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Encyclopedia > Bhagavad Gita
Krishna reveals his Vishvarupa form to Arjuna during their discourse of the Bhagavad Gita.

The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit भगवद्‌ गीता Bhagavad Gītā, "Song of God") is a Sanskrit text from the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata epic. Due to differences in recensions they may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.25 – 42.[1] or as chapters 6.23-40[2] According to the recension of the Gita commented on by Shankaracharya, the number of verses is 700, but there is evidence to show that some old manuscripts had 745 verses.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Hinduism, Trisiras is the three-headed son of Tvashta. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt-stem (nominative/vocative ) (hindi sandhi vichchhed:भ्+अ+ग्+अ+व्+आ+न्+अ)literally means: भ bh=bhoo soil अ a=agni fire ग g=gagan sky वा va=vaayu air न n=neer water BHAGAVAN is said to be composed up of all five matters other meanings possessing fortune, blessed, prosperous... Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written on the Indian sub-continent. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ...


Krishna, as the speaker of the Bhagavad Gita, is referred to within as Bhagavan[4] (the divine one), and the verses themselves, using the range and style of Sanskrit meter (chandas) with similes and metaphors, are written in a poetic form that is traditionally chanted; hence the title, which translates to "the Song of the Divine One". The Bhagavad Gita is revered as sacred by the majority of Hindu traditions,[5] and especially so by followers of Krishna. It is commonly referred to as The Gita.[6] This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt-stem (nominative/vocative ) (hindi sandhi vichchhed:भ्+अ+ग्+अ+व्+आ+न्+अ)literally means: भ bh=bhoo soil अ a=agni fire ग g=gagan sky वा va=vaayu air न n=neer water BHAGAVAN is said to be composed up of all five matters other meanings possessing fortune, blessed, prosperous... Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ...


The content of the text is a conversation between Krishna and Arjuna taking place on the battlefield of Kurukshetra just prior to the start of a climactic war. Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma, Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and Prince and elaborates on a number of different Yogic[7] and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu philosophy and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life. During the discourse, Krishna reveals his identity as the Supreme Being Himself (Bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring glimpse of His divine absolute form. This article is about the Hindu deity. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Vedanta , meaning literally the end section of the Vedas, is a branch of Hindu philosophy. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt-stem (nominative/vocative ) (hindi sandhi vichchhed:भ्+अ+ग्+अ+व्+आ+न्+अ)literally means: भ bh=bhoo soil अ a=agni fire ग g=gagan sky वा va=vaayu air न n=neer water BHAGAVAN is said to be composed up of all five matters other meanings possessing fortune, blessed, prosperous... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ...


The Bhagavad Gita is also called Gītopaniṣad as well as Yogupaniṣad, implying its status as an 'Upanishad'.[8] Since it is drawn from the Mahabharata, it is a Smṛti text, however referring to it as an Upanishad is intended to give it status comparable to that of śruti, or revealed knowledge.[9] The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniá¹£ad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... Åšruti (Sanskrit श्रुति, what is heard) is a canon of Hindu scriptures. ...

Contents

Background

Statue representing the discourse of Krishna and Arjuna, located in Tirumala
Statue representing the discourse of Krishna and Arjuna, located in Tirumala

The discourse on the Bhagavad Gita begins before the start of the climactic battle at Kurukshetra. It begins with the Pandava prince Arjuna, as he becomes filled with doubt on the battlefield. Realising that his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends and revered teachers, he turns to his charioteer and guide, Krishna, for advice. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 318 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Depiction of Bhagavad Gita - philosophical discource by Lord Krishna to Arjuna at the entrance to Tirumala I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 318 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Depiction of Bhagavad Gita - philosophical discource by Lord Krishna to Arjuna at the entrance to Tirumala I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission... Tirumala (తిరుమల), the abode of the Hindu God Lord Venkateswara, is situated on a very ancient ridge of mountains in a southern district of Andhra Pradesh. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


In summary the main philosophical subject matter of the Bhagavad-gita is the explanation of five basic concepts or truths:[10]

Krishna counsels Arjuna on the greater idea of dharma, or universal harmony and duty. He begins with the tenet that the soul is eternal and immortal.[11] Any 'death' on the battlefield would involve only the shedding of the body, but the soul is permanent. Arjuna's hesitation stems from a lack of right understanding of the 'nature of things,' the privileging of the unreal over the real. His fear and reticence become impediments to the proper balancing of the universal dharmic order. Essentially, Arjuna wishes to abandon the battle, to abstain from action; Krishna warns, however, that without action, the cosmos would fall out of order and truth would be obscured. Ishvara (Sanskrit lord, master, from an adjective capable) is a philosophical concept in Hinduism, similar to the Abrahamic concept of God. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language) is, according to samkhya philosophy, the basic matter of which the universe consists. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


In order to clarify his point, Krishna expounds the various Yoga processes, and understanding of the true nature of the universe. Krishna describes the yogic paths of devotional service,[12] action,[13] meditation[14] and knowledge.[15] Fundamentally, the Bhagavad Gita proposes that true enlightenment comes from growing beyond identification with the temporal ego, the 'False Self', the ephemeral world, so that one identifies with the truth of the immortal self, the soul or Atman. Through detachment from the material sense of ego, the Yogi, or follower of a particular path of Yoga, is able to transcend his/her illusory mortality and attachment to the material world and enter the realm of the Supreme.[16] For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... According to the Hindu Yoga Sutra dhyana is one of the eight methods of Yoga, (the other seven methods are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, and Samadhi). ... Jnana is the Sanskrit term for knowledge. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi A yogi (also yogin; Sanskrit , nominative ; feminine: yogini) is a term for one who practices yoga. ...


It should be noted, however, that Krishna does not propose that the physical world must be forgotten or neglected. Indeed, it is quite the opposite: one's life on earth must be lived in accordance with greater laws and truths, one must embrace one's temporal duties whilst remaining mindful of a more timeless reality, acting for the sake of action without consideration for the results therof. Such a life would naturally lead towards stability, happiness and, ultimately, enlightenment.


To demonstrate his divine nature, Krishna grants Arjuna the boon of cosmic vision (albeit temporary) and allows the prince to see his 'Universal Form' (this occurs in the eleventh chapter).[17] He reveals that he is fundamentally both the ultimate essence of Being in the universe, and also its material body, called the Vishvarupa ('World Form'). In Hinduism, Trisiras is the three-headed son of Tvashta. ...


In the Bhagavad-Gita Krishna refers to the war about to take place as 'Dharma Yuddha', meaning a righteous war for the purpose of justice. In Chapter 4, Krishna states that he incarnates in each age (yuga) to establish righteousness in the world.[18] Yuga (Devnāgari: युग) in Hindu philosophy refers to an epoch or era within a cycle of four ages: the Satya Yuga (or Krita Yuga), the Treta Yuga, the Dvapara Yuga and finally the Kali Yuga. ...


Dating of the text

The date of composition of the text of the Bhagavad Gita is not known with certainty. Some scholars give a broad range of possible dates, as in this analysis by R. C. Zaehner:

As with almost every major religious text in India no firm date can be assigned to the Gītā. It seems certain, however, that it was written later than the 'classical' Upanishads with the possible exception of the Maitrī and that it is post-Buddhistic. One would probably not be going far wrong if one dated it at some time between the fifth and the second centuries B. C.[19]

Based on the differences in the poetic styles and supposed external influences such as Patanjali's Yoga Sutra, some scholars have suggested that the Bhagavad Gita was added to the Mahabharata at a later date.[20][21] Eknath Easwaran supports the theory of late interpolation and believes that the first chapter, which gives a brief summary of the characters and setting, was intended to serve as a bridge between the epic material and chapters two through eighteen of the Gita which focus on philosophical material.[22] The interpolation theory is supported by Robert N. Minor, who writes that: Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ...

"The Bhagavadgita was written about 150 B.C. by a devotee of another Indian deity, Krishna, whose popularity would spread throughout India. It was meant to be included in the Mahabharata by a Krishna bhakta, in order to show that devotion to Krishna was the key to an understanding of the Vedic religion."[23]

Dating of the Mahabharata war

For historicity of the Mahabharata war, see: Mahabharata

A traditional religious dating for the events of the Mahabharata War according to the chronology established in Gupta times by Aryabhata on grounds of archaeoastronomical calculations places the Mahabharata (including the Bhagavad-Gita) in the late 4th millennium BC (3138 BC[24] or 3102 BC[25]). Historian A. L. Basham comments on the difference between traditional dates and modern scholarly estimates: For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. ... The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ...

According to the most popular later tradition the Mahābhārata War took place in 3102 B.C., which in the light of all evidence, is quite impossible. More reasonable is another tradition, placing it in the 15th century B.C., but this is also several centuries too early in the light of our archaeological knowledge. Probably the war took place around the beginning of the 9th century B.C.; such a date seems to fit well with the scanty archaeological remains of the period, and there is some evidence in the Brāmaṇa literature itself to show that it cannot have been much earlier.[26]

Swami Vivekananda dismisses concerns about differences of opinion regarding the historical events as unimportant for study of the text of the Gita:

One thing should be especially remembered here, that there is no connection between these historical researches and our real aim, which the knowledge that leads to the acquirement of Dharma. Even if the historicity of the whole thing is proved to be absolutely false today, it will not in the least be any loss to us.[27]

Overview of chapters

The Gita consists of eighteen chapters in total:

  1. Arjuna requests Krishna to move his chariot between the two armies. When Arjuna sees his relatives on the opposing army side of the Kurus, he loses courage and decides not to fight.
  2. After asking Krishna for help, Arjuna is instructed that only the body may be killed, while the eternal self is immortal. Krishna appeals to Arjuna that as a warrior he has a duty to uphold the path of dharma through warfare.
  3. Arjuna asks why he should engage in fighting if knowledge is more important than action? Krishna stresses to Arjuna that performing his duties for the greater good, but without attachment to results is the appropriate cause of action.
  4. Krishna reveals that he has lived through many births, always teaching Yoga for the protection of the pious and the destruction of the impious, and stresses the importance of accepting a guru.
  5. Arjuna asks Krishna if it is better to forgo action or to act. Krishna answers that both ways may be beneficient, but that acting in Karma Yoga is superior.
  6. Krishna describes the correct posture for meditation and the process of how to achieve samadhi.
  7. Krishna teaches Jnana Yoga
  8. Krishna defines the terms brahman, adhyatma, karma, adhibhuta, and adhidaiva and explains how one can remember him at the time of death and attain his supreme abode.
  9. Krishna explains panentheism, "all beings are in me" as a way of remembering him in all circumstances.
  10. Krishna describes how he is the ultimate source of all material and spiritual worlds. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the supreme being, quoting great sages who have also done so.
  11. On Arjuna's request, Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa), an epiphany of a being facing every way and emitting the radiance of a thousand suns, containing all other beings and material in existence.
  12. Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti Yoga).
  13. Krishna describes nature (prakrti), the enjoyer (purusha), and consciousness.
  14. Krishna explains the three modes (gunas) of material nature.
  15. Krishna describes a symbolic tree (representing material existence), its roots in the heavens and its foliage on earth. Krishna explains that this tree should be felled with the "axe of detachment", after which one can go beyond to his supreme abode.
  16. Krishna tells of the human traits of the divine and the demonic natures. He counsels that to attain the supreme destination one give up lust, anger, and greed, discern between right and wrong action by evidence from scripture, and thus act rightly.
  17. Krishna tells of three divisions of faith and the thoughts, deeds and even eating habits corresponding to the three gunas.
  18. In conclusion, Krishna asks Arjuna to abandon all forms of dharma and simply surrender unto him. He describes this as the ultimate perfection of life

For other uses, please see Arjun. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Eternal can refer to: The British R&B group Eternal Eternals, the Marvel Comics characters created by Jack Kirby The eternity puzzle The concept of eternity The philosophical notion of the incorporeal, or immaterial realm. ... Look up immortal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ... Jnana yoga is one of the four basic paths in yoga (jnana, [[Bhakti yoga|bhakti, raja and karma. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Epiphany may refer to. ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language) is, according to samkhya philosophy, the basic matter of which the universe consists. ... In Hinduism, Purusha (Sanskrit man, Cosmic Man, in Sutra literature also called man) is the self which pervades the universe. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The Sanskrit word guna () has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. // In Classical literature (e. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...

The Scripture of Yoga

Part of a series on
Hindu scriptures
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Vedas
Rigveda · Yajurveda
Samaveda · Atharvaveda
Vedic divisions
Samhita · Brahmana
Aranyaka  · Upanishad
Upanishad
Aitareya · Brihadaranyaka
Isha · Taittiriya · Chandogya
Kena · Mundaka
Mandukya · Prashna
Shvetashvatara
Vedanga
Shiksha · Chandas
Vyakarana · Nirukta
Jyotisha · Kalpa
Mahakavaya(Epics)
Mahabharata · Ramayana
Other scriptures
Smriti · Śruti
Bhagavad Gita · Purana
Agama · Darshana
Pancharatra · Tantra
Sutra · Stotra ·Dharmashastra
Divya Prabandha
Tevaram · Akhilathirattu
Ramacharitamanas
Shikshapatri · Vachanamrut
Bibliography
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The Gita addresses the discord between the senses and the intuition of cosmic order. It speaks of the Yoga of equanimity, a detached outlook. The term Yoga covers a wide range of meanings, but in the context of the Bhagavad Gita, describes a unified outlook, serenity of mind, skill in action and the ability to stay attuned to the glory of the Self (Atman) and the Supreme Being (Bhagavan). According to Krishna, the root of all suffering and discord is the agitation of the mind caused by selfish desire. The only way to douse the flame of desire is by simultaneously stilling the mind through self-discipline and engaging oneself in a higher form of activity. Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Veda redirects here. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniá¹£ad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Upanishad is believed to be one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads. ... The Isha Upanishad () or Ishopanishad (), also known as the Ishavasya Upanishad (), is a Sanskrit poem (or sequence of mantras) from the Upanishads and is considered Åšruti by followers of a number of diverse traditions within Hinduism. ... The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ... The Kena Upanishad (), is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... Mundaka Upanishad is an Upanishad of the Atharva Veda. ... MāndÅ«kya Upanishad is one of the shortest Upanishads, that form of the revealed, so called metaphysical, parts of the Vedic texts, the Vedas. ... i hate prashna ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the 33 Upanishads of Krishna Yajurveda or Black Yajurveda . ... The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... For the Yiddish slang word, see Shiksa. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. ... Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Bibliography of Hindu scriptures - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the Buddhist texts called the Agamas, see Nikaya. ... The Sanskrit word darshana means view or viewpoint. ... Pañcaratra is an pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... The Nalayira Divya Prabandha is a divine [1] collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means four thousand) composed sometime around the 8th and 12th century AD, by the 12 Alvars (also aazhvaars), the Tamil mystic poets, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thevaram (Verses). ... Akilathirattu Ammanai அகிலத்திரட்டு அம்மானை (Tamil: akilam (world) + thirattu (collection) + ammanai (ballad)), also called Thiru Edu (venerable book), is the main religious book of the Southern Indian Ayyavazhi faith, officially an offshoot of Hinduism. ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcaritmānas (Hindi: रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... The Shikshapatri is a text of two hundred and twelve verses, and was written by Shree Swaminarayan, a reforming Hindu from the Vaishnava tradition, who lived in Gujarat from 1781-1830 and who was recognised by his followers as a deity during his lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bibliography of Hindu scriptures - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Upeksa, also upekkha in Pali, is the Buddhist concept of equanimity. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ...


However, abstinence from action is regarded as being just as detrimental as extreme indulgence. According to the Bhagavad Gita, the goal of life is to free the mind and intellect from their complexities and to focus them on the glory of the Self by dedicating one's actions to the divine. This goal can be achieved through the Yogas of meditation, action, devotion and knowledge. In the sixth chapter, Krishna describes the best Yogi as one who constantly meditates upon him[28] - which is understood to mean thinking of either Krishna personally, or the supreme Brahman - with different schools of Hindu thought giving varying points of view. This article is about the Hindu deity. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ...


Krishna summarizes the Yogas through eighteen chapters. There are many types of yoga mentioned, but three in particular have been emphasized by commentors:

  • Bhakti Yoga or Devotion,
  • Karma Yoga or Selfless Action
  • Jnana Yoga or Self Transcending Knowledge

While each path differs, their fundamental goal is the same - to realize Brahman (the Divine Essence) as being the ultimate truth upon which our material universe rests, that the body is temporal, and that the Supreme Soul (Paramatman) is infinite. Yoga's aim (moksha) is to escape from the cycle of reincarnation through realization of the ultimate reality. There are three stages to self-realization enunciated from the Bhagavad Gita: This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... In Hindu theology, Paramatman is the Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul or Spirit (also known as Supersoul or Oversoul) in the Vedanta and Yoga philosophies of India. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


1. Brahman - The impersonal universal energy This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ...


2. Paramatma - The Supreme Soul sitting in the heart of every living entity. In Hindu theology, Paramatman is Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul. ...


3. Bhagavan - God as a personality, with a transcendental form. Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt-stem (nominative/vocative ) (hindi sandhi vichchhed:भ्+अ+ग्+अ+व्+आ+न्+अ)literally means: भ bh=bhoo soil अ a=agni fire ग g=gagan sky वा va=vaayu air न n=neer water BHAGAVAN is said to be composed up of all five matters other meanings possessing fortune, blessed, prosperous...


Major themes of yoga

The influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. circa 1490) divided the Gita's eighteen chapters into three sections, each of six chapters. According to his method of division the first six chapters deal with Karma Yoga, which is the means to the final goal, and the last six deal with the goal itself, which he says is Knowledge (Jnana). The middle six deal with bhakti.[29] Swami Gambhiranda characterizes Madhusudana Sarasvati's system as a successive approach in which Karma yoga leads to Bhakti yoga, which in turn leads to Jnana yoga.[30] This system has been adopted by some later commentators and rejected by others.


Karma Yoga

Main article: Karma Yoga

Karma Yoga is essentially Acting, or doing one's duties in life as per his/her dharma, or duty, without concern of results - a sort of constant sacrifice of action to the Supreme. It is action done without thought of gain. In a more modern interpretation, it can be viewed as duty bound deeds done without letting the nature of the result affecting ones actions. It is said that the results can be of 3 types - as aimed for, opposite of what is aimed for, or a mixture of these. If one can perform his duties (as prescribed in the Vedas) without any anticipation of the result of his actions, he is bound to succeed. It includes, but is not limited to, dedication of one's chosen profession and its perfection to God. It is also visible in community and social service, since they are inherently done without thought of personal gain. Karma yoga (Sanskrit: कर्म योग), (also known as Buddhi Yoga) or the discipline of action is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Veda redirects here. ...


Krishna advocates 'Nishkam Karma Yoga' (the Yoga of Selfless Action) as the ideal path to realize the Truth. Allocated work done without expectations, motives, or thinking about its outcomes tends to purify one's mind and gradually makes an individual fit to see the value of reason and the benefits of renouncing the work itself. These concepts are vividly described in the following verses: Nishkam Karma, or self-less or desireless action is an action performed without any expectation of fruits or results. ...

"To action alone hast thou a right and never at all to its fruits; let not the fruits of action be thy motive; neither let there be in thee any attachment to inaction"[31]
"Fixed in yoga, do thy work, O Winner of wealth (Arjuna), abandoning attachment, with an even mind in success and failure, for evenness of mind is called yoga"[32]
"With the body, with the mind, with the intellect, even merely with the senses, the Yogis perform action toward self-purification, having abandoned attachment. He who is disciplined in Yoga, having abandoned the fruit of action, attains steady peace..." [3]

In order to achieve true liberation, it is important to control all mental desires and tendencies to enjoy sense pleasures. The following verses illustrate this:[33]

"When a man dwells in his mind on the object of sense, attachment to them is produced. From attachment springs desire and from desire comes anger."
"From anger arises bewilderment, from bewilderment loss of memory; and from loss of memory, the destruction of intelligence and from the destruction of intelligence he perishes"

Bhakti Yoga

Main article: Bhakti Yoga

According to Catherine Cornille, Associate Professor of Theology at Boston College, "The text [of the Gita] offers a survey of the different possible disciplines for attaining liberation through knowledge (jnana), ritual action (karma), and loving devotion to God (bhakti), focusing on the latter as both the easiest and the highest path to salvation."[34] Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ...


In the introduction to Chapter Seven of the Gita, bhakti is summed up as a mode of worship which consists of unceasing and loving remembrance of God. As M. R. Sampatkumaran explains in his overview of Ramanuja's commentary on the Gita, "The point is that mere knowledge of the scriptures cannot lead to final release. Devotion, meditation, and worship are essential."[35]


As Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita:

  • "I consider the Yogi-devotee who lovingly contemplates on Me with supreme faith, and whose mind is ever absorbed in Me to be the best of all the Yogis".[36]
  • "After attaining Me, the great souls do not incur rebirth in this miserable transitory world, because they have attained the highest perfection."[37]
  • "... those who, renouncing all actions in Me, and regarding Me as the Supreme, worship Me... For those whose thoughts have entered into Me, I am soon the deliverer from the ocean of death and transmigration, Arjuna. Keep your mind on Me alone, your intellect on Me. Thus you shall dwell in Me hereafter."[38]
  • "And he who serves Me with the yoga of unswerving devotion, transcending these qualities [binary opposites, like good and evil, pain and pleasure] is ready for liberation in Brahman."[39]
  • "Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, offer service to Me, bow down to Me, and you shall certainly reach Me. I promise you because you are My very dear friend."[40]
  • "Setting aside all meritorious deeds (Dharma), just surrender completely to My will (with firm faith and loving contemplation). I shall liberate you from all sins. Do not fear."[41]

Surrender in religion means that a believer completely gives up his own will and subjects his thoughts, ideas, and deeds to the will and teachings of a divine power or deity. ...

Jnana Yoga

Main article: Jnana Yoga

Jnana Yoga is a process of learning to discriminate between what is real and what is not, what is eternal and what is not. Through a steady advancement in realization of the distinction between Real and the Unreal, the Eternal and the Temporal, one develops into a Jnana Yogi. This is essentially a path of knowledge and discrimination in regards to the difference between the immortal soul (atman) and the body. Jnana yoga is one of the four basic paths in yoga (jnana, [[Bhakti yoga|bhakti, raja and karma. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ...


In the second chapter, Krishna’s counsel begins with a succinct exposition of Jnana Yoga. Krishna argues that there is no reason to lament for those who are about to be killed in battle, because never was there a time when they were not, nor will there be a time when they will cease to be. Krishna explains that the self (atman) of all these warriors is indestructible. Fire cannot burn it, water cannot wet it, and wind cannot dry it. It is this Self that passes from body to another body like a person taking worn out clothing and putting on new ones. Krishna’s counsel is intended to alleviate the anxiety that Arjuna feels seeing a battle between two great armies about to commence. However, Arjuna is not an intellectual. He is a warrior, a man of action, for whom the path of action, Karma Yoga, is more appropriate.

"When a sensible man ceases to see different identities due to different material bodies and he sees how beings are expanded everywhere, he attains to the Brahman conception."[42]
"Those who see with eyes of knowledge the difference between the body and the knower of the body, and can also understand the process of liberation from bondage in material nature, attain to the supreme goal."[43]

The Eighteen Yogas

In many Sanskrit editions of the Gita, the Sanskrit text includes a traditional chapter title naming each chapter as a particular form of yoga. These chapter titles do not appear in the Sanskrit text of the Mahabharata.[44] Since there are eighteen chapters, there are therefore eighteen yogas mentioned, as explained in this quotation from Swami Chidbhavananda:

All the eighteen chapters in the Gita are designated, each as a type of yoga. The function of the yoga is to train the body and the mind.... The first chapter in the Gita is designated as system of yoga. It is called Arjuna Vishada Yogam - Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection.[45]

In Sanskrit editions, these eighteen chapter titles all use the word yoga, but in English translations the word yoga may not appear. For example, the Sanskrit title of Chapter 1 as given in Swami Sivananda's bilingual edition is arjunaviṣādayogaḥ which he translates as "The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna".[46] Swami Tapasyananda's bilingual edition gives the same Sanskrit title, but translates it as "Arjuna's Spiritual Conversion Through Sorrow".[47] The English-only translation by Radhakrishnan gives no Sanskrit, but the chapter title is translated as "The Hesitation and Despondency of Arjuna".[48] Other English translations, such as that by Zaehner, omit these chapter titles entirely.[49]


Swami Sivananda's commentary says that the eighteen chapters have a progressive order to their teachings, by which Krishna "pushed Arjuna up the ladder of Yoga from one rung to another."[50] As Winthrop Sargeant explains,

In the model presented by the Bhagavad Gītā, every aspect of life is in fact a way of salvation.[51]

Dhyana Yoga

Main article: Dhyana in Hinduism

Dhyana Yoga is the stilling of the mind and body through meditating techniques, geared at realizing one's true nature. A very similar (if not identical) practice was later described by Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras. According to the Hindu Yoga Sutra dhyana is one of the eight methods of Yoga, (the other seven methods are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, and Samadhi). ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

To practice yoga, one should go to a secluded place and should lay kusa grass on the ground and then cover it with a deerskin and a soft cloth. The seat should be neither too high nor too low and should be situated in a sacred place. The yogi should then sit on it very firmly and practice yoga to purify the heart by controlling his mind, senses and activities and fixing the mind on one point. One should hold one's body, neck and head erect in a straight line and stare steadily at the tip of the nose. Thus, with an unagitated, subdued mind, devoid of fear, completely free from sex life, one should meditate upon Me within the heart and make Me the ultimate goal of life. Thus practicing constant control of the body, mind and activities, the mystic transcendentalist, his mind regulated, attains to the kingdom of God [or the abode of Krishna] by cessation of material existence.[52]

Note: Alternative versions of the above verse state that the top of the nose (between the eyebrows) should be meditated upon, rather than the tip.[53]


Influence of the Bhagavad Gita

‘‘The Blessed Lord said: Time I am, destroyer of the worlds, and I have come to engage all people. With the exception of you, all the soldiers here on both sides will be slain.’’ 11:32
‘‘The Blessed Lord said: Time I am, destroyer of the worlds, and I have come to engage all people. With the exception of you, all the soldiers here on both sides will be slain.’’ 11:32

In many ways seemingly a heterogeneous text, the Gita reconciles many facets and schools of Hindu philosophy, including those of Brahmanical (i.e., orthodox Vedic) origin and the parallel ascetic and Yogic traditions. It comprises primarily Vedic (as in the four Vedas, as opposed to the Upanishads/Vedanta), Upanishadic, Sankhya and Yogic philosophies. For its religious depth, quintessential Upanishadic and Yogic philosophy and beauty of verse, the Bhagavad Gita is one of the most compelling and important texts of the Hindu tradition. It is considered by many as one of the world's greatest religious and spiritual scriptures. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x647, 666 KB) Bhagavad Gita 11:32 - Sanskrit I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x647, 666 KB) Bhagavad Gita 11:32 - Sanskrit I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ...


It had always been a creative text for Hindu priests and Yogis. Although it is not strictly part of the 'canon' of Vedic writings, almost all Hindu traditions draw upon the Gita as authoritative. Some claim that it may have been inserted into the Mahabharata at a later date, but this is only natural as it sounds more like an Upanishad (which are commentaries that followed the Vedas) in thought than a Purana (histories), of which tradition the Mahabharata is a part. A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi A yogi (also yogin; Sanskrit , nominative ; feminine: yogini) is a term for one who practices yoga. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


For the Vedantic schools of Hindu philosophy, it belongs to one of the three foundational texts (Sanskrit: Prasthana Trayi, literally three points of departure)( the other two being the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras). The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ...


Among the great sages and philosophers who have drawn inspiration from the Bhagavad Gita is Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who initiated the public singing of the "Hare Krishna" mantra. Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534) Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST ) (Bengali ) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Vaishnava monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal[1], (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh) and Orissa in India[2]. Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas)[1]. It is believed by practitioners...


Influence beyond India

J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. Upon witnessing the world's first nuclear test in 1945, he quoted "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds" based on verse 32 from Chapter 11 of the Bhagavad Gita.[54] J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ...


A 2006 report suggests that the Gita is replacing the influence of the "The Art of War" (ascendant in the 1980s and '90s) in the Western business community. [4] For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ...


Commentaries

Traditionally the commentators belong to spiritual traditions or schools (sampradaya) and Guru lineages (parampara), which claim to preserve teaching stemming either directly from Krishna himself or from other sources, each claiming to be most faithful to the original message.[citation needed] In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... Parampara (Sanskrit: परम्परा) denotes a long succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture. ...


Different translators and commentators have widely differing views on what multi-layered Sanskrit words and passages signify, and their presentation in English depending on the sampradaya they are affiliated to. Especially in Western philology, interpretations of particular passages often do not agree with traditional views. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. ...


The oldest and most influential medieval commentary was that of the founder of the Vedanta school[55] of extreme 'non-dualism", Shankara (788-820 A. D.),[56] also known as Shankaracharya (Sanskrit: Śaṅkarācārya).[57] Shankara's commentary was based on a recension of the Gita containing 700 verses, and that recension has been widely adopted by others.[58] There is not universal agreement that he was the actual author of the commentary on the Bhagavad Gita that is attributed to him.[59] A key commentary for the "modified non-dualist" school of Vedanta[60] was written by Ramanuja (Sanskrit: Rāmānuja), who lived in the eleventh century A.D.[61][62] Ramanuja's commentary chiefly seeks to show that the discipline of devotion to God (Bhakti yoga) is the way of salvation.[63] The commentary by Madhva, whose dates are given either as (b. 1199 - d. 1276)[64] or as (b. 1238 - d. 1317),[65] also known as Madhvacharya (Sanskrit: Madhvācārya), exemplifies thinking of the "dualist" school.[66] Madhva's school of dualism asserts that there is, in a quotation provided by Winthrop Sargeant, "an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme, the many souls, and matter and its divisions."[67] Madhva is also considered to be one of the great commentators reflecting the viewpoint of the Vedanta school.[68] This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the Shaiva tradition,[69] the renowned philosopher Abhinavagupta (10-11th century CE) has written a commentary on a slightly variant recension called Gitartha-Samgraha. This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Abhinavagupta (c. ...


Other classical commentators include Anandagiri, Shridhara Swami, Nimbarka, Vallabha and Dnyaneshwar.[citation needed] Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) called his system of thought Shuddhadvaita (pure monism). ... Sant Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296) (ज्ञानेश्वर in Marathi) (also known as Jnanadeva - ज्ञानदेव or Jnaneshvar - ज्ञानेश्वर) was a 13th century rebel saint-poet born in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra state, west India. ...


In modern times notable commentaries were written by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi, who used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement.[70][71] Tilak wrote his commentary while in jail during the period 1910-1911, while he was serving a six-year sentence imposed by the British colonial government in India for sedition.[72] While noting that the Gita teaches several possible paths to liberation, his commentary places most emphasis on Karma yoga.[73] No book was more central to Gandhi's life and thought than the Bhagavadgita, which he referred to as his "spiritual dictionary".[74] During his stay in Yeravda jail in 1929,[75] Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary. It was published with a Foreword by Gandhi in 1946.[76][77] Mahatma Gandhi expressed his love for the Gita in these words: Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ...

I find a solace in the Bhagavagītā that I miss even in the Sermon on the Mount. When disappointment stares me in the face and all alone I see not one ray of light, I go back to the Bhagavagītā. I find a verse here and a verse there and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming tragedies - and my life has been full of external tragedies - and if they have left no visible, no indelible scar on me, I owe it all to the teaching of Bhagavagītā.[78] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon...

Other notable modern commentators include Sri Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Swami Vivekananda, who took a syncretistic approach to the text.[79][80]


Swami Vivekananda, the follower of Sri Ramakrishna, was known for his commentaries on the four Yogas - Bhakti, Jnana, Karma and Raja Yoga. He drew from his knowledge of the Gita to expound on these Yogas. Swami Sivananda advises the aspiring Yogi to read verses from the Bhagavad Gita every day. Paramahamsa Yogananda, writer of the famous Autobiography of a Yogi, viewed the Bhagavad Gita as one of the world's most divine scriptures. A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, wrote a commentary on the Gita from the perspective of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Swami Vivekananda (Sanskrit: , Svāmi Vivekānanda) (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: , Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Swami Sivananda Saraswati (Sep 8, 1887—Jul 14, 1963), was a Hindu spiritual leader and a well known proponent of Yoga and Vedanta. ... Paramhansa Yogananda Paramahansa Yogananda परमहंस योगानन्‍द (January 5, 1893 – March 7, 1952), was an Indian yogi and guru. ... Autobiography of a Yogi is the autobiography of Paramahansa Yogananda. ... A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896–November 14, 1977) was born Abhay Charan De, in Kolkata, West Bengal. ... Founder of ISKCON: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna movement, was founded in 1966 in New York City by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. ... Gaudiya Vaishnavism, (Bengal) Vaishnavism, is a sect of Hinduism founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. ...


Translations

Three translations: Bhagavad Gita As It Is, a Gujarati translation by Gita Press, and another English one published by Barnes & Noble.
Three translations: Bhagavad Gita As It Is, a Gujarati translation by Gita Press, and another English one published by Barnes & Noble.

Numerous readings and adaptations of the Bhagavad Gita have been published in many languages. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1540x865, 1070 KB) Bhagavad-Gita: As It Is, a Gujarati translation, and another English one published by Barnes & Noble. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1540x865, 1070 KB) Bhagavad-Gita: As It Is, a Gujarati translation, and another English one published by Barnes & Noble. ... The Bhagavad-Gita As It Is (BGAIS) is the translation and commentary of the Bhagavad Gita (BG) by A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... // The Gita Press [1] is the worlds largest publisher of Hindu religious texts. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A typical Barnes & Noble bookstore. ...


In 1785 Charles Wilkins published an English translation of the Bhagavad Gita, which was the first time a Sanskrit book had been translated directly into a European language.[81] In 1808 passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German, appearing in a book through which Friedrich Schlegel became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany.[82] The Gita has been translated into many other languages. Sir Charles Wilkins (1749?–1836), was an English Orientalist. ... Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (March 10, 1772 - January 11, 1829), German poet, critic and scholar, was the younger brother of August Wilhelm von Schlegel. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Bhagavad Gita

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Uddhava (also known as Pavanayadhi) is a character from the Puranic texts of Hinduism, wherein his is the friend and counsellor of Krishna the avatar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sastras studies 'Consists of chapters 25-42 of Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata'
  2. ^ The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) electronic edition. Electronic text (C) Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, India, 1999.
  3. ^ Gambhiranda (1997), p. xvii.
  4. ^ Bhagavan
  5. ^ Philosophy in Ancient India "The Bhagavad Gita is revered as a sacred text of Hindu philosophy"
  6. ^ hindunet.org "more commonly known as the Gita"
  7. ^ Introduction to the Bhagavad Gita
  8. ^ The "tag" found at the end of each chapter in some editions identifies the book as Gītopaniṣad. The book is identified as the essence of the Upanishads in the Gītā-māhātmya 6, quoted in the introduction to Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, A.C. (1983). Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. Los Angeles: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. .
  9. ^ Tapasyananda, p. 1.
  10. ^ Introduction to B-Gita "The subject of the Bhagavad-gita entails the comprehension of five basic truths"
  11. ^ Ramanuja's translation BG 2.12 "...you have always existed. It is not that 'all of us', I and you, shall cease to be 'in the future', i.e., beyond the present time; we shall always exist. Even as no doubt can be entertainted that I, the Supreme Self and Lord of all, am eternal, likewise, you (Arjuna and all others) who are embodied selves, also should be considered eternal."
  12. ^ Chapter 12: Devotional Service
  13. ^ Chapter 3: Karma Yoga
  14. ^ Chapter 6: Dhyana Yoga
  15. ^ Chapter 2: Summary (containing jnana)
  16. ^ B-Gita 8.10 "by the strength of yoga, with an undeviating mind, engages himself in remembering the Supreme Lord in full devotion, will certainly attain to the Supreme"
  17. ^ Chapter 11: Universal Form
  18. ^ B-Gita 4.8 "to reestablish the principles of religion, I Myself appear"
  19. ^ Zaehner, p. 7.
  20. ^ See The Bhagavad Gita by C. Jinarajadasa, From the Proceedings of the Federation of European Sections of the Theosophical Society, Amsterdam 1904.
  21. ^ For a brief review of the literature supporting this view see: Radhakrihnan, pp. 14-15.
  22. ^ Easwaran, volume 1, p. 14.
  23. ^ Minor, p. 3.
  24. ^ A collection of essays (hindunet.org)
  25. ^ Keay, p. 3.
  26. ^ Basham, p. 39.
  27. ^ Vivekananda, pp. 5-6
  28. ^ Bhagavad-Gita 6.47 "And of all yogis, the one with great faith who always abides in Me, thinks of Me within himself, and renders transcendental loving service to Me -- he is the most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all. That is My opinion."
  29. ^ Gambhirananda (1998), p. 16.
  30. ^ Gambhiranda (1997), p. xx.
  31. ^ verse 47, Chapter 2-Samkhya theory and Yoga practise, The Bhagavadgita - Radhakrishnan
  32. ^ verse 48, Chapter 2-Samkhya theory and Yoga practise, The Bhagavadgita - Radhakrishnan
  33. ^ Verses 62,63, chapter 2- Samkhya theory and Yoga practise', The Bhagavadgita - Radhakrishnan'
  34. ^ Cornille, Catherine, ed., 2006. Song Divine: Christian Commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita." Leuven: Peeters. p. 2.
  35. ^ For quotation and summarizing bhakti as "a mode of worship which consists of unceasing and loving remembrance of God" see: Sampatkumaran, p. xxiii.
  36. ^ http://vedabase.net/bg/6/47
  37. ^ http://vedabase.net/bg/8/15
  38. ^ http://vedabase.net/bg/12/6
  39. ^ http://vedabase.net/bg/14/26
  40. ^ http://vedabase.net/bg/18/65
  41. ^ http://vedabase.net/bg/18/66
  42. ^ Bhagavad Gita 13.31
  43. ^ Bhagavad Gita 13.35
  44. ^ For example, the first line of the Bhagavad Gita is dhṛtarāşţra uvāca, which occurs immediately after the last line of the preceding chapter in the full Sanskrit text of the Mahabharata: | 6.23.1 dhṛtarāşţra uvāca | 6.23.1a dharmakşetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ || Source: Electronic text (C) Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, India, 1999. Electronic edition downloaded from: [1].
  45. ^ Chidbhavananda, p. 33.
  46. ^ Sivananda, p. 3.
  47. ^ Tapasyananda, p. 13
  48. ^ Radhakrishnan, p. 79.
  49. ^ Zaehner, passim.
  50. ^ Sivananda, p. xvii.
  51. ^ Sargeant, p. xix.
  52. ^ http://vedabase.net/bg/6/en1
  53. ^ http://www.crystalclarity.com/yogananda/chap16.html
  54. ^ James A. Hijiya, "The Gita of Robert Oppenheimer" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 144, no. 2 (June 2000). [2]
  55. ^ For Shankara's commentary falling within the Vedanta school of tradition, see: Flood (1996), p. 124.
  56. ^ Dating for Shankara as 788-820 AD is from: Sargeant, p. xix.
  57. ^ Zaehner, p. 3.
  58. ^ Gambhirananda (1997), p. xviii.
  59. ^ Flood (1996), p. 240.
  60. ^ For classification of Ramanuja's commentary as within the Vedanta school see: Flood (1996), p. 124.
  61. ^ Zaehner, p. 3.
  62. ^ Gambhirananda (1997), p. xix.
  63. ^ Sampatkumaran, p. xx.
  64. ^ Dating of 1199-1276 for Madhva is from: Gambhirananda (1997), p. xix.
  65. ^ Sargeant, p. xix.
  66. ^ Zaehner, p. 3.
  67. ^ Sargeant, p. xix.
  68. ^ For classification of Madhva's commentary as within the Vedanta school see: Flood (1996), p. 124.
  69. ^ For classification of Abhinavagupta's commentary on the Gita as within the Shaiva tradition see: Flood (1996), p. 124.
  70. ^ For B. G. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi as notable commentators see: Gambhiranda (1997), p. xix.
  71. ^ For notability of the commentaries by B. G. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi and their use to inspire the independence movement see: Sargeant, p. xix.
  72. ^ Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 44.
  73. ^ Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 49.
  74. ^ Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: Minor, p. 88.
  75. ^ For composition during stay in Yeravda jail in 1929, see: Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: Minor, p. 88.
  76. ^ Desai, Mahadev. The Gospel of Selfless Action, or, The Gita According To Gandhi. (Navajivan Publishing House: Ahmedabad: First Edition 1946). Other editions: 1948, 1951, 1956.
  77. ^ A shorter edition, omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary, has been published as: Anasaktiyoga: The Gospel of Selfless Action. Jim Rankin, editor. The author is listed as M.K. Gandhi; Mahadev Desai, translator. (Dry Bones Press, San Francisco, 1998) ISBN 1-883938-47-3.
  78. ^ Quotation from M. K. Gandhi. Young India. (1925), pp. 1078-1079, is cited from Radhakrishnan, front matter.
  79. ^ For Sri Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Swami Vivekananda as notable commentators see: Sargeant, p. xix.
  80. ^ For Sri Aurobindo as notable commentators, see: Gambhiranda (1997), p. xix.
  81. ^ Winternitz, Volume 1, p. 11.
  82. ^ What had previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had been translated from the English. Winternitz, Volume 1, p. 15.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ... Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ... Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ...

References

  • Chidbhavananda, Swami (1997). The Bhagavad Gita. Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam. 
  • Easwaran, Eknath (1975). The Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living. Berkeley, California: The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation. ISBN 0-915132-17-6. 
  • Gambhirananda, Swami (1998). Madhusudana Sarasvati Bhagavad Gita: With the annotation Gūḍhārtha Dīpikā. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-194-9.  Provides full Sanskrit text of the Gita with complete English translation of the commentary by Madhusudana Sarasvati.
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  • Gambhirananda, Swami (1997). Bhagavadgītā: With the commentary of Śaṅkarācārya. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-041-1.  Fourth Reprint edition. Provides full Sanskrit text of the Gita with complete English translation of the commentary by Shankara.
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. 
  • Minor, Robert N. (1986). Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavadgita. Albany, New York: State University of New York. ISBN 0-88706-297-0. 
  • Radhakrishnan, S. (1993). The Bhagavadgītā. Harper Collins. ISBN 81-7223-087-7.  Reprint edition.
  • Sampatkumaran, M. R. (1985). The Gītābhāṣya of Rāmānuja. Bombay: Ananthacharya Indological Research Institute.  Provides full Sanskrit text of the Gita with complete English translation of the commentary by Ramanuja.
  • Sargeant, Winthrop (1994). The Bhagavad Gītā. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-830-6. 
  • Sivananda, Swami (1995). The Bhagavad Gita. The Divine Life Society. ISBN 81-7052-000-2. 
  • Tapasyananda, Swami. Śrīmad Bhagavad Gītā. Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-449-X. 
  • Vivekananda, Swami (1998). Thoughts on the Gita. Delhi: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-033-0.  Eighteenth printing.
  • Winternitz, Maurice (1972). History of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation.  Second revised reprint edition. Two volumes. First published 1927 by the University of Calcutta.
  • Zaehner, R. C. (1969). The Bhagavad Gītā. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-501666-1. 

External links

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Bhagavad Gita at the Open Directory Project Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Translations

  • Gita Supersite with Sanskrit text, four English translations and both classical and contemporary commentaries

Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

Entire work

William Quan Judge (1851-March 22, 1896 New York) was one of the founders of the original Theosophical Society. ... Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), British poet and journalist, was born on June 10, 1832, and was educated at Kings school, Rochester; Kings College, London; and University College, Oxford. ... Mahadev Desai was the personal secretary of Mohandas K. Gandhi for 25 years, from 1917 to Desais death in 1942. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Gujarati may refer to: Gujarati language, spoken in India and Pakistan Gujarati script, the writing system of the Gujarati language Gujarati people Gujarat, a state of India A type of sari drape This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896–November 14, 1977) was the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (popularly known as the Hare Krishnas). Born as Abhay Charan De, in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... The Bhagavad-Gita As It Is (BGAIS) is the translation and commentary of the Bhagavad Gita (BG) by A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Dr. Ramananda Prasad Ramananda Prasad (born 1938) is the founder of the International Gita Society. ... His Holiness Swami Chinmayananda, is the founder of Chinmaya Mission, a Hindu organisation that has a large following of South Indians and others. ...

Selections

Born in a village in Kerala, India in December of 1910, Eknath Easwaran was an Indian-American professor, author, translator, and religious teacher. ...

Commentaries

Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... MadhusÅ«dana SarasvatÄ« (c. ... Visvanatha Chakravarti Thakura (1626? - 1708?) was a Gaudiya Vaishnava acharya born in the village of Deva-gram within Nadia district, West Bengal, India. ... A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896–November 14, 1977) was born Abhay Charan De, in Kolkata, West Bengal. ... Paramahansa Yogananda (Bengali: পরমহংস যোগানন্দ Pôromôhongsho Joganondo, Hindi: परमहंस योगानन्‍द; January 5, 1893–March 7, 1952), was an Indian yogi and guru. ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द SrÄ« Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of the leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Bhagavad Gita (1938 words)
The term yoga covers a wide range of meanings, but in the context of the Bhagavad Gita it describes a unified outlook, serenity of mind, skill in action, and the ability to stay attuned to the glory of the Self (Atman), which is of the same essence as the basis of being (Brahman).
According to the Bhagavad Gita, the goal of life is to free the mind and intellect from their complexities and to focus them on the glory of the Self by dedicating one's actions to the divine.
The Bhagavad Gita is quickly becoming one of the most popular religious texts in translation with numerous readings and adaptations of its 700 verses in many languages having come out, especially with its exposure to the world outside of India.
Bhagavad Gita - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2867 words)
Fundamentally, the Bhagavad Gita proposes that true enlightenment comes from growing beyond identification with the Ego, the little Self, and that one must identify with the Truth of the immortal Self, (the soul or Atman), the ultimate Divine Consciousness.
According to the Bhagavad Gita, the goal of life is to free the mind and intellect from their complexities, and to focus them on the glory of the Self, by dedicating one's actions to the divine.
The Bhagavad Gita is quickly becoming one of the most popular religious texts in translation, with numerous readings and adaptations of its 700 verses being published in many languages, especially with its exposure to the world outside India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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