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Encyclopedia > Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh
ਭਗਤ ਸਿੰਘ
بھگت سنگھ

Bhagat Singh at the age of 21
Date of birth: September 27, 1907
Place of birth: Lyallpur, Punjab, British India
Date of death: March 23, 1931
Place of death: Lahore, Punjab, British India
Movement: Indian Independence movement
Major organizations: Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Kirti Kissan Party and Hindustan Socialist Republican Association

Bhagat Singh (Punjabi: ਭਗਤ ਸਿੰਘ بھگت سنگھ, IPA: [pə̀gət̪ sɪ́ŋg]) (September 27, 1907[1]March 23, 1931) was an Indian freedom fighter, considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. For this reason, he is often referred to as Shaheed Bhagat Singh (the word shaheed means "martyr"). He is also believed by some historians, such as K. N. Panikkar, to be one of the earliest Marxists in India.[2] Singh was also one of the leaders and founders of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Image File history File links Bhagat21. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a Indian independence Association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... Shaheed (Arabic: , plural: ) is a religious term in Islam, that literally means witness. It is a title that is given to a Muslim after his death, if he died during the fulfillment of a religious commandment, or during a war for the religion. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Dr. K.N. Panikkar (b. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a Indian independence Association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ...


Born to a family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj in India, Singh, as a teenager, had studied European revolutionary movements and was attracted to anarchism and communism.[3] He became involved in numerous revolutionary organizations. He quickly rose through the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) and became one of its leaders, converting it to the HSRA. Singh gained support when he underwent a 63-day fast in jail, demanding equal rights for Indian and British political prisoners. He was hanged for shooting a police officer in response to the killing of veteran social activist Lala Lajpat Rai. His legacy prompted youth in India to begin fighting for Indian independence and also increased the rise of socialism in India.[4] Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a Indian independence Association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ...

Contents

Early life

Bhagat Singh at the age of 17

Singh was born into a Jatt Sandhu[3] family to Sardar Kishan Singh Sandhu and Vidyavati in the Khatkar Kalan village near Banga in the Lyallpur district of Punjab.[5] Singh's given name of Bhagat means "devotee". He came from a patriotic Sikh family, some of whom had participated in movements supporting the independence of India and others who had served in Maharaja Ranjit Singh's army.[6] His grandfather, Sardar Kishan Singh, was a follower of Swami Dayananda Saraswati's Hindu reformist movement, Arya Samaj,[7] which would carry a heavy influence on Singh. His uncles, Ajit Singh and Swaran Singh, as well as his father were members of the Ghadar Party, led by Kartar Singh Sarabha Grewal and Har Dayal. Ajit Singh was forced to flee to Persia because of pending cases against him while Swaran Singh was hanged on December 19, 1927 for his involvement in the Kakori train robbery of 1925.[8] Image File history File links Bhagat17. ... Image File history File links Bhagat17. ... Jatt refers to group of people who mainly lived in Punjab. ... Shaheed Bhagat Singh was born into the Sandhu family[1][2] Sandhu is one of the most well known Jatt clans, along with Narwal and Toor, originally from the Northern Indian state of Punjab. ... Faisalabad District is one of the districts of Punjab, Punjab, , Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Not to be confused with Ranjitsinhji (1872-1933), cricketer and Maharaja of Nawanagar. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by the Indians(mostly Punjabis, of the United States and Canada in June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. ... Kartar Singh Sarabha Grewal (1896-1915) was an Indian freedom-fighter and a leading luminary of the Ghadar Party, which advocated violent uprisings to free India from Imperial British control. ... Har Dayal (b. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kakori train robbery (alt. ...


Unlike many Sikhs his age, Singh did not attend Khalsa High School in Lahore, because his grandfather did not approve of the school officials' loyalism to the British authorities.[9] Instead, his father enrolled him in Dayanand Anglo Vedic High School, an Arya Samajist school.[10] At age 13, Singh began to follow Mahatma Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement. At this point he had openly defied the British and had followed Gandhi's wishes by burning his government-school books and any British-imported clothing. Following Gandhi's withdrawal of the movement after the violent murders of policemen by villagers from Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, Singh, disgruntled with Gandhi's nonviolence action, joined the Young Revolutionary Movement and began advocating a violent movement against the British.[11] // The Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Schools System, also familiarly known as the D.A.V. Public Schools System is the single largest non-governmental education society in India . ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari : मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was a national icon who led the struggle for Indias independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians. ... ... Chauri Chaura is a town near Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, where, in February 1922, an occupied police chowki (small hut) was set on fire by a nationalist mob, killing 22 of the police occupants. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


In 1923, Bhagat famously won an essay competition set by the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan. This grabbed the attention of members of the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan including its General Secretary Professor Bhim Sen Vidyalankar. At this age, he quoted famous Punjabi literature and discussed the Problems of the Punjab. He read a lot of poetry and literature which was written by Punjabi writers and his favourite poet was Allama Iqbal from Sialkot.[12] Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: ), the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ...


In his teenage years, Bhagat Singh started studying at the National College in Lahore,[13] but ran away from home to escape early marriage, and became a member of the organization Naujawan Bharat Sabha ("Youth Society of India").[3] In the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Singh and his fellow revolutionaries grew popular amongst the youth. He also joined the Hindustan Republican Association at the request of Professor Vidyalankar, which was then headed by Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqulla Khan.[citation needed] It is believed that he had knowledge of the Kakori train robbery. He wrote for and edited Urdu and Punjabi newspapers published from Amritsar.[citation needed] In September 1928, a meeting of various revolutionaries from across India was called at Delhi under the banner of the Kirti Kissan Party. Bhagat Singh was the secretary of the meet. His later revolutionary activities were carried out as a leader of this association. The capture and hanging of the main HRA Leaders also allowed him to be quickly promoted to higher ranks in the party, along with his fellow revolutionary Sukhdev Thapar.[citation needed] The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), known as the Hindustan Republican Association until 1928, was an Indian independence association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ... Ramprasad Bismil Ramprasad Bismil was one of the great Indian freedom fighters, who also participated in the Kakori train robbery. ... Ashfaqullah Khan, the great martyr, was born on 22nd October,1900, in a middle class family of Shahjahanpur district in Uttar Pradesh. ... Kakori train robbery (alt. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... Sukhdev Thapar (15th May 1907 - March 23, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary. ...


Later revolutionary activities

Lala Lajpat Rai's death and the Saunders murder

The British government created a commission under Sir John Simon to report on the current political situation in India in 1928. The Indian political parties boycotted the commission because it did not include a single Indian as its member and it was met with protests all over the country. When the commission visited Lahore on October 30, 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai led the protest against the commission in a silent non-violent march, but the police responded with violence.[citation needed] The police chief beat Lala Lajpat Rai severely and he later succumbed to his injuries. Bhagat Singh, who was an eyewitness to this event, vowed to take revenge.[citation needed] He joined with other revolutionaries, Shivaram Rajguru, Jai Gopal and Sukhdev Thapar, in a plot to kill the police chief. Jai Gopal was supposed to identify the chief and signal for Singh to shoot. However, in a case of mistaken identity, Gopal signalled Singh on the appearance of J. P. Saunders, a Deputy Superintendent of Police. Thus, Saunders, instead of Scott, was shot. Bhagat Singh quickly left Lahore to escape the police. To avoid recognition, he shaved his beard and cut his hair, a violation of the sacred tenets of Sikhism. The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. ... John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon GCSI GCVO OBE PC (1873-1954) was a British politician and statesman. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ... Shivaram Rajguru (1908 - March 23, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary. ... Sukhdev Thapar (15th May 1907 - March 23, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ...


Bomb in the assembly

In the face of actions by the revolutionaries, the British government enacted the Defence of India Act to give more power to the police.[citation needed] The purpose of the Act was to combat revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh. The Act was defeated in the council by one vote.[citation needed] However, the Act was then passed under the ordinance that claimed that it was in the best interest of the public. In response to this act, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association planned to explode a bomb in the assembly where the ordinance was going to be passed. Originally, Azad attempted to stop Bhagat Singh from carrying out the bombing; however, the remainder of the party forced him to succumb to Singh's wishes. It was decided that Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt, another revolutionary, would throw the bomb in the assembly.[citation needed] The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a Indian independence Association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ... Batukeshwar Dutt was an Indian revolutionary in the early 1900s. ...


On April 8, 1929, Singh and Dutt threw a bomb onto the corridors of the assembly and shouted "Inquilab Zindabad!" ("Long Live the Revolution!").[14] This was followed by a shower of leaflets stating that it takes a loud voice to make the deaf hear.[15] The bomb neither killed nor injured anyone; Singh and Dutt claimed that this was deliberate on their part, a claim substantiated both by British forensics investigators who found that the bomb was not powerful enough to cause injury, and by the fact that the bomb was thrown away from people. Singh and Dutt gave themselves up for arrest after the bomb.[citation needed] He and Dutt were sentenced to 'Transportation for Life' for the bombing on June 12, 1929. April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ... For other uses see Transport (disambiguation) or Transportation (disambiguation). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Trial and execution

Front page of The Tribune announcing Bhagat Singh's execution.

Shortly after his arrest and trial for the Assembly bombing, the British came to know of his involvement in the murder of J. P. Saunders. Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev were charged with the murder. Bhagat Singh decided to use the court as a tool to publicize his cause for the independence of India.[citation needed] He admitted to the murder and made statements against the British rule during the trial.[citation needed] The case was ordered to be carried out without members of the HSRA present at the hearing. This created an uproar amongst Singh's supporters as he could no longer publicise his views. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Tribune, now published from Chandigarh and Delhi, started publication on February 2, 1881, in Lahore (now in Pakistan). ... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Sukhdev Thapar (15th May 1907 - March 23, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


While in jail, Bhagat Singh and other prisoners launched a hunger strike advocating for the rights of prisoners and those facing trial. The reason for the strike was that British murderers and thieves were treated better than Indian political prisoners, who, by law, were meant to be given better rights. The aims in their strike were to ensure a decent standard of food for political prisoners, the availability of books and a daily newspaper, as well as better clothing and the supply of toilet necessities and other hygienic necessities. He also demanded that political prisoners should not be forced to do any labour or undignified work.[16] During this hunger strike that lasted 63 days and ended with the British succumbing to his wishes, he gained much popularity among the common Indians. Before the strike his popularity was limited mainly to the Punjab region.[17] This article is about the geographical region. ...


Bhagat Singh also maintained the use of a diary, which he eventually made to fill 404 pages. In this diary he made numerous notes relating to the quotations and popular sayings of various people whose views he supported. Prominent in his diary were the views of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.[18] The comments in his diary led to an understanding of the philosophical thinking of Bhagat Singh.[19] Before dying he also wrote a pamphlet entitled "Why I am an atheist", as he was being accused of vanity by not accepting God in the face of death. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Engels redirects here. ...


On March 23, 1931, Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore with his fellow comrades Rajguru and Sukhdev. His supporters, who had been protesting against the hanging, immediately declared him as a shaheed or martyr.[20] According to the Superintendent of Police at the time, V.N. Smith, the hanging was advanced: is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hanging to Music. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...

Normally execution took place at 8 am, but it was decided to act at once before the public could become aware of what had happened...At about 7 pm shouts of Inquilab Zindabad were heard from inside the jail. This was correctly, interpreted as a signal that the final curtain was about to drop.[21]

Singh was cremated at Hussainiwala on banks of Sutlej river. Today, the Bhagat Singh Memorial commemorates freedom fighters of India.[22] Hussainiwala is a small border village on banks of Sutlej river in Ferozepur district of Punjab state; famous for Bhagat Singh Memorial which marks the location where Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were cremated on March 23, 1931. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ...


Ideals and opinions

Bhagat Singh in jail at the age of 20

Image File history File links Bhagat20. ... Image File history File links Bhagat20. ...

Marxism

Bhagat Singh's political thought evolved gradually from Gandhian nationalism to revolutionary Marxism. By the end of 1928, he and his comrades renamed their organization the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. He had read the teachings of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Vladimir Lenin[23] and believed that, with such a large and diverse population, India could only survive properly under a socialist regime. These ideals had been introduced to him during his time at the National College at Lahore and he believed that India should re-enact the Russian revolution. In the case that India were not socialist, he believed that the rich would only get richer and the poor would only get poorer. This, and his militant methods, put him at odds with Gandhi and members of the Congress. He became the first socialist leader in India to make any gain. Even today, socialist leaders sometimes refer back to him as the founder of Indian socialism.[24][25] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a Indian independence Association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Engels redirects here. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


Atheism

During his teenage years, Singh was a devout Arya Samajist.[26] However, he began to question religious ideologies after witnessing the Hindu-Muslim riots that broke out after Gandhi disbanded the Non-Cooperation Movement.[27] He did not understand how members of these two groups, initially united in fighting against the British, could be at each others' throats because of their religious differences. At this point, Singh dropped his religious beliefs, since he believed religion hindered the revolutionaries' struggle for independence, and began studying the works of Bakunin, Lenin, Trotsky — all atheist revolutionaries. He also took an interest in Niralamba Swami's[28] book Common Sense, which advocated a form of "mystic atheism".[29] Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... Lenin redirects here. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


While in a condemned cell in 1931, he wrote a pamphlet entitled Why I am an Atheist in which he discusses and advocates the philosophy of atheism. This pamphlet was a result of some criticism by fellow revolutionaries on his failure to acknowledge religion and God while in a condemned cell, the accusation of vanity was also dealt with in this pamphlet. He supported his own beliefs and claimed that he used to be a firm believer in The Almighty, but could not bring himself to believe the myths and beliefs that others held close to their hearts. In this pamphlet, he acknowledged the fact that religion made death easier, but also said that unproved philosophy is a sign of human weakness.[30] Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vanity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Death

Bhagat Singh was known for his appreciation of martyrdom. His mentor as a young boy was Kartar Singh Sarabha.[31] Singh is himself considered a martyr for acting to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, also considered a martyr. In the leaflet he threw in the Central Assembly on 9th April 1929, he stated that It is easy to kill individuals but you cannot kill the ideas. Great empires crumbled while the ideas survived.[32] After engaging in studies on the Russian Revolution, he wanted to die so that his death would inspire the youth of India to unite and fight the British Empire. For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Kartar Singh Sarabha was an Indian freedom-fighter and a leading luminary of the Ghadar Party, which advocated violent uprisings to free India from Imperial British control. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ...


While in prison, Bhagat Singh and two others had written a letter to the Viceroy asking him to treat them as prisoners of war and hence to execute them by firing squad and not by hanging. Prannath Mehta, Bhagat Singh's friend, visited him in the jail on March 20, four days before his execution, with a draft letter for clemency, but he declined to sign it.[33] Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ...


Conspiracy theories

Many conspiracy theories exist regarding Singh, especially the events surrounding his death. A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ...


Mahatma Gandhi

One of the most popular ones is that Mahatma Gandhi had an opportunity to stop Singh's execution but did not. This particular theory has spread amongst the public in modern times after the creation of modern films such as The Legend of Bhagat Singh, which portray Gandhi as someone who was strongly at odds with Bhagat Singh and did not oppose his hanging.[34] A variation on this theory is that Gandhi actively conspired with the British to have Singh executed. Both theories are highly controversial and hotly contested. Gandhi's supporters say that Gandhi did not have enough influence with the British to stop the execution, much less arrange it. Furthermore, Gandhi's supporters assert that Singh's role in the independence movement was no threat to Gandhi's role as its leader, and so Gandhi would have no reason to want him dead. “Gandhi” redirects here. ...


Gandhi, during his lifetime, always maintained that he was a great admirer of Singh's patriotism, but that he simply disapproved of his violent methods. He also said that he was opposed to Singh's execution (and, for that matter, capital punishment in general) and proclaimed that he had no power to stop it. On Singh's execution, Gandhi said, "The government certainly had the right to hang these men. However, there are some rights which do credit to those who possess them only if they are enjoyed in name only."[35] Gandhi also once said, on capital punishment, "I cannot in all conscience agree to anyone being sent to the gallows. God alone can take life because He alone gives it." Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Gandhi had managed to have 90,000 political prisoners who were not members of his Satyagraha movement released under the pretext of "relieving political tension," in the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. According to a report in the Indian magazine Frontline, he did plead several times for the commutation of the death sentence of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev, including a personal visit on March 19, 1931, and in a letter to the Viceroy on the day of their execution, pleading fervently for commutation, not knowing that the letter would be too late.[33] Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Gandhi-Irwin Pact refers to a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the-then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. ... Frontline (ISSN 0970-1710)is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Sukhdev Thapar (15th May 1907 - March 23, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary. ...


Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, later said:

As I listened to Mr. Gandhi putting the case for commutation before me, I reflected first on what significance it surely was that the apostle of non-violence should so earnestly be pleading the cause of the devotees of a creed so fundamentally opposed to his own, but I should regard it as wholly wrong to allow my judgment to be influenced by purely political considerations. I could not imagine a case in which under the law, penalty had been more directly deserved.[33]

Saunders family

On October 28, 2005, a book entitled Some Hidden Facts: Martyrdom of Shaheed Bhagat Singh -- Secrets unfurled by an Intelligence Bureau Agent of British-India [sic] by K.S. Kooner and G.S. Sindhra was released. The book asserts that Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev were deliberately hanged in such a manner as to leave all three in a semi-conscious state, so that all three could later be taken outside the prison and shot dead by the Saunders family. The book says that this was a prison operation codenamed "Operation Trojan Horse." Scholars are skeptical of the book's claims.[36] For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been...


Legacy

Indian independence movement

Bhagat Singh's death had the effect that he desired and he inspired thousands of youths to assist the remainder of the Indian independence movement. After his hanging, youths in regions around Northern India rioted in protest against the British Raj.[citation needed] The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...


Modern day legacy

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) itself acknowledges Bhagat Singh's contribution to Indian society[24][25] and, in particular, the future of socialism in India. To celebrate the centenary of his birth, a group of intellectuals have set up an institution to commemorate Singh and his ideals.[37] The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Several popular Bollywood films have been made capturing the life and times of Bhagat Singh.[38] The oldest was Shaheed in 1965, starring Manoj Kumar as Singh. Two major films about Singh were released in 2002, The Legend of Bhagat Singh and 23rd March 1931: Shaheed. The Legend of Bhagat Singh is Rajkumar Santoshi's adaptation, in which Ajay Devgan played Singh and Amrita Rao was featured in a brief role. 23 March 1931: Shaheed was directed by Guddu Dhanoa and starred Bobby Deol as Singh, with Sunny Deol and Aishwarya Rai in supporting roles. Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the film actor-BJP politician Manoj Kumar; for the RJD politician from Palamau, see Manoj Kumar (politician) Manoj Kumar (born July 24, 1937, at Abbottabad) is an Indian actor and director in the Bollywood film industry. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Legend of Bhagat Singh is a Bollywood emotional historic drama movie from India. ... Rajkumar Santoshi (Hindi: ) is an acclaimed director and producer of Hindi films. ... Vishal Devgan, born (April 2, 1969 in Delhi, India), popularly known as Ajay Devgan is a National Film Award-winning actor who appears in Bollywood films. ... Amrita Rao (Marathi: . IPA: , born June 17, 1981) is an Indian model and Bollywood actress. ... Vijay Singh Deol (Punjabi: ਵਿਜੈ ਸਿੰਘ ਦਿੳਲ, Hindi:विजय सिंह देओल, Urdu: وِجے سِںہ دِیول, born 27 January 1967) known as Bobby Deol, is an Indian actor. ... Sunny Deol (Hindi: सनी देओल, Urdu: شنِ دِیول), born as Ajay Singh Deol (Punjabi: ਅਜੈ ਸਿੰਘ ਦਿਓਲ, Hindi: अजय सिंह देओल, Urdu: اَجے سِںہ دِیول) on October 19, 1961 in New Delhi, India. ... Aishwarya Rai (Kannada: ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯಾ ರೈ, IPA: ; born November 1, 1973) is an Indian actress. ...


The 2006 film Rang De Basanti (starring Aamir Khan) is a film drawing parallels between revolutionaries of Bhagat Singh's era and modern Indian youth. It covers a lot of Bhagat Singh's role in the Indian freedom struggle. The movie revolves around a group of college students and how they each play the roles of Bhagat's friends and family. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rang De Basanti (Hindi: रंग दे बसंती, Urdu: رنگ دے بسنتى, IAST: Raṅg De Basantī; English: Paint It Saffron [1]) is a 2006 Bollywood film. ... Aamir Khan (; Devanāgarī: आमिर हुसेन ख़ान, Nastaliq: عامر حسین خان) (born March 14, 1965 as Aamir Hussain Khan) in Mumbai, India, is a highly acclaimed and a prominent National Film Award-winning Indian film actor, producer, director and writer. ...


The patriotic Urdu and Hindi songs, Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna (translated as "the desire to sacrifice") and Mera Rang De Basanti Chola ("my light-yellow-colored cloak"; Basanti referring to the light-yellow color of the Mustard flower grown in the Punjab and also one of the two main colors of the Sikh religion as per the Sikh rehat meryada(code of conduct of the Sikh Saint-Soldier) ), while created by Ram Prasad Bismil, are largely associated to Bhagat Singh's martyrdom and have been used in a number of Bhagat Singh-related films.[38] The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna is a poem in Hindi/Urdu written by Bismil Azimabadi[1] (Hindi: बिसमिल अज़ीमाबादी) and popularized by the Indian revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil[2], who was involved in the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... Species See text. ... Ramprasad Bismil Ramprasad Bismil was one of the great Indian freedom fighters, who also participated in the Kakori train robbery. ...


In September 2007 the governor of Pakistan's Punjab province announced that a memorial to Bhagat Singh will be displayed at Lahore museum, according to the governor “Singh was the first martyr of the subcontinent and his example was followed by many youth of the time."[39][40]


Criticism

Bhagat Singh was criticized both by his contemporaries and by people after his death because of his violent and revolutionary stance towards the British and his strong opposition to the pacifist stance taken by the Indian National Congress and particularly Mahatma Gandhi.[41] The methods he used to make his point—shooting Saunders and throwing non-lethal bombs—were quite different from the non-violent non-cooperation used by Gandhi.[41] He was accused of having knowledge of the Kakori train robbery by the British.[30] Pacifist redirects here. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the vision, core inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian Independence Movement. ... Kakori train robbery (alt. ...


Bhagat Singh has also been accused of being too eager to die, as opposed to staying alive and continuing his movement. It has been alleged that he could have escaped from prison if he so wished, but he preferred that he die and become a legacy for other youths in India. Some lament that he may have done much more for India had he stayed alive.[4] For other uses, see Youth (disambiguation) Youth is defined by Websters New World Dictionary as, The time of life when one is young; especially: a: the period between childhood and maturity b: the early period of existence, growth, or development. ...


Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • "The aim of life is no more to control the mind, but to develop it harmoniously; not to achieve salvation here after, but to make the best use of it here below; and not to realise truth, beauty and good only in contemplation, but also in the actual experience of daily life; social progress depends not upon the ennoblement of the few but on the enrichment of democracy; universal brotherhood can be achieved only when there is an equality of opportunity - of opportunity in the social, political and individual life." — from Bhagat Singh's prison diary, p. 124
  • "Inquilab Zindabad" (Long live the revolution)[42]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

See also

The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a Indian independence Association led by revolutionaries Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekar Azad. ... The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... Sukhdev Thapar (15th May 1907 - March 23, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary. ... ... Udham Singh (Punjabi: Hindi:उधम सिंह् ; December 26, 1899 – July 31, 1940), born Sher Singh was a Sikh Punjabi Marxist and nationalist best known for assassinating Michael ODwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avengement of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre [1]. Singh was also known as Ram... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

References

  1. ^ He left a rich legacy for the youth. The Tribune (2006-03-19). Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  2. ^ Bhagat Singh an early Marxist, says Panikkar. The Hindu (2007-10-14). Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  3. ^ a b c Rao, Niraja (April 1997). "Bhagat Singh and the Revolutionary Movement". Revolutionary Democracy 3 (1). 
  4. ^ a b Reeta Sharma (2001-03-21). What if Bhagat Singh had lived. The Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  5. ^ Nijjar, Bakhshish Singh (1974). Panjab Under the British Rule, 1849-1947. K. B. Publications, p172. 
  6. ^ (2002) in O. P. Ralhan: Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications, Vol. 26, p349. ISBN 81-7488-313-4. 
  7. ^ Sanyal, Jitendra N. (2006). Bhagat Singh: Making of a Revolutionary: Contemporaries' Portrayals. Gurgaon, Haryana, India: Hope India Publications, p25. ISBN 81-7871-059-5. 
  8. ^ Sanyal (2006), p30.
  9. ^ Sanyal (2006), p20.
  10. ^ Hoiberg, Dale H.; Indu Ramchandani (2000). Students' Britannica India. New Delhi, India: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (India), vol. 1, p188. ISBN 0-85229-760-2. 
  11. ^ Nayar, Kuldip (2006). The Martyr: Bhagat Singh Experiments in Revolution. New Delhi, India: Har-Anand Publications, pp20-21. ISBN 8124107009. 
  12. ^ Bhagat Singh Documents Problems of the Punjab
  13. ^ Sanyal (2006), p23.
  14. ^ Bhagat Singh remembered - Daily Times Pakistan
  15. ^ Bhagat Singh Writings Leaflet Thrown in the Central Assembly Hall
  16. ^ Bhagat Singh Documents Bhagat Singh and BK Dutt's Demands from the British Government
  17. ^ Communist Party of India (Marxist) Bhagat Singh Remains Our Symbol of Revolution
  18. ^ Shahid Bhagat Singh Jail Note Book of Shahid Bhagat Singh
  19. ^ Shahid Bhagat Singh Bhagat Singh quotes from his jail note book
  20. ^ CPIM Bhagat Singh Memorial Day Observed
  21. ^ The Tribune India Excerpts out of Martyrdom of Shaheed Bhagat Singh
  22. ^ CPIM Bhagat Singh Memorial Day Observed
  23. ^ Bhagat Singh no terrorist: Govt Times of India - December 21, 2007
  24. ^ a b Bhagat Singh Remains Our Symbol of Revolution People's Democracy - March 19, 2006
  25. ^ a b Communist Party of India 25th January 2006, letter to Manmohan Singh
  26. ^ Why I Am An Atheist - By Bhagat Singh
  27. ^ Nayar, p26.
  28. ^ Niralamba Swami was the name taken by Bengali revolutionary Jatindra Nath Banerjee, an early member of the Anushilan Samiti, after he gave up his political activism and became an ascetic.
  29. ^ Nayar, p27.
  30. ^ a b Singh, Bhagat. Why I am an Atheist: Bhagat Singh. People's Publishing House. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  31. ^ Tribune India What if Bhagat Singh had lived
  32. ^ Bhagat Singh Documents Leaflet thrown in the Central Assembly Hall, New Delhi
  33. ^ a b c Frontline - Of Means and Ends by Paresh R. Vaidya.]
  34. ^ The Legend of Bhagat Singh (2002 film)
  35. ^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Ahmedabad, Navjivan. vol. 45, p.359-61 (Gujarati)
  36. ^ The Sunday Tribune Was Bhagat Singh shot dead?
  37. ^ The Tribune Chandigarh In memory of Bhagat Singh
  38. ^ a b The Hindu ...A non-stop show
  39. ^ Memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh, says governor - Daily times Pakistan
  40. ^ Requiem for a freedom fighter
  41. ^ a b Punjabi Lok Sukhdev's letter to Gandhi
  42. ^ The Martyr: Bhagat Singh - Experiments in Revolution By Kuldip Nayar. Page 32.
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External links

Persondata
NAME Singh, Bhagat
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Indian Freedom Activist
DATE OF BIRTH September 27, 1907
PLACE OF BIRTH Lyallpur, Punjab, British India
DATE OF DEATH March 23, 1931
PLACE OF DEATH Lahore, Punjab, British India
is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kamat's Potpourri: Martyrdom of Sardar Bhagat Singh (815 words)
Bhagat Singh was born in a Sikh family of farmers in the village of Banga of Layalpur district of Punjab (now in Pakistan) on September 27th of 1907.
Bhagat Singh's father Kishen Singh and uncle Ajit Singh were members of Ghadr Party founded in the U.S. in early years of this century to route British rule in India.
Bhagat Singh who was an eye witness to the morbid scene vowed to take revenge and with the help of Azad, Rajguru and Sukhadev plotted to kill Scott.
Sikh Martyrs - Bhagat Singh (1181 words)
Bhagat Singh was imbued from childhood with the family's spirit of patriotism.
A warrant for the arrest of Bhagat Singh was issued because he had accorded a welcome to one of the jathas, but he managed to elude the police and spent five months under the assumed name of Balvant Singh in Delhi, where he worked in a daily paper Vir Arjun.
Bhagat Singh said that "force used for a legitimate cause has its moral justification." He and B.K. Dutt were found guilty and sentenced to transportation for life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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