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Encyclopedia > Bhakti movement

Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. They are monotheistic movements generally devoted to worship of Shiva or Vishnu or Shakti. Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Shiva (English IPA: Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव; Malayalam ശിവന്‍; Tamil: சிவன் (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Śiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Origins

The Bhakti Movement was essentially founded in South India and later spread to the North during the late medieval period. The notion of 'Bhakti' (loosely translated as devotional love to God) is of antiquity. A nascent consciousness of what 'Bhakti' constitutes is already to be found in the earliest Vedas, especially in relation to deities such as Varuna. A clearer expression of Bhakti began to be formed during the so-called Epic Period and the Puranic periods of Hindu history. Texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana clearly explore Bhakti Yoga or the Path of Devotion as a means to salvation. Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... A Devotion in Christianity has come to mean time spent alone or in a small group of people reading and studying the Bible in a way as it relates to ones spiritual health and wellbeing. ...


The Bhakti Movement itself is a historical-spiritual phenomenon that crystallized in South India during Late Antiquity. It was spearheaded by devotional mystics (later revered as Hindu saints) who extolled devotion and love to God as the chief means of spiritual perfection. The Bhakti movement in South India was spearheaded by the sixty-three Nayanars (Shaivite devotees) and the twelve Alvars (Vaishnavaite devotees).


Among the earliest Shaivite mystics was Karaikkal Amaiyar, who probably lived around the late 5th century AD or perhaps the early 6th century. She was said to be a contemporary of the Vaishnavaite saints Bhuttalwar and Peialwar. Kannapa Nayanar was also an early Shaiva Bhakti saint. But most famous among the Shaiva Bhakti saints were the 'Nalvar' (The Four Eminent Ones), namely Sundarar, Appar, Sambandar and Manikkavasagar. Their devotional hymns are ecstatic, lyrical and moving. Karaikkal Ammeiyar (which means the mother from Karaikkal), one of the few females amongst the sixty three Nayanmars, is one of the greatest figures of early Tamil literature. ...


The Vaishnavaite Bhakti movement was contemporaneous with the Shaiva Bhakti movement. The hymns of the twelve alvars are held together as the 'Nalayira Divya Prabandham' and recited (as are the Shaiva texts) in temple rituals. Whilst all the saints are held in great reverence, Andal (or Goda-devi) in particular holds a special place among the Vaishnava saints. Not only is she the only female Vaishnava saint but also her hymns are among the best expressions of bridal mysticism in the Hindu religion.


The twelve Alvars and the sixty-three Nayanars nurtured the incipient bhakti movement in South India under the Pallavas and Pandyas in the fifth to seventh centuries AD. They constitute South India's 75 Apostles of Bhakti and were greatly influential in determining the expression of faith in South India. The path of devotion as expounded by these mystics would later be incorporated into Ramanuja and Madhva philosophical systems. The Alvars are Hindu saints, followers of Lord Vishnu. ... The Nayanars were the sincere and ardent devotees of Lord Siva. ... South Indias 75 Apostles of Bhakti are the twelve Alvars (also, Aazhvaars, Aazhwaars) and sixty-three Nayanmars (also Nayanars, Naayanars, Naayanmaars). ... Sri Ramanuja Acharya (traditionally dated 1017–1137 CE) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... Madhva can refer to: Shri Madhvacharya, Vaishnavite saint and founder of Dvaita school of thought, at Pajaka, Udupi a person belonging to the Dvaita school of thought This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


During the 12th and 13th centuries A.D., the Virashaiva movement and, during the rule of the Vijayanagar Empire in South India, the Haridasa movement spread from present-day Karnataka. The Virashaiva movement spread the philosophy of Basavanna, a Hindu reformer. The seeds of Carnatic music were sown, and the philosophy of Madhvacharya was propogated by the Kannada Haridasas.The Haridasa movement presented, like the Virashaiva movement, another strong current of Bhakti, pervading the lives of millions. The Haridasas presented two groups – Vyasakuta and Dasakuta. The former were required to be proficient in the Vedas, Upanishads and other Darshanas, while the Dasakuta merely conveyed the message of Madhvacharya through the Kannada language to the people. The philosophy of Madhvacharya was preserved and perpetuated by his eminent disciples like Vyasatirtha or Vyasaraja Naraharitirtha, Vadirajatirtha, Sripadaraya, Jayathirtha and others. In the fifteenth century, the Haridasa movement took shape under Sripadaraya of Mulbagal; but his disciple Vyasatirtha provided it a strong organizational base. He was intimately associated with the Vijayanagar Empire, where he became a great moral and spiritual force. His eminent disciples were Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa. Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Haridasa (haridasaru in Kannada) movement is considered as one of the turning points in Indian history. ... Basaveshvara Shree Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) is known as the reviver of the Veerashaiva (Lingayats) religion in India. ... Carnatic may mean: Carnatic, a region of Southern India Carnatic music SS Carnatic, a shipwrecked steamer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Lingayatism is a religious movement in India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Vyasatirtha (1460-1539) (also known as Vyasaraja, Vyasaraayaru) was one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... Sri Naraharitirtha (?-1333) CE. a disciple of Madhvacharya is considered by some as the founder of the Haridasa dasa kuta. ... Sri Vadirajatirtha 1480 - 1600,a haridasa is considered as the second highest saint in the Madhva hierarchy, next only to Srimad Ananda Tîrtha, even though his guru was Sri Vyasatirtha. ... Sripadaraya , a haridasa is also known as Sripadaraja or Lakshminarayana Tirtha 1404 - 1502. ... Jayatirtha (also known as Tikacharya) is one of the foremost dialecticians in the history of Indian philosophy. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Sri Purandara Dasa (1494-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. ...


The late Bhakti movement led to the proliferation of regional poetic literature in the various vernacular languages of India. The Bhakti movement in what is now Karnataka resulted in a burst of poetic Kannada literature in praise of Lord Vishnu. Some of its leaders include Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa, whose contributions were essential to Carnatic music. The later Carnatic Trinity is also no doubt a product of this long Bhakti Movement. Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... Purandara Dasa Purandara Dasa (1484-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Kanaka Dasa was one of the devotees of Krishna and an influential person in the Vaishnava bhakti movement in Karnataka. ... Timeline Instruments Veena - Mridangam - Ghatam - Morsing - Kanjira - Violin Awards Sangeetha Kalanidhi - Sangeetha Choodamani Events Festivals Purandaradasa Aradhane – Kanakadasa Aradhane – Hampi Sangeetotsava – Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine Compositions Varnam - Kriti - Geetham - Swarajati - Ragam Thanam Pallavi - Thillana - Padam - Javali - Mangalam Famous Carnatic Musicians Ariyakudi...


The Bhakti movement began to spread to the North during the late medieval ages when North India was under Muslim domination. There was no grouping of the mystics into Shaiva and Vaishnava devotees as it was in the South. The movement was spontaneous and the various mystics had their own version of devotional expression. Unlike in the South where devotion was centred on both Shiva and Vishnu (in all his forms), the Northern devotional movement was more or less centred on Rama and Krishna, both of whom were incarnations of Vishnu. Though this did not mean that the cult of Shiva or of the Devi went into decline. In fact for all of its history the Bhakti movement co-existed peacefully with the other movements in Hinduism. It was initially considered unorthodox as it rebelled against caste distinctions and made disregarded Brahmanic rituals which according to Bhakti saints not necessary for salvation. In the course of time however, owing to its immense popularity among the masses (and even royal patronage) it became 'orthodox' and continues to be one of the most important modes of religious expression in modern India.


In the period between the 14-17th centuries, a great bhakti movement swept through Northern India initiated by a loosely associated group of teachers or 'Sants'. Caitanya, Vallabha, Meera Bai, Kabir, Tulsi Das, Tukaram and other mystics spearheaded the Bhakti movement in the North. Their teachings were that people could cast aside the heavy burdens of ritual and caste and the subtle complexities of philosophy and simply express their overwhelming love for God. This period was also characterised by a spate of devotional literature in vernacular prose and poetry in the ethnic languages of the various Indian states or provinces. Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

For more details on this topic, see Sant Mat.

As aforementioned whilst many of the Bhakti mystics focused their attention on Krishna or Rama, it did not necessarily mean that the cult of Shiva was marginalised. The growth of the Vira-Shaiva and the older Shaiva Siddhanta schools in this period, which incorporated Bhakti into their teachings are testimony to the growth of the Shaiva faith in this period. In the thirteenth century Basava founded the Vira-Shaiva school or Virashaivism. He rejected the caste system, denied the supremacy of the Brahmins, condemned ritual sacrifice and insisted on bhakti and the worship of the one God, Shiva. His followers were called Vira-Shaivas, meaning "stalwart Shiva-worshippers". Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ... Basaveshvara Basava (also known as Basaveshwara or Basavanna) is known as the founder of the lingayat (Lingayats) religious movement in India. ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... Virasaivism is a religious movement of Hinduism in India. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Shiva (English IPA: Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव; Malayalam ശിവന്‍; Tamil: சிவன் (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Śiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ...


The Saiva-Siddhanta school is a form of Shaivism (Shiva worship) found in the south and is of hoary antiquity. It incorporates the teachings of the erstwhile Shaiva nayanars and espouses the belief that Shiva is Brahman and his infinite love is revealed in the divine acts of the creation, preservation and destruction of the universe, and in the liberation of the soul. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...



Seminal Bhakti works in Bengali include the many songs of Ramprasad Sen. His pieces (known as Shyama Sangeet, or Songs of the Dark Mother) are still actively sung today in West Bengal. Coming from the 17th century, they cover an astonishing range of emotional responses to Ma Kali, detailing complex philosophical statements based on Vedanta teachings and more visceral pronouncements of his love of Devi. Using inventive allegory, Ramprasad had 'dialogues' with the Mother Goddess through his poetry, at times chiding her, adoring her, celebrating her as the Divine Mother, reckless consort of Shiva and capricious Shakti, the universal female creative energy, of the cosmos. Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of East South Asia, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Ramprasad Sen (Bangla: রামপ্রসাদ সেন) (1720-1781) was a Bengali song-writer and singer of Hindu devotional songs, specially Shyamasangit (Songs devoted to the goddess Kali). ... Kali (Sanskrit: काली) is a goddess with a long and complex history in Hinduism (although sometimes presented in the West as dark and violent). ... Vedanta (Devanagari: , ) is a school of philosophy within Hinduism. ... Commonly known as Devi (goddess), Vaishnodevi (देवी, Devī in Hindi and Sanskrit) is the Divine Mother of Hinduism. ... Shiva (English IPA: Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव; Malayalam ശിവന്‍; Tamil: சிவன் (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Śiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Rama bhakti

The leader of the bhakti movement focusing on the Lord as Rama was Ramananda. Very little is known about him, but he is believed to have lived in the first half of the 15th century. He taught that Lord Rama is the supreme Lord, and that salvation could be attained only through love for and devotion to him, and through the repetition of his sacred name. Ramananda was a vaishnava saint, a Ramayat - devotee of Lord Rama. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Ramananda's ashram in Varanasi became a powerful centre of religious influence, from which his ideas spread far and wide among all classes of Indians. One of the reasons for his great popularity was that he renounced Sanskrit and used the language of the people for the composition of his hymns. This paved the way for the modern tendency in northern India to write literary texts in local languages. An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (HindÄ«: वाराणसी, UrdÅ«: وارانسی, IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (HindÄ«: बनारस, UrdÅ«: بنارس, ; IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (काशी کاشی ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ...


Devotees of Krishna worship Him in different mellows, known as rasas. Two major systems of Krishna worship developed, each with its own philosophical system. These two moods as called aishwaryamaya bhakti and madhuryamaya bhakti. Aishwaryamaya bhakti is revealed in the abode of queens and kingdom of Krishna in Dwaraka. Madhuryamaya Bhakti is revealed in the abode of braja. Thus krishna is variously worshipped according to the development of devotee's taste in worshipping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krishna, as father, friend, master, beloved and many different varieties which are all extraordinary. Krishna is famous as Makhanchor, or butterthief. He loved to eat butter and is the beloved of his little village in Gokul. These are all transcendental descriptions. Thus they are revealed to the sincere devotees in proportion to the development in their love of Godhead.


Shri Madhvacharya (1238-1317) identified God with Vishnu. His view of reality is purely dualistic in that he understood a fundamental differentiation between the ultimate Godhead and the individual soul, and the system is therefore called Dvaita (dualistic) Vedanta. Madhva is considered one of the influential theologians in Hindu history. His influence was profound, and he is one of the fathers of the Vaishnava Bhakti movement. Great leaders of the Vaishnava Bhakti movement in Karnataka like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Raghavendra Swami and many others were influenced by Dvaita traditions. Shri Madhvacharya,(1238-1317), was the chief propounder of the Dvaita or dualistic school of Hindu philosophy, one of the three influential Vedanta philosophies. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God and souls. ... Purandara Dasa Purandara Dasa (1484-1564) (the follower (dasa) of Lord Purandara Vittala [Lord Vishnu in one of his many avatars. ... Kanaka Dasa was one of the devotees of Krishna and an influential person in the Vaishnava bhakti movement in Karnataka. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) called his system of thought Shuddhadvaita (pure monism). According to him, it is by God's grace alone that one can obtain release from bondage and attain Krishna's heaven. This heaven is far above the "heavens" of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, for Krishna is himself the eternal Brahman. Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ...


Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 - 1534) defined his system of philosophy as Achintya Bheda Abheda (inconceivable and simultaneous oneness and difference). It synthesizes elements of monism and dualism into a single system. Chaitanya's philosophy is taught by the contemporary International Society for Krishna Consciousness, better known as the Hare Krishna movement. Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534) Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST ) (Bangla ) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ... Founder of ISKCON: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna movement, was founded in 1966 in New York City by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. ...


Srimanta Sankardeva (1449-1568) named his religion ek sarana naam dharma and propagated it in Assam. An example of dasa bhakti, in this form there was no place for Radha. The most important symbol of this religion is the naamghor or prayer hall, which dot Assam's landscape. This form of worship is very strong in Assam today, and much of the traditions are maintained by the monastries called Satras. Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankaradeva (1449-1568) is a colossal figure in the cultural and religious history of Assam, India. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur - now a part of Guwahati. ...


Vaishnava bhakti

For more information about leaders of the Vaishnava bhakti movement, see Vaishnavism, Gaudiya Vaishnavism and Hare Krishna. Maha-Vishnu depicted as resting on the causal ocean, with countless universes emanating from his skin pores. ... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari. ...


Prominent historical personalities include:

Sri Ramanuja Acharya (traditionally dated 1017–1137 CE) was an Indian philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism. ... Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... Madhva can refer to: Shri Madhvacharya, Vaishnavite saint and founder of Dvaita school of thought, at Pajaka, Udupi a person belonging to the Dvaita school of thought This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) called his system of thought Shuddhadvaita (pure monism). ... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... Bhakti Tirtha Swami (February 25, 1950–June 27, 2005) was an African-American Hindu leader. ...

Influences

Beyond the confines of such formal schools and movements, however, the development of bhakti as a major form of Hindu practice has left an indelible stamp on the faith. Philosophical speculation was concern for the minority, and even the great Advaitist scholar Adi Shankaracharya, when questioned as to the way to God, said that chanting the name of the lord, was essential. The philosophical schools changed the way people thought, but Bhakti was immediately accessible to all, calling to the instinct emotion of love and redirecting it to the highest pursuit of God and self-realization. In general a liberal movement, its denouncement of caste offered recourse for Hindus from the orthodox Brahaminical systems. Of course, however, Bhakti's message of tolerance and love was not often heeded by those ensconced in the societal construct of caste. Altogether, Bhakti resulted in a mass of devotional literature, music and art that has enriched the world and gave India renewed spiritual impetus, one eschewing unnecessary ritual and artificial social boundaries. Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth...


References

  1. Schouten, pages 11-26
  2. Karavelane Kareikkalammeiyar, oeuvres editees et traduites, institut francais d'indologie, Pondicherry (1956)
  3. Jagadeesan, N The Life and Mission of Karaikkal Ammaiyar Bhattacharya, N.N. [ed] Medieval Bhakti Movements in India Munishiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, (1989), pages 149-161

External links

  • Path of Devotion
  • International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON)
  • Krishna.com All about Krishna. Info, books, MP3s, images, radio...
  • The full text of the Bhagavata Purana (Srimad-Bhagavatam)
  • Waves of Devotion - Dhanurdhara Swami's Companion to A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's Nectar of Devotion (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu).

Bibliography

  • Schouten, Jan Peter (Dutch) Goddelijke vergezichten - mystiek uit India voor westerse lezers, Ten Have b.v., Baarn, the Netherlands, (1996), ISBN 90-259-4644-5

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bhakti movement - Biocrawler (1257 words)
Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti.
It was the Vishnu movement that mainly spread to the north, where it itself divided into two camps, the one worshipping Vishnu mainly in the form of his avatar Rama, the other in the form of Krishna.
The leader of the bhakti movement focusing on the Lord as Rama was Ramananda.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Bhakti movement (2073 words)
The Bhakti Movement was essentially founded in South India and later spread to the North during the late medieval period.
The Bhakti movement in South India was spearheaded by the sixty-three Nayanars (Shaivite devotees) and the twelve Alvars (Vaishnavaite devotees).
The Vaishnavaite Bhakti movement was contemporaneous with the Shaiva Bhakti movement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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