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Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for "chieftain," traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. In historical accounts, many Turkish, other Turkic and Persian leaders are titled Bey, Beg or Beigh. They are all the same word with the simple meaning of "leader." The regions or provinces where Beys (the equivalent of Duke in Europe) ruled or which they administered were called Beylik, roughly meaning "Emirate" or "Principality" in the first case, "Province" or "Governorate" in the second (the equivalent of Duchy in Europe). Today, the word is used as a social title for men (like the English word "mister"). This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Motto (official) Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (national) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 8000 BCE   -  Middle... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ...

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Turkish beys

The first three rulers of the Ottoman realm were titled Bey. The chief sovereign of the Ottoman Empire only came to be called Sultan starting in 1383 when Murad I was granted this title by the shadow Caliph in Cairo. “King” redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...


The Ottoman state had started out as one of a dozen Turkish Ghazi Beyliks, roughly comparable to western European duchies, into which Anatolia (i.e., Asian Turkey, or Asia Minor) had been divided after the break-up of the Seljuk Sultanate of Ikonion (Konya) and the military demise of the Byzantine Empire. Its capital was Bursa. By 1336 it had only annexed the Beylik of Karasy, its western neighbour on the coast of the Sea of Marmara, but it began to expand quite rapidly thereafter. Ghazi (March 21, 1912 - April 4, 1939) was king of Iraq from 1933 to 1939. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) are small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia in 1097 The Sultanate of Rum was a Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled from 1077 to 1307 in Anatolia, with capitals, successively, in Ä°znik (Nicaea) for a brief period in its beginnings, and then in Konya in Central Anatolia. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the...


As the Ottoman realm grew from a Beylik into an imperial Sultanate, the title "Bey" came to be applied to subordinate military and administrative officers, such as a district administrator and lower-level minor military governors. The latter were usually titled Sanjakbey (after the term "Sanjak", denoting a military horsetail banner). Beys were lower in rank than Pashas and provincial governors (Walis, usually holding the title of Pasha), who governed most of the Ottoman vilayets (provinces). SANJAK-BEY or SANJAKBEG is the Turkish title of the Bey (high officer, but usually not a Pasha) in military and administrative command of a sanjak (usually a district, answerable to a Vali or other governor; in a few cases himself a governor, directly answering to Istanbul) of the Ottoman... Pasha (or pascha, bashaw; Turkish: paÅŸa; originally from Persian padshah or padeshah meaning king or from Turkish bash head, chief [1]) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Eventually the chiefs of the former Ottoman capitals Bursa and Edirne (formerly the Byzantine Adrianople) in Turkish Thrace both were designated "Bey." Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne (Greek: Αδριανούπολη, Bulgarian: Одрин) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ...


Over time the title became somewhat was devalued, as Bey was even used a courtesy title (alongside Pashazade) for a Pasha's son. It also came to be attached to officers and dignitaries below those entitled to be Pashas, notably the following military officer ranks (still lower ranks were styled Efendi): Pasha (or pascha, bashaw; Turkish: paÅŸa; originally from Persian padshah or padeshah meaning king or from Turkish bash head, chief [1]) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ...

  • Miralai (army Colonel or navy Captain)
  • Kaimakam (army Lieutenant-colonel or navy Commander)

Oddly, the compound Beyefendi was part of the title of the husband (full style Damad-i-Shahyari (given name) Beyefendi) and sons (full style Sultanzade (given name) Beyefendi) of an Imperial Princess, and their sons in turn were entitled to the courtesy title Beyzade (literally "Son of a Bey". For the grandsons of an imperial princess, the official style was simply Bey after the name.). A kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam) is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ...


By the late 19th century, "Bey" had been reduced in Ottoman Turkey to an honorary equivalent of the English-speaking address (not the British courtesy title) "Sir", somewhat akin to the contemporary Cockney usage of "guv'nor." While in Qazaq and other Central Asian Turkic languages, бай [baj] remains a rather honorific title, in modern Turkish, and in Azerbaijan, the word "bey" (or "bay") simply means "mister" (compare Efendi) or "sir" and is used in the meaning of "chieftain" only in historical context. Bay is also used in Turkish in combined form for certain military ranks, e.g. albay, meaning colonel, from alay "regiment" and -bay, and yarbay, meaning lieutenant colonel, from yardim "assistance" and -bay (thus an "assistant albay"). St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney refers to working-class inhabitants of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎) is a Western Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Effendi (actually spelled Efendi in Turkish) (a Turkish title meaning a lord or master) is a title of respect, equivalent to the English sir, in Turkey and some other Eastern countries. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ...


As with most Turkish titles, it follows the name rather than precedes it as in western languages, e.g. "Ahmet Bey" for "Mr. Ahmet". Its uses are as follows — when you speak of Mr. Ahmet, the title has to be written with a capital (Ahmet Bey), but when you address him directly it is simply written without capital: Ahmet bey. Bey may combine with efendi to give a common form of address, to which the possessive suffix -(i)m is usually added: beyefendim, efendim.


Beyefendi has its feminine counterpart: hanımefendi [haˈnɯmefendi], used alone, to address a woman without her first name. And with the first name: Ayşe Hanım or Ayşe hanım, for example, according to the rule given above about the use of the capital letter. A given name specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name. ...


Under Ottoman rule the title was used also in Albania (Albanian language: bej, be, or beu), in two forms: Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by about 15 million people[ — see talk page], primarily in Albania and Serbia, but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro , along the eastern coast of Italy and in...

  • in the Gheg north, as a title given specifically to the officials of the Ottoman Empire.
  • in the Tosk south, it was not only used in a similar fashion, but the main use of the name came to be Bey of the Village. The mayoral "beys" in Tosk villages formed a wealthy but largely illiterate elite, exploiting the peasants who were bound to the land in a status comparable to serfdom, a state of affairs continued in the Tosk districts even after Albanian independence 1912, as King Zog took power and forbade the "Beys" to mistreat the peasants.

The term is not used anymore in Albania except when referring to historical figures and events or for humorous purposes (meaning to joke about someone who does not possess a clear thinking ability). Nevertheless, a select number of families still use the bey-ending in their last names. It is often cited as tribute to past blood lines. However, the name is generally associated with the Çabej line of Albania. Geg is a northern Albanian dialect. ... Tosk may refer to several things: Tosk, a dialect of Albanian. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Beys elsewhere

The title Bey could be maintained as a similar office within Arab states that broke away from the High Porte, such as Khedive Mehmet Ali's Egypt, where it was a rank below Pasha (maintained in two rank classes after 1922), and a title of courtesy for a Pasha's son. Khedive (from Persian for lord) was a title created in 1867 by the Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz for the then-governor of Egypt, Ismail Pasha. ... See Mehemet Ali (Turkey) for the Turkish foreign minister and regent. ... Pasha (or pascha, bashaw; Turkish: paÅŸa; originally from Persian padshah or padeshah meaning king or from Turkish bash head, chief [1]) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ...


Even much earlier, the virtual sovereign's title in Barbaresque North African 'regency' states was "Bey"; compare Dey. Notably in Tunis, the Husainid Dynasty used a whole series of title and styles including Bey: The American Captain William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey, circa 1800. ... The Husainid Dynasty is the former ruling dynasty of Tunisia originally of Cretan origin. ...

  • Just Bey itself was part of the territorial title of the ruler, and also as a title used by all male members of the family (rather like Sultan in the Ottoman dynasty).
  • Bey al-Kursi 'Bey of the Throne', a term equivalent to reigning prince.
  • Bey al-Mahalla 'Bey of the Camp', title used for the next most senior member of the Beylical family after the reigning Bey, the Heir Apparent to the throne.
  • Bey al-Taula 'Bey of the Table', the title of the Heir Presumptive, the eldest prince of the Beylical family, who enjoyed precedence immediately after the Bey al-Mahalla.
  • Beylerbeyi (or Beglerbegi) 'Lord of Lords', was the administrative rank formally enjoyed by the ruler of Tunis and by rulers of parts of the Balkans in their official capacity of Ottoman Governor-General within the Turkish empire.

Other Beys saw their own Beylik promoted to statehood, e.g.: Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ...

  • in Qusantina (Constantine in French), an Ottoman district subject to the Algiers regency since 1525 (had its own Beys since 1567), the last incumbent, Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif (b. c.1784, in office 1826 - 1848, d. 1850), was maintained when in 1826 the Local Kabyle population declared independence, and when in was on 13 October 1837 conquered by France, until it was incorporated into Algeria in 1848.

Bey or a variation has also been used as an aristocratic title in various Turkic states, such as Bäk in the Tatar Khanate of Kazan, in charge of a Beylik called Bäklek. Constantine or Qusantînah (Arabic: قسنطينة ) is the capital of Constantine Province (ولاية قسنطينة ) in north-east Algeria, slightly inland, at about 80 kilometers from the coast. ... Painting of Khair ad Din At about the time Spain was establishing its presidios in the Maghreb, the Muslim privateer brothers Aruj and Khair ad Din -- the latter known to Europeans as Barbarossa, or Red Beard--were operating successfully off Tunisia under the Hafsids. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ...


Sometimes a Bey was a territorial vassal within a khanate, as in each of the three zuzes under the Khan of the Kazakhs. Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title. ...


In some Cajun cultures, "Bey" is just a common household name that parents will call their child, a nickname. Example, Sean "Bey" Elliot (the BMW driver).


The variation Beg, Baig or Bai (pronounced as "buy"), is still used as a family name or a part of a name in South and Central Asia as well as the Balkans. In Slavic-influenced names, it can be seen in conjunction with the Slavic -ov/-ović/ev suffixes meaning "son of", such as in Izetbegović, Abai Kunanbaev (Abai Kunanbaiuli). Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Alija Izetbegović, former president of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 - October 19, 2003) was a Bosnian Muslim activist, philosopher, and politician, president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1990 to 1996 and member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1996 to 2000, and author... Abai Kunanbaiuli Abai Ibragim Kunanbaiuli (Kazak: Абай Ибрагим Кунанбайулы Russian: Because of Russian influence many people know him as Abai Kunanbaev) (August 10, 1845 - July 5, 1904) was a Kazakh poet... Abai Kunanbaiuli Abai Ibragim Kunanbaiuli (Kazak: Абай Ибрагим Кунанбайулы Russian: Because of Russian influence many people know him as Abai Kunanbaev or Abai Kunanbaiev) (August 10, 1845 - July 5, 1904) was a Kazakh poet, composer, and philosopher, as well as an important cog in the development of Kazakh as a legitimate written language. ...


The title is also used within the Moorish American Community / members of the Moorish Science Temple of America as tribal titles which denotes an Islamic Governor along with the title El. The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religious organization founded in 1913 by Noble Drew Ali, is a sect of Islam, Gnosticism and Taoism. ... Muslims performing salah (prayer) Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th-century Arab religious and political figure. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ...


See also

Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) are small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Ptolemaida (modern Greek Πτολεμαΐδα or ancient Greek Πτολεμαΐς) is a city in Northern Greece. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... The Baigs are a proud clan of peoples descending from the India. ... The Baigs are a proud clan of peoples descending from the India. ... Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Çağatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... The American Captain William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey, circa 1800. ... Effendi (actually spelled Efendi in Turkish) (a Turkish title meaning a lord or master) is a title of respect, equivalent to the English sir, in Turkey and some other Eastern countries. ... There were many titles of nobility in the Ottoman Empire, but as in many oriental traditions nobility was generally not hereditary as in the west, except for the ruling house, but rather conferred by office, with limited rights for one or more following generations. ... Begum, Begüm or Baigum (Turkish: Begüm, Persian: بیگم) is a Turkic title given to female family members of a Baig. ... The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religious organization founded in 1913 by Noble Drew Ali, is a sect of Islam, Gnosticism and Taoism. ...

Sources and references

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Online - Bey
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary - Bey

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bey (145 words)
During the Ottoman Empire the ruler was called "bey" until 1394, when Bayezid 1 was given the right to call himself "sultan" by the shadow caliph in Cairo.
But the title "bey" didn't dissappear, and came to be used by governors of a province.
The bey was an important figure, often autonomous from the sultans in Istanbul (before 1453 Bursa and Edirne).
Bey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (758 words)
Henceforth "bey" came to be applied to subordinate officers, such as a military governor (especially sanjakbey, called after a military banner; compare vali) or district commissioner in part of an Ottoman vilayet or province.
Soon the title was devaluated, as Pasha was established as a higher distinction, bey even was used a a courtsey title (alongside Pashazada) for a Paha's son.
The title bey could be maintained as a similar office within Arab states that broke away from the High Porte, such as Khedive Mehmet Ali's Egypt, where it was a rank below Pasha (maintained in two rank classes after 1922), and a title of courtesy for a Pasha's son.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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