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Encyclopedia > Bethlehem
Bethlehem

A neighborhood in Bethlehem
Arabic بيت لحم
Name Meaning house of meat (Arabic); house of bread (Hebrew)
Government City (from 1995)
Also Spelled Beit Lahm[1] (officially)

Bayt Laham (unofficially) Bethlehem may be referring to: The original Bethlehem, a city in the West Bank (otherwise known as Judea). ... Arabic redirects here. ... This is a list of cities in on the territory of the Palestinian National Authority (yet not necessarily under its jurisdiction). ...

Governorate Bethlehem
Coordinates 31°42′11″N 35°11′44″E / 31.70306, 35.19556Coordinates: 31°42′11″N 35°11′44″E / 31.70306, 35.19556
Population 29,930[1] (2006)
Jurisdiction  dunams
Head of Municipality Victor Batarseh

Bethlehem (Arabic: بيت لحم‎, Bayt Laḥm , lit "House of Meat"; Greek: Βηθλεέμ Bethleém; Hebrew: בית לחם‎, Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread") is an Israeli city in the central West Bank, approximately 10 kilometers (6 mi) south of Jerusalem, with a population of 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism.[2][3] Map showing governorates and areas of formal Palestinian control (green) After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided into three areas and 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The Bethlehem Governorate is one of a number of Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip within the Palestinian Territories, It covers an area of the West Bank, south of Jerusalem, the area around the City of Bethlehem. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A dunam or dönüm, dunum, donum is a unit of area. ... Victor Batarseh (b. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links ArBethlehem. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Bethlehem Governorate is one of a number of Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip within the Palestinian Territories, It covers an area of the West Bank, south of Jerusalem, the area around the City of Bethlehem. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...


According to the New Testament, Bethlehem is the birthplace of Jesus of Nazareth. The town is inhabited by one of the oldest Christian communities in the world, though the size of the community has shrunk in recent years due to emigration.[4] The city is also believed to be the birthplace of David and the location where he was crowned as the king of Israel. The city was sacked by the Samaritans in 529 AD, during their revolt, but was rebuilt by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. Bethlehem was conquered by the Arab Caliphate of 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb in 637, who guaranteed safety for the city's religious shrines. In 1099, Crusaders captured and fortified Bethlehem and replaced its Greek Orthodox clergy with a Latin one. The Latin clergy were expelled after the city was captured by Saladin, the sultan of Egypt and Syria. With the coming of the Mamluks in 1250, the city's walls were demolished, and were subsequently rebuilt during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[5] This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


The Ottomans lost the city to the British during World War I and it was to be included in an international zone under the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine. Jordan occupied the city in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and it was subsequently occupied by Israel in the 1967 Six Day War. Israel has retained control over the entrances and exits to Bethlehem, though day-to-day administration has been under the purview of the Palestinian National Authority since 1995.[5] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Corpus separatum is Latin for separated body. The 1947 UN Partition Plan used this term to refer to a proposed small internationally administered zone including the religiously significant towns of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...


Modern Bethlehem has a Muslim majority but is also home to one of the largest Palestinian Christian communities.[4] The Bethlehem agglomeration includes the towns of Beit Jala and Beit Sahour, as well as the refugee camps of 'Aida and Beit Jibrin. Bethlehem's dominant economic sector is tourism which is particularly high during the Christmas season as the city is a Christian pilgrimage center, being home of the Church of the Nativity. Bethlehem has over thirty hotels and three hundred handicraft work shops, employing several of the city's residents.[6] Rachel's Tomb, an important Jewish holy site, is located at the entrance of Bethlehem. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity. ... In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... Beit Jala (Arabic:  , possibly from Aramaic grass carpet) is a small city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. ... Beit Sahour (Arabic: بيت ساحور pronounced ) is a Palestinian town in the West Bank, situated to the east of Bethlehem. ... Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War to accommodate Palestinian refugees who fled from the war. ... Aida (also spelled Ayda) is a Palestinian refugee camp situated between the cities of Bethlehem and Beit Jala in the central West Bank. ... Ruins of the former Palestinian town of Bayt Jibrin, inside the green line of Hebron Bayt Jibrin (Arabic: , also spelled Beit Jibrin) is a former Palestinian town located 21km northwest of the city of Hebron. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... Rachels Tomb is a holy site of high significance to Judaism and is located in Northern Judea (Southern West Bank) just outside of the Jerusalem neighborhood of Gilo at the northern entrance to Bethlehem along what was once the Biblical Bethlehem-Ephrath road. ...

Contents

History

Biblical era

Bethlehem, located in the "hill country" of Judah, may be the same as the Biblical Ephrath,[7] which means "fertile": There is a possible reference to it as Beth-Lehem Ephratah.[8] It is also known as Beth-Lehem Judah,[9] and "the city of David".[10] It is first mentioned in the Tanakh and the Bible as the place where the Abrahamic matriarch Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside" (Gen. 48:7). Rachel's Tomb, the traditional grave site, stands at the entrance to Bethlehem. According to the Book of Ruth, the valley to the east is where Ruth of Moab gleaned the fields and returned to town with Naomi. Bethlehem is the traditional birthplace of David, the second king of Israel, and the place where he was anointed king by Samuel.[11] It was from the well of Bethlehem that three of his warriors brought him water when he was hiding in the cave of Adullam.[12] Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Ephrath or Ephratah is the Biblical name of the ancient city in the Judean Hills, south of Bethlehem, now called Efrat in the West Bank. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Rachels Tomb is a holy site of high significance to Judaism and is located in Northern Judea (Southern West Bank) just outside of the Jerusalem neighborhood of Gilo at the northern entrance to Bethlehem along what was once the Biblical Bethlehem-Ephrath road. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab, by William Blake Naomi (נָעֳמִי Pleasant;agreeable, Standard Hebrew NoÊ¿omi, Tiberian Hebrew Noʿŏmî) is Ruths mother in law in the Old Testament Book of Ruth. ... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... Adullam is a town referred to in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Birthplace of Jesus

Further information: Church of the Nativity and Nativity of Jesus
Silver star marking the place where Jesus was born according to Christian tradition
Silver star marking the place where Jesus was born according to Christian tradition

Two accounts in the New Testament describe Jesus as born in Bethlehem. According to the Gospel of Luke,[13] Jesus's parents lived in Nazareth but traveled to Bethlehem for the census of 6 AD, and Jesus was born there before the family returned to Nazareth. View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... The Census of Quirinius refers to a historical enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria, after the banishment of Herod Archelaus in 6 AD, which...


The Gospel of Matthew account implies that the family already lived in Bethlehem when Jesus was born, and later moved to Nazareth.[14][15] Matthew reports that Herod the Great, told that a 'King of the Jews' has been born in Bethlehem, ordered the killing of all the children aged two and under in the town and surrounding areas. Jesus's earthly father Joseph is warned of this in a dream, and the family escapes this fate by fleeing to Egypt and returning only after Herod has died. But being warned in another dream not to return to Judea, Joseph withdraws the family to Galilee, and goes to live in Nazareth The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Herod the Great. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ...


Early Christians interpreted a verse in the Book of Micah[16] as a prophecy of the birth of the Messiah in Bethlehem.[17] Many modern scholars question whether Jesus was really born in Bethlehem, and suggest that the different Gospel accounts were invented to present the birth of Jesus as fulfillment of prophecy and imply a connection to the lineage of King David.[18][19] The Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of John do not include a nativity narrative or any hint that Jesus was born in Bethlehem.[20] In a 2005 article in Archaeology magazine, archaeologist Aviram Oshri pointed to the absence of evidence of settlement of the area at the time when Jesus was born.[21] The Book of Micah (Hebrew: ספר מיכה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, traditionally attributed to Micah the Prophet. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... Archaeology is a bimonthly mainstream magazine about archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America; the editors estimate that less than one-half of one percent of their readers are professional archaeologists. ...


Roman and Byzantine periods

View of Church of the Nativity in 1833, painting by M.N.Vorobiev
View of Church of the Nativity in 1833, painting by M.N.Vorobiev

Between 132-135 the city was occupied by the Romans after its capture during the Bar Kokhba Revolt. Its Jewish residents were expelled by the military orders of Hadrian.[22] While ruling Bethlehem, the Romans built a shrine to the mythical Greek cult figure Adonis on the site of the Nativity. A church was erected in 326, when Helena, the mother of the first Byzantine emperor Constantine, visited Bethlehem.[5] Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... In Greek mythology Adonis (Greek: , also: Άδωνις) is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity of Semitic origin, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Flavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta or Helena of Constantinople (ca. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on...


During the Samaritan revolt of 529, Bethlehem was sacked and its walls and the Church of the Nativity destroyed, but they were soon rebuilt on the orders of the Emperor Justinian I. In 614, the Persian Sassanid Empire invaded Palestine and captured Bethlehem. A story recounted in later sources holds that they refrained from destroying the church on seeing the magi depicted in Persian clothing in a mosaic.[5] For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Islamic rule and the Crusades

The Mosque of Omar (Umar) was built in 1860 to commemorate the Caliph Umar's visit to Bethlehem upon its capture by the Muslims. It is Bethlehem's only mosque
The Mosque of Omar (Umar) was built in 1860 to commemorate the Caliph Umar's visit to Bethlehem upon its capture by the Muslims. It is Bethlehem's only mosque

In 637, shortly after Jerusalem was captured by the Muslim armies, 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb, the second Caliph visited Bethlehem and promised that the Church of the Nativity would be preserved for Christian use.[5] A mosque dedicated to Umar was built upon the place in the city where he prayed, next to the church.[23] Bethlehem then passed from the control of the Islamic caliphates of the Rashidun, the Ummayads, Abbasids and the Fatimids. In 1009, during the reign of the sixth Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the Church of the Nativity was demolished under his orders. It was soon rebuilt by his successor Ali az-Zahir to mend relations between the Fatimids and the Byzantine Empire.[24] For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Byzantine empire. ... The Rashidun Caliphate Army or Rashidun army was the primary military body of the Rashidun Caliphates armed forces of 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun caliphate Navy. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Tāriqu l-ḤakÄ«m, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... ˤAlÄ« az-Zāhir (20 June 1005 – 13 June 1036) (Arabic: الظاهر بالله) was the Seventh Caliph of the Fātimids (1021 - 1036). ...


In 1099, Bethlehem was captured by the Crusaders, who fortified it and built a new monastery and cloister on the north side of the Church of the Nativity. The Greek Orthodox clergy were removed from their Sees and replaced with Latin clerics. Up until that point the official Christian presence in the region was Greek Orthodox. On Christmas Day 1100 Baldwin I, first king of the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem, was crowned in Bethlehem, and that year a Latin episcopate was also established in the town.[5] Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ...

A painting of Bethlehem, 1882
A painting of Bethlehem, 1882

In 1187, Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria who led the Muslim Ayyubids, captured Bethlehem from the Crusaders. The Latin clerics were forced to leave, allowing the Greek Orthodox clergy to return. Saladin agreed to the return of two Latin priests and two deacons in 1192. However, Bethlehem suffered from the loss of the pilgrim trade, as there was a sharp decrease of European pilgrims.[5] Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


William IV, Count of Nevers had promised the Christian bishops of Bethlehem that if Bethlehem should fall under Muslim control, he would welcome them in the small town of Clamecy in present-day Burgundy, France. As such, The Bishop of Bethlehem duly took up residence in the hospital of Panthenor, Clamecy in 1223. Clamecy remained the continuous 'in partibus infidelium' seat of the Bishopric of Bethlehem for almost 600 years, until the French Revolution in 1789.[25] Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... In Partibus Infidelium (often shortened to in partibus, or abbreviated as i. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Bethlehem — along with Jerusalem, Nazareth and Sidon — was briefly ceded to the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem by a treaty between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Ayyubid Sultan al-Kamil in 1229, in return for a ten-year truce between the Ayyubids and the Crusaders. The treaty expired in 1239 and Bethlehem was recaptured by the Muslims in 1244.[26] Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ...


In 1250, with the coming to power of the Mamluks under Rukn al-Din Baibars, tolerance of Christianity declined; the clergies left the city, and in 1263 the town walls were demolished. The Latin clergy returned to Bethlehem the following century, establishing themselves in the monastery adjoining the Basilica of the Nativity. The Greek Orthodox were given control of the basilica and shared control of the Milk Grotto with the Latins and the Armenians.[5] Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... al-Malik al-Zahir Ruk al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (1223 – July 1, 1277) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ...


Ottoman and Egyptian era

A crowded street in Bethlehem, 1880
A crowded street in Bethlehem, 1880
View of Bethlehem, 1898
View of Bethlehem, 1898

From 1517, during the years of Ottoman control, custody of the Basilica was bitterly disputed between the Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches.[5] From 1831 to 1841, Palestine was under the rule Muhammad Ali Dynasty of Egypt. During this period, the town suffered an earthquake as well as the destruction of the Muslim quarter by Egyptian troops, apparently as a reprisal for the murder of a favored loyalist of Ibrahim Pasha. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Muhammad Ali Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th Century. ... Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: إبراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – November 10, 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ...


In 1841, Bethlehem came under Ottoman rule once more and remained so until the end of the World War I. Under the Ottomans, Bethlehem's inhabitants faced unemployment, compulsory military service and heavy taxes, resulting in mass emigration particularly to South America.[5] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Conscription is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority, e. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Twentieth century

As a result of their victory in World War I, the Allies, particularly Britain and France, divided the captured Ottoman provinces into mandates. On September 29, 1923 Bethlehem and the majority of the territory west of the Jordan River fell under the control of the British Mandate of Palestine. In the United Nations General Assembly's 1947 resolution to partition Palestine, Bethlehem was included in the special international enclave of Jerusalem to be administered by the United Nations.[27] is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Jordan occupied the city during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[28] Many refugees from areas captured by Israeli forces in 1947-48 fled to the Bethlehem area, primarily settling in the what became the official refugee camps of Beit Jibrin (or al-'Azza) and 'Aida in the north and Dheisheh in the south.[29] The influx of refugees significantly transformed Bethlehem's Christian majority into a Muslim one.[30] Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ruins of the former Palestinian village of Bayt Jibrin, inside the green line of Hebron Bayt Jibrin (Arabic: , also: Beit Jibrin) was a Palestinian village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and depopulated. ... Aida (also spelled Ayda) is a Palestinian refugee camp situated between the cities of Bethlehem and Beit Jala in the central West Bank. ... Dheisheh ( ; Arabic: ) is a Palestinian refugee camp located just south of Bethlehem in the West Bank. ...


Jordan retained control of the city until the Six-Day War in 1967, when Bethlehem was occupied by Israel, along with the rest of the West Bank. On December 21, 1995, Israeli troops withdrew from Bethlehem,[31] and three days later the city came under the complete administration and military control of the Palestinian National Authority in conformance with the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 1995.[32] Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip or Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement, or simply the Interim Agreement, also known as Oslo 2 (or Oslo II), and alternately known as Taba, was a key and complex agreement about the future of the Gaza Strip and the West...


Second Intifada

Marks of IDF bullets can be seen in the upper left corner where the siege took place
Marks of IDF bullets can be seen in the upper left corner where the siege took place

During the Second Palestinian Intifada, which began in 2000-01, Bethlehem's infrastructure and tourism industry was severely damaged.[33][34] In 2002, it was a primary combat zone in Operation Defensive Shield, a major military offensive by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), in response to numerous Palestinian suicide bombings in Israel.[35] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 433 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bethlehem Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 433 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bethlehem Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades & Tanzim) Hamas Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian security forces Commanders Aluf Itzhak Eitan (Central commander) Strength Golani Brigade, Nahal Brigade, Paratroopers Brigade, 5th Reserve Infantry Brigade, 408th Reserve Infantry Brigade, Jerusalem Brigade(reserve), Shayetet 13, Armor and Engineering forces. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ...


During the operation, the IDF besieged the Church of the Nativity, where about 200 Palestinians, including a group of militants, sought refuge amid IDF advancements into the city. The siege lasted for five days and nine militants and the church's bellringer were killed. It ended with an agreement to exile thirteen of the wanted militants to various European nations and Mauritania.[35] Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades Fatah and Tanzim Strength Unknown 200 Casualties N/A 9 The Siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem occurred during the April/May 2002 Israeli “Operation Defensive Shield” in the West Bank. ...


Geography

A map indicating Bethlehem's location

Bethlehem stands at an elevation of about 775 meters (2,543 ft) above sea level, 30 meters (98 ft) higher than nearby Jerusalem.[36] Bethlehem is situated on the southern portion in the Judean Mountains. The Judean Mountains are the mountain range on which Jerusalem, the capital city of Israel is located. ...


The city is located 73 kilometers (45 mi) northeast of Gaza and the Mediterranean Sea, 75 kilometers (47 mi) west of Amman, Jordan, and 59 kilometers (37 mi) southeast of Tel Aviv, Israel.[37] Nearby cities and towns include Beit Safafa and Jerusalem to the north, Beit Jala to the southwest, Artas and Beit Fajjar to the south and Beit Sahour to the east. Beit Jala and the latter form an agglomeration with Bethlehem and the Aida and Beit Jibrin refugee camps are located within the city limits.[38] Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Beit Safafa (Arabic: , ‎) is an Israeli-Arab neighborhood in southeastern Jerusalem midway between Patt and Gilo, on the outskirts of Bethlehem. ... Beit Jala (Arabic:  , possibly from Aramaic grass carpet) is a small city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. ... Beit Sahour (Arabic: بيت ساحور pronounced ) is a Palestinian town in the West Bank, situated to the east of Bethlehem. ... Aida (also spelled Ayda) is a Palestinian refugee camp situated between the cities of Bethlehem and Beit Jala in the central West Bank. ... Ruins of the former Palestinian town of Bayt Jibrin, inside the green line of Hebron Bayt Jibrin (Arabic: , also spelled Beit Jibrin) is a former Palestinian town located 21km northwest of the city of Hebron. ...


Old city

In the center of Bethlehem, is its old city. The old city consists of eight quarters, laid out in a mosaic style, forming the area around the Manger Square. The quarters, include the Christian al-Najajreh, al-Farahiyeh, al-Anatreh, al-Tarajmeh, al-Qawawse and Hreizat quarters and al-Fawaghreh — the only Muslim quarter.[39] The quarters are named after the Arab Ghassanid clans that settled there.[40] There is also a Syriac quarter outside of the old city. The total population of the old city is about 5,000.[39] The Ghassanids were Arab Christians that emigrated in 250 CE from Yemen to the Hauran, in southern Syria. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Climate

Bethlehem has a Mediterranean climate, with hot and dry summers and cold winters. Temperatures in the winter season, from mid-December to mid-March, could be cold and rainy. January is the coldest month, with temperatures ranging from 1 to 13 degree Celsius (33°–55 °F). From May through September, the weather is warm and sunny. August is the hottest month, with a high of 27 degrees Celsius (81°–63 °F). Bethlehem receives an average of 700 millimeters (27.6 in) of rainfall annually, 70% between November and January.[41]  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ...


Bethlehem's average annual relative humidity is 60% and reaches its highest rates between January and February. Humidity levels are at their lowest in May. Night dew may occur in up to 180 days per year. The city is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea breeze that occurs around mid-day. However, Bethlehem is affected also by annual waves of hot, dry, sandy and dust Khamaseen winds that originate from the Arabian Desert, during April, May and mid-June.[41] The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Demographics

Population

Year Population
1945 8,820[42]
1961 22,450
1983 16,300[43]
1997 21,930[44]
2004 (Projected) 28,010
2005 (Projected) 29,020
2006 (Projected) 29,930

According to the PCBS, Bethlehem had a population of 29,930 in mid-year 2006.[1] In the PCBS's 1997 census, the city had a population of 21,670, including a total of 6,570 refugees, accounting for 30.3% of the city's population.[44][45] In 1998, the religious makeup of the city was 67% Sunni Muslim and 33% Christian, mostly of the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic denominations.[46] In 2005, the total Christian population decreased to about 20%.[47] Despite Islam being Bethlehem's dominant religion, the only Muslim house of worship in the city is the Mosque of Omar located in the Manger Square.[23] In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians and continued after... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


In 1997, the age distribution of Bethlehem's inhabitants was 27.4% under the age of 10, 20% from 10 to 19, 17.3% from 20-29, 17.7% from 30 to 44, 12.1% from 45-64 and 5.3% above the age of 65. There were 11,079 males and 10,594 females.[44]


Christian minority

See also: Palestinian Christian

The percentage of Christians in Bethlehem has been steadily falling, primarily due to continuous emigration. The lower birth rate among Christians as compared to Muslims also accounts for some of the decline. In 1947, Christians made up 75% of the population, but by 1998 this figure had dropped to 33%.[46] The current mayor of Bethlehem, Dr. Victor Batarseh told the Voice of America that, "due to the stress, either physical or psychological, and the bad economic situation, many people are emigrating, either Christians or Muslims, but it is more apparent among Christians, because they already are a minority."[48] The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity. ... Victor Batarseh (b. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ...


Palestinian Authority rule following the Interim Agreements is officially committed to equality for Bethlehem area Christians, although there have been a few incidents of violence against them by the Preventive Security Service and militant factions.[49] The outbreak of the Second Intifada and the resultant decrease in tourism has also affected the Christian minority, leaving many economically stricken as they are the owners of many Bethlehem hotels and services which cater to foreign tourists.[4] A statistical analysis of why Christians are leaving the area blamed the lack of economic and educational opportunities, especially due to the Christians' middle-class status and higher education.[50] For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


A 2006 poll of Bethlehem's Christians conducted by the Palestinian Centre for Research and Cultural Dialogue, found that 90% reported having Muslim friends, 73.3% agreed that the Palestinian National Authority treats Christian heritage in the city with respect and 78% attributed the ongoing exodus of Christians from Bethlehem to the Israeli travel restrictions in the area.[51]


The Hamas government's official position has been to support the city's Christian population, though the party has been criticized by some anonymous residents for increasing the Islamic presence in the city by, for example, activating the call to prayer at a previously unused local mosque in a Christian neighborhood. Under Hamas, the Christian population has continued to suffer from a lack of law and order which has left it susceptible to land theft by local mafia who take advantage of ineffective courts and the perception that the Christian population is less likely to stand up for itself.[52][53][54] Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ...


Economy

Central Bethlehem
Central Bethlehem

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (845 × 583 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Central Bethlehem, Palestine (John J. McGough) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (845 × 583 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Central Bethlehem, Palestine (John J. McGough) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this...

Shopping and industry

Shopping is a major sector in Bethlehem, especially during the Christmas season. The city's main streets and old markets are lined with shops selling handicrafts, Middle Eastern spices, jewelry and oriental sweets such as baklawa.[55] For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Baklava is prepared on large trays and cut into a variety of shapes Baklava or Baklawa is a rich, sweet pastry featured in many cuisines of the former Ottoman countries. ...


The tradition of making handicrafts in the city dates back to its founding. Numerous shops in Bethlehem sell olive wood carvings — for which the city is renowned — made from the local olive groves.[56] The carvings are the main product tourist purchased by tourists visiting Bethlehem.[57] Religious handicrafts are also a major industry in Bethlehem, and some products include ornaments handmade from mother-of-pearl, as well as olive wood statues, boxes, and crosses.[56] The art of creating mother-of-pearl handicrafts was introduced to Bethlehem by Franciscan friars from Damascus during the 14th century.[57] Stone and marble-cutting, textiles, furniture and furnishings are other prevalent industries. Bethlehem also produces paints, plastics, synthetic rubber, pharmaceuticals, construction materials and food products, mainly pasta and confectionery.[39] “Mother of Pearl” redirects here. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


Bethlehem has a wine-producing company, Cremisan Wine, founded in 1885, that currently exports wine to several countries. The wine is produced by monks in the Monastery of Cremisan, and the majority of the grapes are harvested from the al-Khader area. The monastery’s wine production is around 700,000 liters per year.[58] In 1883, the convent of Cremisan was founded in Palestine by Salesians on ruins of a Byzantine monastery from the 7th century. ...


Tourism

Tourism is Bethlehem's primary industry and unlike other Palestinian localities before 2000, the majority of the working residents did not work in Israel.[33] Over 25% of the working population was employed directly or indirectly in the industry.[39] Tourism accounts for approximately 65% of the city's economy and 11% of the Palestinian National Authority.[59] View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...


The Church of the Nativity is one of Bethlehem's major tourist attractions and a magnet for Christian pilgrims. It stands in the center of the city — a part of the Manger Square — over a grotto or cave called the Holy Crypt, where Jesus was born according to Christian tradition. Nearby is the Milk Grotto where Jerome is said to have spent thirty years translating the Hebrew Scriptures into Latin.[5] View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ...


There are over thirty hotels in Bethlehem.[6] Jacir Palace, built in 1910 near the church, is one of Bethlehem's most successful hotels and its oldest. It was closed down in 2000 due to the violence of the Second Intifada, but reopened in 2005.[60]


Culture

Embroidery

See also: Palestinian costumes
A woman in Bethlehem. Her headdress and short jacket are typical of the Bethlehem area.
A woman in Bethlehem. Her headdress and short jacket are typical of the Bethlehem area.
Christmas pilgrims, 1890
Christmas pilgrims, 1890

Before the establishment of Israel as a state, Bethlehem costumes and embroidery were popular in villages throughout the Judaean Hills and the coastal plain. The women embroiderers of Bethlehem and the neighboring villages of Beit Jala and Beit Sahour were known to be professional producers of wedding costumes.[61] Bethlehem was a center for embroidery producing a "strong overall effect of colors and metallic brilliance."[62] Palestinian Costumes Foreign travelers to Palestine often commented on the rich variety of costumes among the Palestinian people, especially among the village women. ...


Less formal dresses in Bethlehem were generally made of indigo fabric and a sleeveless coat (bisht), made from locally woven wool, was worn over top. Dresses for special occasions were made of striped silk with winged sleeves and the short taqsireh jacket, known throughout Palestinian as the Bethlehem jacket, was worn over it. The taqsireh was made of velvet or broadcloth, usually with heavy embroidery.[61] Swatch of black cotton velvet decorator fabric used for drapery Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Bethlehem work was unique in its use of couched gold or silver cord, or silk cord onto the silk, wool, felt or velvet used for the garment, to create stylized floral patterns with free or rounded lines. This technique was used for "royal" wedding dresses (thob malak), taqsirehs and the shatwehs worn by married women. It has been traced by some to Byzantium, and by others to the more formal costumes of the Ottoman Empire's elite. As Bethlehem was a Christian village, local women were also exposed to the detailing on church vestments with their heavy embroidery and silver brocade.[61] Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


Museums

Catholic procession on Christmas Eve in Bethlehem, 2006
Catholic procession on Christmas Eve in Bethlehem, 2006

Bethlehem has four museums located within its municipal borders. The Crib of the Nativity Theatre and Museum offers visitors 31 3D models depicting the significant stages of the life of Jesus. Its theater presents a 20-minute animated show. The Badd Giacaman Museum, located in the Old City of Bethlehem, dates back to the 18th century and is primarily dedicated to the history and process of olive oil production.[3] Nativity of the Lord redirects here. ...


Baituna al-Talhami Museum, established in 1972, contains displays of the culture of Bethlehem's inhabitants.[3] The International Museum of Nativity was designed by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the purpose of showing works of "high artistic quality in an evocative atmosphere".[3] UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Cultural centers

Bethlehem is home to the Palestinian Heritage Center, established in 1991. The center aims to preserve and promote Palestinian embroidery, art and folklore.[63] The International Center of Bethlehem is another cultural center that concentrates primarily on the culture of Bethlehem. It provides language and guide training, woman's studies and arts and crafts displays, and training.[3] Palestinian Costumes Foreign travelers to Palestine often commented on the rich variety of costumes among the Palestinian people, especially among the village women. ... Palestinian art is a term used to refer to paintings, posters, installation art and other visual media produced by Palestinian artists. ...


A branch of the the Edward Said National Conservatory of Music is located in Bethlehem and has about 500 students. Its primary goals are to teach children music, train teachers for other schools, sponsor music research, and the study of Palestinian folklore music.[64] The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music is a Palestinian music conservatory with branches in Ramallah, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem. ...


Christmas celebrations

Christmas rites are held in Bethlehem on three different dates: December 24 is the traditional date by the Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations, but Greek, Coptic and Syrian Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas on January 6 and Armenian Orthodox Christians on January 19. Most Christmas processions pass through Manger Square, the plaza outside the Basilica of the Nativity. Catholic services take place in St. Catherine's Church and Protestants often hold services at Shepherds' Fields.[65] is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest...


Government

A Hamas rally in Bethlehem
A Hamas rally in Bethlehem

Bethlehem is the muhfaza (seat) or district capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. The Bethlehem Municipal Council consists of fifteen elected members, including the mayor and deputy mayor. A special statute requires that the mayor and a majority of the municipal council must be Christian, while the remainder are open seats, not restricted to any religion.[4] Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... The Bethlehem Governorate is one of a number of Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip within the Palestinian Territories, It covers an area of the West Bank, south of Jerusalem, the area around the City of Bethlehem. ...


There are several branches of political parties on the council, including Communist, Islamist, and secular. The leftist factions of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) such as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Palestinian People's Party (PPP) usually dominate the reserved seats. Hamas gained the majority of the open seats in the 2005 Palestinian municipal elections.[66] This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... PLO redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Palestinian Peoples Party (PPP, in Arabic حزب الشعب الفلسطيني Hizb al-Shab al-Filastini), founded in 1982 as the Palestinian Communist Party, is a socialist political party in the Palestinian territories and among the Palestinian diaspora. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ...

A poster of candidates representing the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in Bethlehem
A poster of candidates representing the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in Bethlehem

Elected Candidates of the Bethlehem municipal elections of 2005 Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (748x979, 97 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (748x979, 97 KB) Summary Photo: Soman Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Rank List Candidate name Religion
1 Brotherhood & Development (PFLP) Victor Batarseh
2 United Bethlehem (Fatah and PPP) Antun Salman
3 Reform (Hamas) Hasan al-Masalma
4 United Bethlehem (Fatah and PPP) Afram Asmari
5 Wafaa (Palestinian Islamic Jihad) Isa Zawahara
6 United Bethlehem (Fatah and PPP) Khalil Chawka
7 Reform (Hamas) Khalid Jadu
8 Hope & Labour (Fatah) Zughbi Zughbi
9 Reform (Hamas) Nabil al-Hraymi
10 Reform (Hamas) Salih Chawka
11 Reform (Hamas) Yusuf al-Natsha
12 Brotherhood & Development (PFLP) Nina 'Atwan
13 Brotherhood & Development (PFLP) George Sa'ada
14 Independent Nadir al-Saqa
15 United Bethlehem (Fatah and PPP) Duha al-Bandak

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The Palestinian Peoples Party (PPP, in Arabic حزب الشعب الفلسطيني Hizb al-Shab al-Filastini), founded in 1982 as the Palestinian Communist Party, is a socialist political party in the Palestinian territories and among the Palestinian diaspora. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The Palestinian Peoples Party (PPP, in Arabic حزب الشعب الفلسطيني Hizb al-Shab al-Filastini), founded in 1982 as the Palestinian Communist Party, is a socialist political party in the Palestinian territories and among the Palestinian diaspora. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The Palestinian Peoples Party (PPP, in Arabic حزب الشعب الفلسطيني Hizb al-Shab al-Filastini), founded in 1982 as the Palestinian Communist Party, is a socialist political party in the Palestinian territories and among the Palestinian diaspora. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The Palestinian Peoples Party (PPP, in Arabic حزب الشعب الفلسطيني Hizb al-Shab al-Filastini), founded in 1982 as the Palestinian Communist Party, is a socialist political party in the Palestinian territories and among the Palestinian diaspora. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

Mayors

The mayor and the deputy mayor of Bethlehem are required by municipal law to be Christian.[4]

  • Mikhail Abu Saadeh - 1876
  • Khalil Yaqub - 1880
  • Suleiman Jacir - 1884
  • Issa Abdullah Marcus - 1888
  • Yaqub Khalil Elias - 1892
  • Hanna Mansur - 1895-1915
  • Salim Issa al-Batarseh - 1916-17
  • Salah Giries Jaqaman - 1917-21
  • Musa Qattan - 1921-25
  • Hanna Ibrahim Miladah - 1926-28
  • Nicoloa Attalah Shain - 1929-33
  • Hanna Issa al-Qawwas - 1936-46
  • Issa Basil Bandak - 1946-51
  • Elias Bandak - 1951-53
  • Afif Salm Batarseh - 1952-53
  • Elias Bandak - 1953-57
  • Ayyub Musallam - 1958-62
  • Elias Bandak - 1963-72
  • Elias Freij - 1972-97
  • Hanna Nasser - 1997-2005
  • Victor Batarseh (current) - 2005-[67][68]

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Victor Batarseh (b. ...

Education

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), in 1997, approximately 84% of Bethlehem's population over the age of 10 was literate. Of the city's population, 10,414 were enrolled in schools (4,015 in primary school, 3,578 in secondary and 2,821 in high school). About 14.1% of high school students received diplomas.[69] There were 135 schools in the Bethlehem Governorate in 2006; 100 run the Education Ministry of the Palestinian National Authority, seven by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) and 28 were private.[70] The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) is the statistical organisation of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The Bethlehem Governorate is one of a number of Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip within the Palestinian Territories, It covers an area of the West Bank, south of Jerusalem, the area around the City of Bethlehem. ... The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a controversial relief and human development agency, providing education, healthcare, social services and emergency aid to over four million Palestinian refugees living in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ...


Bethlehem is home to Bethlehem University, a Catholic Christian co-educational institution of higher learning founded in 1973 in the Lasallian tradition, open to students of all faiths. Bethlehem University is the first university established in the West Bank, and can trace its roots to 1893 when the De La Salle Christian Brothers opened schools throughout Palestine and Egypt.[71] Bethlehem University of the Holy Land is a Catholic Christian co-educational institution of higher learning founded in 1973 in the Lasallian tradition, open to students of all faith traditions. ... La Salle Academy, New York City The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, also known as the Christian Brothers, the Lasallian Brothers, the French Christian Brothers, or the De La Salle Brothers, is a Roman Catholic religious teaching order, founded by French Priest Saint Jean-Baptiste de la...


Transportation

Bus service

A street in Bethlehem lined with taxis
A street in Bethlehem lined with taxis

Bethlehem has four privately owned bus stations which offer service to Jerusalem, Hebron, Nahalin, Battir and Beit Fajjar. Buses and taxis with West Bank licenses are not allowed to enter Israel, including Jerusalem, without a permit.[72] Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... Battir village Battir (; Arabic بتير) is an ancient village located four kilometers from Bethlehem to the southeast, and Jerusalem to the northeast. ...


Movement restrictions

Main entrance into Bethlehem from Jerusalem, 2005
Main entrance into Bethlehem from Jerusalem, 2005

The Israeli construction of the West Bank barrier has had an impact on Bethlehem politically, socially, and economically. The barrier runs along the northern side of the town's built-up area, within meters of houses in 'Aida refugee camp on one side, and the Jerusalem municipality on the other.[33] Image File history File links Main entrance into Bethlehem, July 2005. ... Image File history File links Main entrance into Bethlehem, July 2005. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ...


Most entrances and exits from the Bethlehem agglomeration to the rest of the West Bank are currently subject to Israeli checkpoints and roadblocks. The level of access varies based on Israeli security directives. Travel for Bethlehem's Palestinian residents from the West Bank into Israeli-annexed Jerusalem is regulated by a permit-system.[73] Acquiring such permits to enter, what in the past served in many ways as an urban anchor to Bethlehem, has become exceedingly rare since the onset of the violence surrounding the Second Intifada, though Israel has subsequently erected a terminal to ease transit between the two adjoining cities.[33][74] An Israel Defense Forces checkpoint, usually called an Israeli checkpoint (Hebrew: מחסום, machsom), is a barrier put forth by the Israel Defense Forces to enhance the security of Israel and prevent those who wish to harm it from entering the country. ...


Palestinians are not allowed to enter the Jewish holy site of Rachel's Tomb, which is on the outskirts of the city, without a permit. Since Bethlehem and the nearby biblical Solomon's Pools lie in Area A (territory under both PNA military and civil administration), Israeli citizens are barred without a permit from the Israeli military authorities.[33] Rachels Tomb is a holy site of high significance to Judaism and is located in Northern Judea (Southern West Bank) just outside of the Jerusalem neighborhood of Gilo at the northern entrance to Bethlehem along what was once the Biblical Bethlehem-Ephrath road. ...


Sister cities

Bethlehem has the following sister cities.[75]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marrickville Town Hall Police Station, Silver Street Marrickville is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Quayside at Enns river. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Nickname: Location of Natal Country Region State Rio Grande do Norte Founded 25 December 1599 Government  - Mayor Carlos Eduardo(PSB) Area  - City 170. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Valinhos is a city and municipality (municipio) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Location of TÅ™ebechovice pod Orebem in the Czech Republic TÅ™ebechovice pod Orebem is a town in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Villa Alemana is a city and commune in central Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... City motto: La Capital del Sur de Chile The Capital of the South of Chile Also called Biobios Pearl Founded October 5, 1550, Original Name La Concepción de María Purísima del Nuevo Extremo Region Bío-Bío Region Area  - City Proper  222 km² Population  - City... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sacré-Coeur church in Paray-le-Monial Cloister Paray-le-Monial is a town and commune of central France, in the region of Burgundy, in the Saône-et-Loire département. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Greccio is an old hilltown and comune of the province of Rieti in the Italian region of Lazio, 42°27N 12°45E, at 705 meters (2313 ft) above sea-level overhanging the Velino river on a spur of the Monti Sabini, a sub-range of the Apennines, about 16 km... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article is about the Italian town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Orvieto is a city in southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Nickname: Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: , Country State Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero ( PAN) Area  - City 860 km² (332 sq mi) Elevation 537 m (1,762 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,133,814  - Density 1,989/km² (5... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Hague redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... County District Municipality NO-0105 Administrative centre Sarpsborg Mayor (2003) Jan O. Engsmyr (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 238 406 km² 370 km² 0. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Córdoba most commonly means Córdoba, Spain, a famous city in Spain inhabited since the time of ancient Rome, and the seat of the Emir of Córdoba and the Caliph of Córdoba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Leganés streets Leganés is a town in central Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vermont. ... Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Orlando redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Projected Mid -Year Population for Bethlehem Governorate by Locality 2004- 2006. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  2. ^ In the West Bank, Politics and Tourism Remain Bound Together Inextricably - New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  3. ^ a b c d e Places to Visit In & Around Bethlehem - Bethlehem Hotel -. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  4. ^ a b c d e O, Muslim town of Bethlehem.... the Daily Mail. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k History of Bethlehem. Bethlehem Municipality. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  6. ^ a b Patience, Martin (2007-12-22). Better times return to Bethlehem. BBC News. BBC MMVIII. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  7. ^ Gen. 35:16, Gen. 48:27, Ruth 4:11
  8. ^ Micah 5:2
  9. ^ Sam 17:12
  10. ^ Luke 2:4
  11. ^ Sam 16:4-13
  12. ^ Sam 23:13-17
  13. ^ Luke 2:4
  14. ^ Matthew 2:1-23
  15. ^ Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, page 64.
  16. ^ Micah 5:2
  17. ^ Edwin D. Freed, Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004) page 77.
  18. ^ Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, p22
  19. ^ E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, 1993, p.85
  20. ^ See Mark 6:1-4; and John 1:46
  21. ^ Aviram Oshri, "Where was Jesus Born?", Archaeology, Volume 58 Number 6, November/December 2005.
  22. ^ History of Bethlehem Bethlehem Homepage
  23. ^ a b Mosque of Omar, Bethlehem. Atlas Travel and Tourist Agency. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  24. ^ Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine Eras. History of the Middle East Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  25. ^ de Sivry, L: "Dictionnaire de Geographie Ecclesiastique", page 375., 1852 ed, from ecclesiastical record of letters between the Bishops of Bethlehem 'in partibus' to the bishops of Auxerre
  26. ^ Paul Read, Peirs (2000). The Templars. Macmillan, 206. ISBN 0312266588. 
  27. ^ IMEU: Maps: 2.7 - Jerusalem and the Corpus Separatum proposed in 1947. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  28. ^ A Jerusalem Timeline, 3,000 Years of The City's History (2001-02) National Public Radio and BBC News
  29. ^ About Bethlehem The Centre for Cultural Heritage Preservation via Bethlehem.ps
  30. ^ Population in the Bethlehem District Bethlehem.ps
  31. ^ Palestine Facts Timeline: 1994-1995. Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  32. ^ Kessel, Jerrold. "Muslims, Christians celebrate in Bethlehem", CNN News, Cable News Network, 1995-12-24. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  33. ^ a b c d e Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) & Office of the Special Coordinator for the Peace Process in the Middle East (December 2004). Costs of Conflict: The Changing Face of Bethlehem. United Nations.
  34. ^ Better times return to Bethlehem. BBC News. BBC MMVII (2007-12-22). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  35. ^ a b Vatican outrage over church siege. BBC News. BBC MMIII (2002-04-08). Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  36. ^ Tourism In Bethlehem Governorate. Palestinian National Information Center.
  37. ^ Distance from Bethlehem to Tel Aviv, Distance from Bethlehem to Gaza Time and Date AS / Steffen Thorsen
  38. ^ Detailed map of the West Bank
  39. ^ a b c d Bethlehem’s Quarters Centre for Cultural Heritage Preservation
  40. ^ Clans -2 Mediterranean Voices: Oral History and Cultural Practice in Mediterranean Cities
  41. ^ a b Bethlehem City: Climate. Bethlehem Municipality.
  42. ^ Hadawi, Sami. Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine.
  43. ^ Census by Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
  44. ^ a b c Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years: Bethlehem Governorate (1997) Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Accessed on 2007-12-23.
  45. ^ Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  46. ^ a b Andrea Pacini (1998). Socio-Political and Community Dynamics of Arab Christians in Jordan, Israel, and the Autonomous Palestinian Territories. Clarendon Press, p. 282. ISBN 0-19-829388-7. 
  47. ^ Bethlehem Christians Worry About Islamic Takeover in Jesus' Birthplace (2005-05-19). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  48. ^ Jim Teeple. "Christians Disappearing in the Birthplace of Jesus", Voice of America, 24 December 2005. 
  49. ^ David Raab. "The Beleaguered Christians of the Palestinian-Controlled Areas: Official PA Domination of Christians", Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 5 January 2003. 
  50. ^ Marsh, Leonard (July 2005). "Palestinian Christianity – A Study in Religion and Politics". International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 57 (7): 147-66. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
  51. ^ Americans not sure where Bethlehem is, survey shows. Ekklesia (20 December 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  52. ^ Joerg Luyken. "Is Christianity dying in Bethlehem?", Jerusalem Post, 21 December 2006. 
  53. ^ Khaled Abu Toameh. "Bethlehem Christians fear neighbors", Jerusalem Post, January 25, 2007. 
  54. ^ Palestinian Christians Look Back on a Year of Troubles. New York Times (2007-03-11).
  55. ^ Bethlehem Municipality(Site Under Construction). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  56. ^ a b Bethlehem: Shopping. TouristHub.
  57. ^ a b Handicrafts: Olive-wood carving. Bethlehem Municipality.
  58. ^ Jahsan, Ruby. Wine. The Centre for Cultural Heritage Preservation. Retrieved on 2008-01-29.
  59. ^ Bethlehem's Struggles Continue. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  60. ^ Jacir Palace, InterContinental Bethlehem re-opens for business InterContinental Hotels Group
  61. ^ a b c Palestine costume before 1948: by region. Palestine Costume Archive. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
  62. ^ Stillman, Yedida Kalfon (1979). Palestinian costume and jewelry. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, p. 46. ISBN 0-8263-0490-7. 
  63. ^ Palestinian Heritage Center: Objectives.
  64. ^ The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  65. ^ Christmas in Bethlehem. Sacred Destinations. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  66. ^ Bethlehem Municipality(Site Under Construction). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  67. ^ Municipalities Info.
  68. ^ Bethlehem Municipality. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  69. ^ Palestinian Population (10 Years and Over) by Locality, Sex and Educational Attainment. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  70. ^ Statistics about General Education in Palestine 2005-2006. Education Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  71. ^ Bethlehem University - History. Bethlehem University. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  72. ^ Bethlehem Municipality(Site Under Construction). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  73. ^ Impact of Israel's separation barrier on affected West Bank communities - OCHA update report #2 (30 September 2003). Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  74. ^ John Dugard. Question of the violation of human rights in the occupied Arab territories, including Palestine 17 January 2006. Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  75. ^ Twinning with Palestine Britain Palestine Twinning Network
  76. ^ Bethlehem Convention (PDF).
  77. ^ The Cooperation and Development School of Pavia.
  78. ^ Zaragoza Internacional: HERMANAMIENTOS ZARAGOZA, ESPAÑA: Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza (Spanish)

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... NPR redirects here. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA) was founded in March 1987 by Dr. Mahdi Abdul Hadi and by a group of Palestinian academics and intellectuals in Jerusalem. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) is the statistical organisation of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) is the statistical organisation of the Palestinian National Authority. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The ecclesia or ekklesia was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Khaled Abu Toameh is an Israeli Arab journalist, documentarist and the West Bank and Gaza correspondent for the Jerusalem Post and U.S. News and World Report. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) is the statistical organisation of the Palestinian National Authority. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bethlehem University of the Holy Land is a Catholic Christian co-educational institution of higher learning founded in 1973 in the Lasallian tradition, open to students of all faith traditions. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Bethlehem, Galilee is a city of the Zebulun, mentioned first in Joshua 19:15. ... Municipal elections were held in Bethlehem in 2005. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bethlehem
  • Bethlehem Municipality
  • Bethlehem Peace Center
  • Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land website - pages on Bethlehem
  • Bible Land Library
  • Bethlehem 2000 project
  • Open Bethlehem civil society project
  • Bethlehem: Muslim-Christian living together
  • Photo Gallery of Bethlehem from 2007

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... al-Bireh or el-Bira (Arabic: ; ‎) is a Palestinian city adjacent to Ramallah in the central West Bank, 15 kilometers (9 mi) north of Jerusalem. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... Arabic رام الله Founded in 16th century Government City (from 1995) Governorate Ramallah & Al-Bireh Population 23,347 (2006) Jurisdiction 16,344 dunams (16. ... Tubas is a city in the Israeli administered West Bank. ... Tulkarm or Tulkarem (Arabic: Ṭūlkarm; ‎) is a Palestinian city in the Tulkarm Governorate in the northwestern West Bank. ... Yatta or Yattah (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian city located in the Hebron Governorate on a high approximately 8km south of the city of Hebron in the West Bank. ... A neighbourhood in Ariel Hebrew אריאל Arabic اريئيل Name Meaning Lion of God Founded in 1978 Government City (from 1998) District Judea and Samaria Area Population 16,900 (2004) Jurisdiction 30,000 dunams (30 km²) Mayor Ron Nachman The city of Ariel (‎; Arabic: ) is an Israeli city, located in the seam zone... Beitar Illit (‎; officially also spelled Betar Illit - Illit is pronounced: Eeleet) is an Israeli settlement and city west of Gush Etzion in the northern Judea region of the West Bank. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bethlehem - Crystalinks (2119 words)
Bethlehem (House of Bread - House of Lahmu) is is a Palestinian city in the West Bank and a hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism industries.
In 1099, Bethlehem was captured by the Crusaders, who fortified it and built a new monastery and cloister on the north side of the Church of the Nativity.
Bethlehem, Beit Sahour and Beit Jala are currently surrounded by Israeli checkpoints and roadblocks, with the main road to Jerusalem cut off at the burder of Jerusalem's municipal area - at Rachel's Tomb.
Bethlehem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1574 words)
Bethlehem is the birth-place of David, the second king of Israel, and it is also the place where he was anointed as king by Samuel (1 Sam.
In 1099, Bethlehem was captured by the Crusaders, who fortified it and built a new monastery and cloister on the north side of the Church of the Nativity.
Bethlehem, Beit Sahour and Beit Jala are currently surrounded by Israeli checkpoints and roadblocks, with the main road to Jerusalem cut off at the border of Jerusalem's municipal area [2] - at Rachel's Tomb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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