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Encyclopedia > Betelgeuse
Betelgeuse

Betelgeuse is the upper left star in the rectangle of bright stars in Orion.
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0
Constellation
(pronunciation)
Orion
Right ascension 05h 55m 10.3053s[1]
Declination +07° 24′ 25.426″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 0.58[1] (0.3 to 1.2)
Characteristics
Spectral type M2Iab[1]
U-B color index 2.06[1]
B-V color index 1.85[1]
Variable type SR c[1] (Semi-regular)
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) +21.0[1] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: 27.33[1] mas/yr
Dec.: 10.86[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 7.63 ± 1.64[1] mas
Distance approx. 430 ly
(approx. 130 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) −5.14
Details
Mass 14 M
Radius 630 R
Surface gravity (log g) -0.5[3]
Luminosity 63,000 (40,000–100,000) L
Temperature 3,500[3] K
Rotation 17 years (14.6 km/s)[2]
Age 1.0 × 107 years
Other designations
Alpha Orionis, 58 Ori, HR 2061, BD+7°1055, HD 39801, SAO 113271, FK5 224, HIP 27989.[1]

Betelgeuse (Alpha (α) Orionis) is a semiregular variable star located 427 light-years away.[1] It is the second brightest star in the constellation Orion, and the ninth brightest star in the night sky. Although it has the Bayer designation "alpha", it is not as bright as Rigel (Beta Orionis). It is a vertex of the Winter Triangle asterism. For the animated series based on the film, see Beetlejuice (TV series). ... Sketch map of the Bantry area. ... Beetlejuice may refer to: Beetlejuice, a 1988 film directed by Tim Burton. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Orion (IPA: ), a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, one of the largest and perhaps the best-known and most conspicuous in the sky[1]. Its brilliant stars are found on the celestial equator and are visible throughout the world, making this constellation globally recognized. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Julian epoch. ... This article is about the star grouping. ... From the dawn of time, poop observed the sky and grouped stars into patterns or constellations. ... Orion (IPA: ), a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, one of the largest and perhaps the best-known and most conspicuous in the sky[1]. Its brilliant stars are found on the celestial equator and are visible throughout the world, making this constellation globally recognized. ... Equatorial Coordinates Right ascension (abbrev. ... In astronomy, declination (abbrev. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature. ... In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed. ... Illustration of the use of optical wavelength interferometry to determine precise positions of stars. ... Radial velocity is the velocity of an object in the direction of the line of sight. ... kilometre per second is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), signified by the symbol km/s or km s-1. ... The proper motion of a star is the motion of the position of the star in the sky (the change in direction in which we see it, as opposed to the radial velocity) after eliminating the improper motions of the stars, which affect their measured coordinates but are not real... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... For other uses, see Parallax (disambiguation). ... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. ... A light-year or lightyear (symbol: ly) is a unit of measurement of length, specifically the distance light travels in vacuum in one year. ... A parsec is the distance from the Earth to an astronomical object which has a parallax angle of one arcsecond. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... In astronomy, the solar mass is a unit of mass used to express the mass of stars and larger objects such as galaxies. ... This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ... In astronomy, the solar radius is a unit of length used to express the size of stars and larger objects such as galaxies. ... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The solar luminosity, , is a unit of luminosity (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to give the luminosities of stars. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... This illustration shows the oblate appearance of the star Achernar caused by rapid rotation. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalog that lists stars. ... In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. ... In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. ... The Henry Draper Catalogue is an astronomy catalogue with astrometric and spectroscopic data about more than 225,000 stars. ... Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog contain the 258,996 stars. ... Fifth Fundamental Catalogue is a glossary of positions of stars. ... The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (Tycho-1) are the primary products of the European Space Agencys astrometric mission, Hipparcos. ... Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Semiregular variable stars are giants or supergiants of intermediate and late spectral type showing considerable periodicity in their light changes, accompanied or sometimes interrupted by various irregularities. ... A light-year, symbol ly, is the distance light travels in one year: exactly 9. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... This article is about the star grouping. ... Orion (IPA: ), a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, one of the largest and perhaps the best-known and most conspicuous in the sky[1]. Its brilliant stars are found on the celestial equator and are visible throughout the world, making this constellation globally recognized. ... Bright stars can be bright because they produce more light, because they are closer to us, or both. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Rigel (pronounced ) (β Orionis) is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the seventh brightest star in the sky, with visual magnitude 0. ... In geometry, a vertex (plural vertices) is a special kind of point, usually a corner of a polygon, polyhedron, or higher dimensional polytope. ... The Winter Triangle is an astronomical asterism involving an imaginary triangle drawn, during the winter, upon the northern hemispheres celestial sphere; with its defining vertices at Betelgeuse, Procyon, and Sirius. ... In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars seen in Earths sky which is not an official constellation. ...


Betelgeuse is a red supergiant, one of the largest stars known. If it were placed at the center of our solar system, its outer surface would extend between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter. The angular diameter of Betelgeuse was first measured in 1920–1921 by Michelson and Pease using an astronomical interferometer on the Mount Wilson 100 inch telescope. Betelgeuse, viewed from a distance of 8 AU. By comparison, this is our own Sun, and how it would appear when viewed from the same distance. ... Below is a list of the largest known stars, by solar diameter. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the diameter measured as an angle. ... His signature. ... Francis Gladheim Pease (1881–February 7, 1938) was an American astronomer. ... Diagram showing a possible layout for an astronomical interferometer, with the mirrors laid out in a parabolic arrangement (similar to the shape of a conventional telescope mirror). ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name is a corruption of the Arabic يد الجوزاء yad al-jawzā, or "hand of the central one". Jauza, the central one, initially referred to Gemini among the Arabs, but later referred to Orion instead. During the Middle Ages the first character of the name, y (, with two dots under it), was misread as a b (, with one dot under it) when transliterating into Latin, and Yad al-Jauza became Bedalgeuze. Then, during the Renaissance, it was theorized that the name was originally written as Bait al-Jauza, thought to mean "armpit of the central one" in Arabic, which led to the modern rendering as "Betelgeuse"; however, the actual translation of "armpit" would be ابط ("Ibţ").[4] Thus in 1899 Richard Hinckley Allen gave the origin of the name as "Ibţ al Jauzah".[5] Arabic redirects here. ... Gemini (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is one of the constellations of the zodiac known as the twins. It is part of the winter sky, lying between Taurus to the west and the dim Cancer to the east, with Auriga and the near-invisible Lynx to the north and Monoceros and Canis... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Richard Hinckley Allen (1838, Buffalo, New York—1908, Northampton, Massachusetts) was a gifted polymath and amateur naturalist; his wide range of interests caused his friends to nickname him the walking encyclopedia. ...


Because of its rich reddish color the star has frequently been referred to as the "martial one", and in astrology portends military or civic honors. Other names are: Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...

It is known as 参宿四 (Shēnsùsì, the Fourth Star of the Constellation of Three Stars) in Chinese. The confusing name is due to the fact that the Constellation of Three Stars was originally composed of just three stars, all of them in the girdle of the Orion. Later, four more stars were added to this constellation, but the name remained unchanged. Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... A nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र) or lunar mansion is one of the 27 or 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle, as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Observation history

AAVSO V-band light curve of Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) from Dec. 1988 - Aug. 2002

The variability of Betelgeuse was first observed by Sir John Herschel in 1836. He published his observations of the star in his work Outlines of Astronomy, noting that the variations increased in the interval 1836–1840 and subsequently decreased. In 1849 he noted an increased cycle of variability, which peaked in 1852. Subsequently observers have recorded unusually high maxima with an interval of several years, but only minor variations in the period 1957–1967. Records of the American Association of Variable Star Observers show a maximum brightness of magnitude 0.2 was achieved in 1933 and 1942, with a mimimum of below magnitude 1.2 in 1927 and 1941.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) is an organization that collects observations of variable stars by amateur astronomers and uses them to establish light curves for each stars variation in brightness over time. ... In astronomy, a Photometric system is a set of discrete passbands (of filters), with a known sensitivity to incident radiation. ... In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity as a function of time. ... John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... Since its founding in 1911, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has coordinated, collected, evaluated, analyzed, published, and archived variable star observations made largely by amateur astronomers and makes the records available to professional astronomers, researchers, and educators. ...


In 1919, Albert Michelson and Francis Pease mounted a 6-metre (20-foot) interferometer on the front of the 2.5 m (100-inch) telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Assisted by John A. Anderson, in December, 1920 Pease measured the angular diameter of α Orionis as 0.047 arcseconds. Given the then-current parallax value of 0.018 arcsecond, this resulted in an estimated radius of 3.84 × 108 km (240 million miles). However there was some known uncertainty due to limb darkening and measurement errors.[7][8]. More recent visible-light observations of Betelgeuse have found the diameter to vary between 0.0568 and 0.0592 arcseconds. His signature. ... Francis Gladheim Pease (1881–February 7, 1938) was an American astronomer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ... For other uses, see Parallax (disambiguation). ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ...

Betelgeuse imaged in ultraviolet light by the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA/ESA credit.
Betelgeuse imaged in ultraviolet light by the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA/ESA credit.[9][10]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s Betelgeuse became a regular target for Aperture Masking Interferometry visible-light imaging, revealing a number of bright spots on the star's surface, which were thought to result from convection [11]. In 1995 the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope was used to capture the first conventional-telescope image (or "direct-image" in NASA terminology) of Betelgeuse, the first of a star other than the Sun. Processing of the ultra-violet image revealed a bright patch on the southwestern portion of the surface. This patch had a higher temperature than the surrounding stellar photosphere. The hotspot in the Hubble image was conjectured to be at the pole (rotation axis)[2]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x950, 35 KB) This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x950, 35 KB) This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... a) shows a simple experiment using an aperture mask in a re-imaged aperture plane. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... The photosphere of an astronomical object is the region at which the optical depth becomes one for a photon of wavelength equal to 5000 angstroms. ...


Recent infrared measurements of the disk of Betelgeuse gave a mid-infrared angular diameter of 54.7 ± 0.3 milli-arcseconds in November 1999, slightly smaller than the typical visible-light angular diameter. These measurements ignored any possible contribution from hotspots (which are less-noticeable in the mid-infrared), but factored-in limb darkening, where the intensity of a star's image diminishes near the edge. For Betelgeuse, some adjustment is needed to compensate for gas near the photosphere.[12] For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the diameter measured as an angle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The limb darkened Sun - An image of the Sun in visible light showing the limb darkening effect as a drop in intensity towards the edge or limb of the solar disk. ...


Distinguishing characteristics


A white disk showing the apparent size of Betelgeuse viewed from a distance of about 8 AU.

By comparison, this is our own Sun viewed from the same distance and field of view.

Several features of Betelgeuse are of particular interest to astronomers. Because of the size and proximity of this star, it has the third largest angular diameter as viewed from Earth,[13] smaller only than the Sun and R Doradus, and one of only a dozen or so stars that telescopes have imaged as a visible disk. It was one of the first stars to have its angular diameter measured with an astronomical interferometer; the apparent diameter was found to be variable. The distance to Betelgeuse is not precisely known, but if it is assumed to be 427 light years then the actual diameter is 800 times the Sun's diameter. It has a color index (B-V) of 1.86. It is thought to have a mass of about 14 solar masses. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1148x779, 56 KB) Summary The red supergiant star, Betelgeuse, viewed from a distance of 8 AU. Image created with Celestia by Will Fox and released into the public domain. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1148x780, 84 KB) Summary The Sun, viewed from a distance of 8 AU. Image created with Celestia by Will Fox and released into the public domain. ... Sol redirects here. ... The field of view is the part of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. ... The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the diameter measured as an angle. ... R Doradus is the name for a supergiant star in the constellation Dorado. ... Diagram showing a possible layout for an astronomical interferometer, with the mirrors laid out in a parabolic arrangement (similar to the shape of a conventional telescope mirror). ... A light year, abbreviated ly, is the distance light travels in one year: roughly 9. ...


The precise diameter is not easy to define, as the optical emission decreases very gradually with radius from the center of the star, and the color of the emission also varies with radius. Though only 14 times more massive than the Sun, it is as much as 300 million times greater in volume; a difference in volume much like a beach ball compared to a large stadium. It was also the first star to have starspots on its disk resolved in optical images by a telescope, first from Aperture Masking Interferometry and later from the Hubble Space Telescope and more detailed observations by the COAST telescope.[14] A beach ball A beach ball is a large inflatable ball used in various games and other recreational activities traditionally conducted on the beach. ... The new Wembley Stadium in London is the most expensive stadium ever built; it has a seating capacity of 90,000 This article is about the building type. ... a) shows a simple experiment using an aperture mask in a re-imaged aperture plane. ...


Surrounding the photosphere of Betelgeuse is an extended atmosphere that displays strong lines of emission (rather than absorption). This chromosphere has a temperature no higher than 5,500 K, and extends outward to as many as 7 times the diameter of the star. This extended gaseous atmosphere has been observed moving away from the star, and sometimes toward it, depending on the radial velocity fluctations of the photosphere.[3] The photosphere of an astronomical object is the region at which the optical depth becomes one for a photon of wavelength equal to 5000 angstroms. ... The chromosphere (literally, color sphere) is a thin layer of the Suns atmosphere just above the photosphere, roughly 10,000 kilometers deep (approximating to, if a little less than, the diameter of the Earth). ...


Visual observation of this star shows that the rotation axis of Betelgeuse has an inclination of about 20° to the direction of the Earth, and a position angle of about 55°. If so, then the hot spot that was seen in 1995 is located at the approximate position of one of the star's poles.[2]


The star's future

Astronomers predict that Betelgeuse will ultimately undergo a type II supernova explosion although it is possible that the mass is low enough for Betelgeuse to leave a rare oxygen-neon white dwarf. Opinions are divided as to the likely timescale for this event. Although Betelgeuse is only around 10 million years old, some regard the star's current variability as suggesting that it is already in the carbon burning phase of its life cycle, and will therefore undergo a supernova explosion at some time in the next thousand years or so. Skeptics dispute this contention and regard the star as being likely to survive much longer. There is a consensus that such a supernova would be a spectacular astronomical event, but would not — being so distant — represent any significant threat to life on Earth. For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


Even so, Betelgeuse would brighten at least 10,000 times as a supernova, causing it to shine with the luminosity of a crescent Moon. Some sources predict a maximum apparent magnitude equal to about that of the full Moon (mv = -12.5). This would likely last for several months. It would look like a brilliant point, the brightness of a full Moon with the color of an incandescent bulb at night, and easily visible in daylight. After that period it would gradually diminish until after some months or years it would disappear from naked eye view. Then Orion's right shoulder would vanish for a time until, in a few centuries, a splendid nebula would develop. However, if Betelgeuse's axis (one of its poles) is pointed towards Earth there would be tangible effects here. A shower of gamma rays and other cosmic particles would be directed at Earth. There would be spectacular aurorae and possibly a measurable diminution of the ozone layer with consequent adverse radiation effects on life. In such an orientation towards the solar system it would also appear many times brighter than if its axis were pointed away. The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 The Pillars of Creation from the Eagle Nebula For other uses, see Nebula (disambiguation). ... Aurora borealis Aurora borealis The aurora is a glow observed in the night sky, usually in the polar zone. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... This article is about the Solar System. ...


Curiously, in 1980, Shu-ren, Jianmin and Jin-Yi unearthed 1st century BC Chinese records that refer to the color of Betelgeuse as being white or yellow.[citation needed] However, Ptolemy writing in 150 CE, calls it a red star. (It should be noted, however, that Ptolemy also calls Sirius red, despite the fact that it is recognized as white.)[15] Therefore, Fang Lizhi, a Chinese astrophysicist, proposed that Betelgeuse could have turned into a red giant star during that period.[16] It is known that as stars use up the hydrogen fuel in their cores, their color changes from white to yellow to red. Shu-ren et al. suggest that Betelgeuse could have changed its color when it expelled a shell of dust and gas, that, even now, can be seen to be expanding away from it. Thus, if their theory is right, it is unlikely that Betelgeuse will become a supernova any time soon because a star usually stays a red giant for tens of thousands of years. BCE redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sirius (disambiguation). ... Fang Lizhi Chinese: 方励之; Hanyu Pinyin: (born February 12, 1936) was a professor of astrophysics and vice president of the University of Science and Technology of China whose teachings inspired the pro-democracy Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m SIMBAD query result: V* alf Ori -- Semi-regular pulsating Star. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  2. ^ a b c Uitenbroek, H.; Dupree, A. K.; Gilliland, R. L. (1998). "Spatially Resolved Hubble Space Telescope Spectra of the Chromosphere of α Orionis". The Astronomical Journal 116: 2501-2512. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 
  3. ^ a b c Lobel, A.; Dupree, A. K. (2000). "Modeling the Variable Chromosphere of α Orionis". The Astrophysical Journal 545: 454-474. Retrieved on 2007-02-04. 
  4. ^ Kunitzsch, Paul, and Smart, Tim (2006). A Dictionary of Modern Star Names. Cambridge, Mass.: Sky Publishing, p.45. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Allen, Richard Hinckley (1963). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Revised edition, New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0486210790. 
  6. ^ Burnham, Robert (1978). Burnham's Celestial Handbook: An Observer's Guide to the Universe Beyond the Solar System, Volume 2. New York: Courier Dover Publications, 1290. ISBN 0486235688. 
  7. ^ Michelson, A. A.; Pease, F. G. (1921). "Measurement of the diameter of alpha Orionis with the interferometer". Astrophysical Journal 53: 249-259. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 
  8. ^ Staff (November 2000). Pease, Francis G (1881–1938). Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  9. ^ The yellow/red "image" or "photo" of Betelgeuse usually seen is actually not a picture of the red giant but rather a mathematically generated image based on the photograph. The photograph was actually of much lower resolution: The entire Betelgeuse image fit entirely within a 10x10 pixel area on the Hubble Space Telescopes Faint Object Camera. The actual images were oversampled by a factor of 5 with bicubic spline interpolation, then deconvolved.
  10. ^ Gilliland, Ronald; L.; Dupree, A. K.. First Image of the Surface of a Star with the Hubble Space Telescope. Astrophysical Journal Letters v.463, p.L29.
  11. ^ D. Buscher et al (1990). "Detection of a bright feature on the surface of Betelgeuse". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 245: 7. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.  R. Wilson et al (1997). "The changing face of Betelgeuse". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 291: 819. Retrieved on 2007-08-07. 
  12. ^ J. Weiner et al (2000). "Precision Measurements of the Diameters of α Orionis and ο Ceti at 11 Microns". The Astrophysical Journal 544: 1097-1100. Retrieved on 2007-06-23. 
  13. ^ T. R. Bedding et al (1997). "The angular diameter of R Doradus: a nearby Mira-like star". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 286 (4): 957-962. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 
  14. ^ D. Burns et al (1997). "The surface structure and limb-darkening profile of Betelgeuse". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 290 (1): L11-L16. Retrieved on 2007-06-21. 
  15. ^ Whittet, D. C. B. (1999). "A physical interpretation of the 'red Sirius' anomaly". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 310 (2): 355-359. Retrieved on 2007-06-30. 
  16. ^ Fang, Li-Zhi (1981). "A brief on astrophysics in China today". Chinese Astronomy and Astrophysics 5: 1-10. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Hinckley Allen (1838, Buffalo, New York—1908, Northampton, Massachusetts) was a gifted polymath and amateur naturalist; his wide range of interests caused his friends to nickname him the walking encyclopedia. ... Robert Burnham, Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... The Faint Object Camera (FOC) was a camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope until 2002. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prof. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Below is a list of the largest known stars, by solar diameter. ...

External links


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