Bengal
39. Gopinath Bordoloi 1890–1950 1999 Posthumous, freedom fighter Assam
40. Lata Mangeshkar b. 1929 2001 Play back singer. Maharashtra
41. Ustad Bismillah Khan 1916-2006 2001 Shehnai (classical instrument) player. Uttar Pradesh
Indian Honours System - Civilian Awards
International: Gandhi Peace Prize National: Bharat Ratna - Padma Vibhushan - Padma Bhushan - Padma Shri
Literature: Jnanpith Award Fine Arts: Sangeet Natak Akademi award Movies: Dadasaheb Phalke Award
Sports: Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award - Arjuna Award Sports Coaching: Dronacharya Award
Indian Honours System - Gallantry Awards
War Time Awards: Param Vir Chakra - Maha Vir Chakra - Vir Chakra Peace Time Awards: Ashoka Chakra - Kirti Chakra - Shaurya Chakra
Distinguished Service Medals: Sena Medal (Army) - Naosena Medal (Navy) - Vayusena Medal (Air Force)
MGR being conferred India's Highest Civilian Award - Bharat Ratna - being recieved from President R.Venkatraman by wife Janaki Ramachandran
MGR being conferred India's Highest Civilian Award - Bharat Ratna - being recieved from President R.Venkatraman by wife Janaki Ramachandran

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bharat Ratna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (381 words)
Bharat Ratna is India's highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service.
Bharat Ratna roughly translates as 'Gem of India'.
Bharat Ratna medallion: An image of the Sun along with the words "Bharat Ratna", inscribed in Devanagari script, on a peepul leaf
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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