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Encyclopedia > Beta blocker
Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker
Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker

Beta blockers (sometimes written as β-blockers) are a class of drugs used for various indications, but particularly for the management of cardiac arrhythmias and cardioprotection after myocardial infarction. Whilst once first-line treatment for hypertension, their role was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line as they do not perform as well as other drugs, particularly in the elderly with erectile dysfunction and anal seepage, and there is increasing evidence that the most frequently used beta-blockers especially in combination with thiazide-type diuretics carry an unacceptable risk of provoking type 2 diabetes.[1] A skeletal formula is a three-dimensional model of the molecule that demonstrates the molecular shape, including bond angles. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Steatorrhoea is the formation of bulky, grey or pale faeces. ... Thiazides are a class of drug that promote water loss from the body ((diuretics)). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ...


Propranolol was the first clinically useful beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Invented by Sir James W. Black, it revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris and is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.[2] Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... Sir James Whyte Black, OM, FRS, FRSE, FRCP (born 14 July 1924) is a Scottish pharmacologist who invented Propranolol, synthesized Cimetidine and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988 for these discoveries. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


Beta blockers may also be referred to as beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta-adrenergic antagonists, or beta antagonists.

Contents

Pharmacology

Beta blockers block the action of endogenous catecholamines (epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in particular), on β-adrenergic receptors, part of the sympathetic nervous system which mediates the "fight or flight" response. Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... This article or section should include material from Fight-or-flight The flight or fight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in the 1920s as a theory that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. ...


There are three known types of beta receptor, designated β1, β2 and β3. β1-Adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the heart and in the kidneys. β2-Adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, uterus, vascular smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. β3-receptors are located in fat cells.


β-Receptor antagonism

Stimulation of β1 receptors by epinephrine induces a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect on the heart and increases cardiac conduction velocity and automaticity. Stimulation of β1 receptors on the kidney causes renin release. Stimulation of β2 receptors induces smooth muscle relaxation (resulting in vasodilation and bronchodilation amongst other actions), induces tremor in skeletal muscle, and increases glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal muscle. Stimulation of β3 receptors induces lipolysis. Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time) are those that change the heart rate. ... Inotropic: Affecting the force of muscle contraction. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ...


Beta blockers inhibit these normal epinephrine-mediated sympathetic actions, but have minimal effect on resting subjects. That is, they reduce the effect of excitement/physical exertion on heart rate and force of contraction, dilation of blood vessels and opening of bronchi, and also reduce tremor and breakdown of glycogen. The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ...


It is therefore expected that non-selective beta blockers have an antihypertensive effect. The antihypertensive mechanism appears to involve: reduction in cardiac output (due to negative chronotropic and inotropic effects), reduction in renin release from the kidneys, and a central nervous system effect to reduce sympathetic activity (for those β-blockers that do cross the blood-brain barrier, e.g. Propranolol). Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ...


Antianginal effects result from negative chronotropic and inotropic effects, which decrease cardiac workload and oxygen demand. Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time) are those that change the heart rate. ... Inotropic: Affecting the force of muscle contraction. ...


The antiarrhythmic effects of beta blockers arise from sympathetic nervous system blockade – resulting in depression of sinus node function and atrioventricular node conduction, and prolonged atrial refractory periods. Sotalol, in particular, has additional antiarrhythmic properties and prolongs action potential duration through potassium channel blockade. The sinoatrial node (abbreviated SA node, also called the sinus node) is the impulse generating (pacemaker) tissue located in the right atrium of the heart. ... The atrioventricular node (abbreviated AV node) is an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Refractory period. ... Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... In cell biology, potassium channels are the most common type of ion channel. ...


Blockade of the sympathetic nervous system on renin release leads to reduced aldosterone via the renin angiotensin aldosterone system with a resultant decrease in blood pressure due to decreased sodium and water retention. Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. ...


Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity

Some beta blockers (e.g. oxprenolol and pindolol) exhibit intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA). These agents are capable of exerting low level agonist activity at the β-adrenergic receptor while simultaneously acting as a receptor site antagonist. These agents, therefore, may be useful in individuals exhibiting excessive bradycardia with sustained beta blocker therapy. Pindolol is a beta blocker drug. ... Agonists for muscle type see Agonist (muscle) An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ...


Agents with ISA are not used in post-myocardial infarction as they have not been demonstrated to be beneficial. They may also be less effective than other beta blockers in the management of angina and tachyarrhythmia.[3] Heart attack redirects here. ... angina tonsillaris see tonsillitis. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ...


α1-Receptor antagonism

Some beta blockers (e.g. labetalol and carvedilol) exhibit mixed antagonism of both β- and α1-adrenergic receptors, which provides additional arteriolar vasodilating action. Labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate, fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide: Normozyde) is an alpha-1 and beta adrenergic blocker used to treat high blood pressure. ... Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... An arteriole is a small diameter blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ...


Other effects

Beta blockers decrease nocturnal melatonin release, perhaps partly accounting for sleep disturbance caused by some agents.[4] Beta blockers protect against social anxiety: "Improvement of physical symptoms has been demonstrated with beta-blockers such as propranolol; however, these effects are limited to the social anxiety experienced in performance situations." [5] Beta blockers can impair the relaxation of bronchial muscle (mediated by beta-2) and so should be avoided by asthmatics.May also be used for extreme porn addiction. Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ...


Clinical use

Large differences exist in the pharmacology of agents within the class, thus not all beta blockers are used for all indications listed below.


Indications for beta blockers include:

Beta blockers have also been used in the following conditions: For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... angina tonsillaris see tonsillitis. ... Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart valve condition marked by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the film see Tremors (film). ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A pheochromocytoma (also phaeochromocytoma, English spelling) is a tumor in the medulla of the adrenal glands (or, rarely, the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system) which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine. ... Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block α1-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ...

An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ... Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue characterized by disproportionately long limbs, long thin fingers, a typically tall stature, and a predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalities, specifically those affecting the heart valves and aorta. ... In medicine, portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the portal vein and its branches. ... Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. ... Social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD), is a common form of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to experience intense anxiety in some or all of the social interactions and public events of everyday life. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of fear, phobia and nervous condition, that come on suddenly and prevent pursuing normal daily routines including: general anxiety disorder social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD) specific phobias agoraphobia claustrophobia panic disorder separation anxiety...

Congestive heart failure

Although beta blockers were once contraindicated in congestive heart failure, as they have the potential to worsen the condition, studies in the late 1990s showed their positive effects on morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure.[6] [7] [8] Bisoprolol, carvedilol and sustained-release metoprolol are specifically indicated as adjuncts to standard ACE inhibitor and diuretic therapy in congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Bisoprolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... “Minax” redirects here. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ...


The beta blockers are a benefit due to the reduction of the heart rate which will lower the myocardial energy expenditure. This is turns prolongs the diastolic filling and lengthens coronary perfusion.[9] Beta blockers have also been a benefit to improving the ejection fraction of the heart despite an initial reduction in it.


Trials have shown that Beta blockers reduce the absolute risk of death by 4.5% over a 13 month period. As well as reducing the risk of mortality, the number of hospital visits and hospitalizations were also reduced in the trials.[9]


Anxiety and performance enhancement

Some people, particularly musicians, use beta blockers to avoid stage fright and tremor during public performance and auditions. The physiological symptoms of the fight/flight response associated with performance anxiety and panic (pounding heart, cold/clammy hands, increased respiration, sweating, etc.) are significantly reduced, thus enabling anxious individuals to concentrate on the task at hand. Officially, beta blockers are not approved for anxiolytic use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [10] A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... For other uses, see Stage fright (disambiguation). ... An audition is a sample performance by an actor, singer, musician, dancer or other performing artist. ... For other uses, see Stage fright (disambiguation). ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Since they lower heart rate and reduce tremor, beta blockers have been used by some Olympic marksmen to enhance performance, though beta blockers are banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).[11] Although they have no recognisable benefit to most sports, it is acknowledged that they are beneficial to sports such as archery and shooting. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A US Marine marksman. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ...


Adverse effects

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with the use of beta blockers include: nausea, diarrhea, bronchospasm, dyspnea, cold extremities, exacerbation of Raynaud's syndrome, bradycardia, hypotension, heart failure, heart block, fatigue, dizziness, abnormal vision, decreased concentration, hallucinations, insomnia, nightmares, clinical depression, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction and/or alteration of glucose and lipid metabolism. Mixed α1/β-antagonist therapy is also commonly associated with orthostatic hypotension. Carvedilol therapy is commonly associated with edema.[3] An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Bronchospasm is a difficulty in breathing caused by a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. ... Dyspnea (R06. ... In medicine, Raynauds phenomenon is discoloration of the fingers or toes due to emotion or cold in a characteristic pattern in time: white, blue and red. ... Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... A heart block is a disease in the electrical system of the heart. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Some common lipids. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension, orthostatic intolerance and, colloquially, as head rush or a dizzy spell) is a sudden fall in blood pressure, typically greater than 20/10 mm Hg, that occurs when a person assumes a standing position, usually after a prolonged period of rest. ... Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... This page is about the condition called edema. ...


Central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects (hallucinations, insomnia, nightmares, depression) are more common in agents with greater lipid solubility, which are able to cross the blood-brain barrier into the CNS. Similarly, CNS adverse effects are less common in agents with greater aqueous solubility (listed below). A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ...


Adverse effects associated with β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist activity (bronchospasm, peripheral vasoconstriction, alteration of glucose and lipid metabolism) are less common with β1-selective (often termed "cardioselective") agents, however receptor selectivity diminishes at higher doses. Beta blockade, especially of the beta-1 receptor at the macula densa inhibits renin release, thus decreasing the release of aldosterone. This causes hyponatremia and hyperkalemia.


A 2007 study revealed that diuretics and beta-blockers used for hypertension increase a patient's risk of developing diabetes whilst ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (Angiotensin Receptor Blockers) actually decrease the risk of diabetes.[12] Clinical guidelines in Great Britain, but not in the United States, call for avoiding diuretics and beta-blockers as first-line treatment of hypertension due to the risk of diabetes.[13] This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin_Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Losartan, the first ARB Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ...


Beta blockers must not be used in the treatment of cocaine, amphetamine, or other alpha adrenergic stimulant overdose. The blockade of only beta receptors increases hypertension, reduces coronary blood flow, left ventricular function, and cardiac output and tissue perfusion by means of leaving the alpha adrenergic system stimulation unopposed. [14] The appropriate antihypertensive drugs to administer during hypertensive crisis resulting from stimulant abuse are vasodilators like nitroglycerin, diuretics like furosemide and alpha blockers like phentolamine. [15] For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... A drug overdose occurs when a chemical substance (i. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... A vasodilator is a substance that causes blood vessels in the body to become wider by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel wall, or vasodilation. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... A diuretic is any drug that tends to increase the flow of urine from the body (diuresis). ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ... Phentolamine is a competitive nonselective alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist. ...


Examples of beta blockers

Dichloroisoprenaline, the first beta blocker.
Dichloroisoprenaline, the first beta blocker.

Image File history File links Dichloroisoprenaline. ... Image File history File links Dichloroisoprenaline. ...

Non-selective agents

Carteolol is a beta blocking agent El-Kamel A, Al-Dosari H, Al-Jenoobi F. Environmentally responsive ophthalmic gel formulation of carteolol hydrochloride. ... Levobunolol is a beta blocking agent. ... Metipranolol hydrochloride (OptiPranolol®) is a non-selective beta blocker used in eye drops to treat glaucoma. ... Nadolol (Corgard) is a non-selective beta-blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain. ... Penbutolol is a medication in the class of beta blockers, used in the treatment of high blood pressure. ... Pindolol is a beta blocker drug. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart. ... Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. ...

β1-Selective agents

Acebutolol is a beta blocker. ... Atenolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Betaxolol Ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision. ... Bisoprolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Esmolol (tradename Brevibloc®) is a cardioselective beta-blocker given by slow injection into the veins. ... “Minax” redirects here. ... Nebivolol is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in treatment of hypertension. ...

Mixed α1/β-adrenergic antagonists

Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... Labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate, fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide: Normozyde) is an alpha-1 and beta adrenergic blocker used to treat high blood pressure. ...

β2-Selective agents

  • Butaxamine (weak α-adrenergic agonist activity)


== Side Effects / Health Consequences Butaxamine (INN, also known as butoxamine) is a β2-selective beta blocker. ...

 == 
  • Low Blood Pressure
  • Slow Heart Rate
  • Impaired Circulation
  • Loss of Sleep
  • Heart Failure
  • Asthma
  • Depression
  • Sexual Dysfunction
  • Nausea
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle Cramps

Comparative information

Pharmacological differences

  • Agents with intrinsic sympathomimetic action (ISA)
    • Acebutolol, carteolol, celiprolol, mepindolol, oxprenolol, pindolol
  • Agents with greater aqueous solubility
    • Atenolol, celiprolol, nadolol, sotalol
  • Agents with membrane stabilising activity
    • Acebutolol, betaxolol, pindolol, propranolol
  • Agents with antioxidant effect
    • Carvedilol
    • Nebivolol

Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ...

Indication differences

Propranolol is the only agent indicated for control of tremor, portal hypertension and esophageal variceal bleeding, and used in conjunction with α-blocker therapy in phaeochromocytoma.[3] Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Esmolol (tradename Brevibloc®) is a cardioselective beta-blocker given by slow injection into the veins. ... Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Bisoprolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... “Minax” redirects here. ... Nebivolol is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in treatment of hypertension. ... Betaxolol Ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision. ... Carteolol is a beta blocking agent El-Kamel A, Al-Dosari H, Al-Jenoobi F. Environmentally responsive ophthalmic gel formulation of carteolol hydrochloride. ... Levobunolol is a beta blocking agent. ... Metipranolol hydrochloride (OptiPranolol®) is a non-selective beta blocker used in eye drops to treat glaucoma. ... Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Atenolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... “Minax” redirects here. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... In medicine, portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the portal vein and its branches. ... A pheochromocytoma (also phaeochromocytoma, English spelling) is a tumor in the medulla of the adrenal glands (or, rarely, the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system) which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine. ...


References

  • Katzung, Bertram G. (2004). Basic & clinical pharmacology, 9th edition, New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 130, table 9-3. ISBN 0-07-144097-6. 

Footnotes

  1. ^ Sheetal Ladva (28/06/2006). NICE and BHS launch updated hypertension guideline. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  2. ^ Melanie Patricia Stapleton (1997). Sir James Black and Propranolol. Texas Heart Institute Journal.
  3. ^ a b c (2006) in Editor Rossi S: Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook. 
  4. ^ Stoschitzky K, Sakotnik A, Lercher P, et al (1999). "Influence of beta-blockers on melatonin release". Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 55 (2): 111–5. PMID 10335905. 
  5. ^ Davidson, M.D., Jonathan; Connor M.D., Kathryn M. (1999). Social Anxiety Disorder: A Treatable Condition. Drug Benefit Trends 11(5) 5BH-7BH. Cliggott Publishing, Division of SCP Communications. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  6. ^ Hjalmarson A, Goldstein S, Fagerberg B, et al (2000). "Effects of controlled-release metoprolol on total mortality, hospitalizations, and well-being in patients with heart failure: the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF). MERIT-HF Study Group". JAMA 283 (10): 1295–302. PMID 10714728. 
  7. ^ Leizorovicz A, Lechat P, Cucherat M, Bugnard F (2002). "Bisoprolol for the treatment of chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis on individual data of two placebo-controlled studies--CIBIS and CIBIS II. Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study". Am. Heart J. 143 (2): 301–7. PMID 11835035. 
  8. ^ Packer M, Fowler MB, Roecker EB, et al (2002). "Effect of carvedilol on the morbidity of patients with severe chronic heart failure: results of the carvedilol prospective randomized cumulative survival (COPERNICUS) study". Circulation 106 (17): 2194–9. PMID 12390947. 
  9. ^ a b Pritchett AM, Redfield MM (2002). "Beta-blockers: new standard therapy for heart failure" (PDF). Mayo Clin. Proc. 77 (8): 839–45; quiz 845–6. PMID 12173717. 
  10. ^ Schneier FR (2006). "Clinical practice. Social anxiety disorder". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (10): 1029–36. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp060145. PMID 16957148. 
  11. ^ World Anti-Doping Agency (19/09/2005). The World Anti-Doping Code: The 2006 Prohibited List International Standard. World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  12. ^ Elliott WJ, Meyer PM (2007). "Incident diabetes in clinical trials of antihypertensive drugs: a network meta-analysis". Lancet 369 (9557): 201–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60108-1. PMID 17240286. 
  13. ^ Mayor S (2006). "NICE removes beta blockers as first line treatment for hypertension". BMJ 333 (7557): 8. doi:10.1136/bmj.333.7557.8-a. PMID 16809680. 
  14. ^ eMedicine - Toxicity, Cocaine : Article by Carlos J Roldan
  15. ^ eMedicine - Toxicity, Amphetamine : Article by Neal Handly
  16. ^ Bisoprolol MedlinePlus

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Medicines Handbook or AMH is a medical reference text commonly used in practice by health professionals (particularly general practitioners and pharmacists) in Australia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Metipranolol hydrochloride (OptiPranolol®) is a non-selective beta blocker used in eye drops to treat glaucoma. ... Nadolol (Corgard) is a non-selective beta-blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain. ... Penbutolol is a medication in the class of beta blockers, used in the treatment of high blood pressure. ... Pindolol is a beta blocker drug. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. ... Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart. ... Atenolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Acebutolol is a beta blocker. ... Betaxolol Ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision. ... Bisoprolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Esmolol (tradename Brevibloc®) is a cardioselective beta-blocker given by slow injection into the veins. ... “Minax” redirects here. ... Nebivolol is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in treatment of hypertension. ... Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... Labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate, fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide: Normozyde) is an alpha-1 and beta adrenergic blocker used to treat high blood pressure. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... A miotic substances causes the constriction of the pupil of the eye ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and the hormome/neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline). ... Apraclonidine is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy. ... Brimonidine (bri-MOE-ni-deen ) is a drug used to treat glaucoma. ... Clonidine is a direct-acting adrenergic agonist prescribed historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. ... Dipivefrine (Dipivefrin in the United States) is a medicinal drug which is used to treat glaucoma. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Aceclidine (INN) (Glaucostat®, Glaunorm®, Glaudin®) is a parasympathomimetic myotic agent used in the treatment of narrow angle glaucoma. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Clinical Info Chemistry and pharmacokinetics Carbachol is a choline ester and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Anticholinesterases ... Neostigmine Pyridostigmine Physostigmine Stigmine refers to a class of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. ... Diisopropylfluorophosphate Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP, diisopropyl fluorophosphate) is an organophosphate insecticide. ... Neostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. ... Physostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor obtained from the Calabar bean. ... Paraoxon is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. ... Pilocarpine is a muscarinic alkaloid obtained from the leaves of tropical American shrubs from the genus Pilocarpus. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox®, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epileptic seizures, benign intracranial hypertension and altitude sickness. ... Brinzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. ... Diclofenamide (or dichlorphenamide) is a sulfonamide and a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. ... Dorzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. ... Methazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. ... Befunolol (INN) is a beta blocker with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity used in the management of open-angle glaucoma. ... Betaxolol Ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision. ... Carteolol is a beta blocking agent El-Kamel A, Al-Dosari H, Al-Jenoobi F. Environmentally responsive ophthalmic gel formulation of carteolol hydrochloride. ... Levobunolol is a beta blocking agent. ... Metipranolol hydrochloride (OptiPranolol®) is a non-selective beta blocker used in eye drops to treat glaucoma. ... Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. ... Synthetic prostaglandin analogues, mainly misoprostol, are used in treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Latanoprost (pronounced la-TA-noe-prost) ophthalmic solution is a topical medication used for controlling the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, by reducing intraocular pressure. ... Travoprost ophthalmic solution is a topical medication used for controlling the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, by reducing intraocular pressure. ... Unoprostone (INN) is a prostaglandin analogue. ... Not to be confused with Aripiprazole. ... Guanethidine is an antihypertensive drug. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... Gut redirects here. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... An H2-receptor antagonist, often shortened to H2-antagonist, is a drug used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells. ... Proton pump inhibitors (or PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. ... Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. ... An antidiarrhoeal drug is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... An antiplatelet drug is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. ... Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... A vasodilator is a drug or chemical that relaxes the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which causes them to dilate. ... An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Emollients soften skin (and moisturisers add moisture). ... Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) that is often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Fertility medication may in a larger sense include any medication that enhances fertility, but in a specific sense consists of agents that stimulate follicle development of the ovary. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An anti-diabetic drug or oral hypoglycemic agent is used to treat diabetes mellitus. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athletes foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoal infections. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Immunostimulators are the drugs which stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is a category of drugs used in many autoimmune diseases to slow down disease progression. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by rapid and unstable mood shifts. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... A neurotransmitter uptake inhibitor is a drug which inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitter, thus extending the duration of its effect. ... The dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors with the neurotransmitter dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... Dopamine agonist is a synthetic drug that mimics the effect of the neurotransmitter dopamine. ... A dopamine antagonist is a drug which blocks dopamine receptors (of which there are five types in the human body; they are found in the brain, peripheral nervous system, blood vessels, and the kidney). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... A serotonin receptor agonist is a compound that activates serotonin receptors, mimicking the effect of the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... A serotonin antagonist acts to inhibit the action at serotonin receptors. ... Skeletal formula of ondansetron, the prototypical 5-HT3 antagonist The 5-HT3 antagonists are a class of medications which act as receptor antagonists at the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor (5-HT3 receptor), a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and certain areas of the brain. ... A serotonin uptake inhibitor is a drug which acts as a neurotransmitter uptake inhibitor on serotonin receptors. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... An adrenergic is a drug, or other substance, which has effects similar to, or the same as, epinephrine (adrenaline). ... An Adrenergic antagonist is a pharmaceutical substance that acts to inhibit the action of the adrenergic receptors. ... Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block α1-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ... A adrenergic uptake inhibitor is a drug which blocks the reuptake of adrenergic neurotransmitters. ... An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... A muscarinic receptor agonist is an agent that enhances the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. ... A nicotinic agonist is a drug which enhances the action at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... A muscarinic receptor antagonist is an agent that reduces the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. ... A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic which inhibits the action at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. ... A cholinesterase inhibitor or anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... The histamine receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors with histamine as their endogenous ligand. ... A histamine agonist is a drug which causes increased activity at the histamine receptor. ... A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of histamine. ... An H2-receptor antagonist, often shortened to H2-antagonist, is a drug used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells. ... The GABA receptors are a group of receptors with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their endogenous ligand. ... A GABA agonist is a drug which acts to stimulate or increase the action at the GABA receptor. ... GABA antagonists are drugs which inhibit the action of GABA. Examples include Bicuculline and Metrazol. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beta blocker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (970 words)
Beta blockers (sometimes written as β-blockers) are a class of drugs used for various indications, but particularly for the management of hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias.
Beta blockers block the action of endogenous catecholamines, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in particular, on β-adrenergic receptors, part of the sympathetic nervous system which mediates the "fight or flight" response.
Although beta blockers were once contraindicated in congestive heart failure, as they have the potential to worsen the condition, studies in the late 1990s showed their positive effects on morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure (Hjalmarson, 2000; Leizorovicz, 2002; Packer, 2002).
Beta Blockers and Performance Anxiety (2032 words)
Beta blockers are not FDA approved for use in anxiety or stage fright, but these medications can be prescribed for this purpose because there is scientific literature to support this use.
In the case of beta blockers, physical dependence is not usually an issue when they are used for stage fright, as they are used in low doses and are not taken on a chronic basis.
Beta blockers have not been shown to directly improve a musician's emotional state, except to the extent that some musicians feel better when their physical problems are relieved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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