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Encyclopedia > Beylik

Bey is the Turkish word for "chieftain," traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups In historical accounts, many Turkish and Persian leaders are titled bey, beg or beigh. They are all the same word with the simple meaning of "leader." The regions or provinces where beys ruled were called beylik, roughly meaning "emirate" or "principality". The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The first three rulers of the Ottoman Empire were titled bey and not sultan. Murad I was granted the right to the designation "sultan" by the shadow caliph in Cairo in 1383. Henceforth "bey" was applied to the governor of an Ottoman vilayet or province. With the loose Ottoman structure, important provinces tended to become self-sustaining and autonomous. In the following century the chiefs of Bursa and of Edirne both were designated "Bey." Later, the sovereign title in Tunis was "Bey". The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El-Muzaffer Daima (Ottoman Turkish for the Ever Victorious) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (Ä°stanbul) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings muslim monarch ruling under the terms of shariah The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. ... Sultan Murat I Murad I (1319 (or 1326) – 1389; nick-named Hüdavendiğar, the God-like one) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ...


By the late 19th century "Bey" had been reduced to an honorary equivalent of the English-speaking address (not the British courtesy title) "Sir" in Ottoman Turkey, parallel to the contemporary Cockney usage "guv'nor." In modern Turkey and Azerbaijan, bey has the simple meaning of "Mister". A Cockney, in the loosest sense of the word, is a working-class inhabitant of the East End of London. ...


Under the Ottoman Empire this title was used also in Albania (Albanian language: bej, be, or beu), in two forms. In the Gheg north it was a title given by Ottomans specifically to the officials of the empire. In the Tosk south it was used in a similar fashion, however, the main use of the name came to be Bey of the Village. The "beys" that ran the Tosk villages formed a wealthy but largely illiterate elite, exploiting the peasants who were bound to the land in a status comparable to serfdom. This state of affairs continued in the Tosk districts even after Albanian independence 1912. King Zog took power and forbade the "Beys" to mistreat the peasants. This term is not used anymore in Albania except when referring to historical figures, events or for humorous purposes (meaning to joke about someone who does not possess a clear thinking ability). Albanian is a language spoken by over 6 million people primarily in Albania, but also in several other states in the Balkans as well as by emigrant groups in Italy and Turkey. ... Gheg is a northern Albanian dialect. ... Tosk may refer to several things: Tosk, a dialect of Albanian. ... In sociology as in general usage, the élite (the elect, from French) is a relatively small dominant group within a larger society, which enjoys a privileged status which is upheld by individuals of lower social status within the structure of a group. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ...


The variation Beg, or Baig is still used as a family name in South and Central Asia as well the Balkans. In Slavic-influenced names, it can be seen in conjunction with the Slavic -(ov)ić suffix meaning "son of", such as in Izetbegović. Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Alija Izetbegović, former president of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 - October 19, 2003) was a Bosnian Muslim activist, philosopher, and politician, president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1990 to 1996 and member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1996 to 2000, and author of several...


In modern Turkish, the word "bey" simply means "mister" and used in the meaning of "chieftain" only in historical context. As with most Turkish titles, it supersedes the name rather than precede, e.g. "Ahmet Bey" for "Mister Ahmet".


External link

  • Encyclopaedia of the Orient

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anatolian Turkish Beyliks at AllExperts (1186 words)
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish)) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century.
But with their annexation of the Beylik of Karesi and their advance into Roumelia, they became the main rivals of Karamanoğlu, who were then thought to be the strongest.
For one specific case (Çakabey's Beylik of İzmir), it should be remembered that, immediately after the Battle of Malazgirt, Turkish forces had spread as far as the western tip of Anatolia, in immediate vicinity of the Byzantine capital, and had established their capital in İznik for 20 years (1077-1097), before ebbing back to the inland.
Anatolian (Turkmen) Beyliks (718 words)
Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) are small Turkish emirates or principalities governed by beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century.
Some representative examples of the Anatolian beyliks' architecture are Ilyas Mosque at Balat (Milet) (1404), Isabey Mosque at Selçuk (1375), Ulucami Mosque at Birgi (1312) built by the Aydin beylik.
One of the first examples of the Anatolian beylik architecture hinting at the forming of the Ottoman architecture that aims at uniting the interior space beneath one big dome and forming a monumental architectural structure is Ulucami Mosque in Manisa (1374) built by the Saruhan beylik.
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