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Encyclopedia > Bet (letter)

Bet or Beth is the second letter of the Phoenician alphabet, the Hebrew alphabet, and the Aramaic alphabet. It has the sound of English B (or in some circumstance V.) The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Beta, Latin B, the Cyrillic equivalent, and the Hebrew and Aramaic equivalent. Look up Letter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A letter is a written message from one party to another. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Aramaic was for a long time (between the later Assyrian empire and the Abbasid Caliphate) a lingua franca in the Middle East; its alphabet, though itself derived from the Phoenician alphabet, therefore superseded the Old Hebrew alphabet that had been independently descended from the Phoenician alphabet. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... V is the twenty-second letter in the modern Latin alphabet. ... Beta (upper case Β, lower case β) is the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ...


This letter is named beth, following the Tiberian Hebrew pronunciation, in academic circles, and bet, following the modern Israeli Hebrew pronunciation, in Israel and by most Jews familiar with Hebrew, although some also use the beth pronounciation. Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ...


Beth may be both an ancient usage or even an Anglicisation of the letter bet. Anglicisation is a process of making something English. ...

Contents

Origins

This letter's name means "house" in various Semitic languages, and appears to derive from a Middle Bronze Age picture of a house by acrophony. Two similar but undeciphered scripts believed to be ancestral to all modern alphabets are attested from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE): the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to 1500 BCE, and the Wadi el-Ħôl (or Wadi... Acrophony is giving a letter in an alphabet a name which begins with the letter. ...


Phoenician pronounciation

Phoenician Hebrew
ב ב

Main article: Phoenician languages Phoenician Beth. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called Phoenicia /Canaan (now Lebanon, coastal Syria and northern Israel ). Phoenician is a Semitic language of the Canaanite subgroup, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...

Main article: Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ...

In Phoenician, an extinct alphabet used by the ancient Phoenicians and ancestral to most surviving alphabets, this letter was pronounced /b/. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ...


Hebrew pronounciation

Bet with the ("dot") in its center, makes the same sound as the in English
Bet with the dagesh ("dot") in its center, makes the same sound as the B in English

Main article: Hebrew language Standard image of Bet, the second letter of the Hebrew language. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...

Main article: Hebrew alphabet Note: This article contains special characters. ...

Main article: Jewish languages Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ...

ב Bet or beth is the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet in the Hebrew language that is used as a living language by the Jewish people that live in modern Israel. It is the first letter of the Torah (Hebrew Bible). It also denotes the number "two" in Hebrew numerals. Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... A number is an abstract entity used originally to describe quantity. ... 2 (two) is the natural number following 1 and preceding 3. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ...


The name bet is related to the Hebrew word bat ("daughter") or beit ("house [of]").


Outside of Israel, and the Jewish world, many use the pronounciation Beth with a "th". This form corresponds to the Tiberian Hebrew pronunciation. Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ...


Two forms

There are two main forms to the pronounciation of this letter:

  1. בּ bet
  2. ב vet

When written by following the accepted "vocalizations" known as Niqqud (a system of accepted signs, or orthography, guiding the correct pronounciation of individual letters) there are in fact two forms or variations of this letter. In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The orthography of a language is the set of rules of how to write correctly in the writing system of a language. ...


As labial consonants

Vet without the ("dot") in its center, makes the same sound as the in English
Vet without the dagesh ("dot") in its center, makes the same sound as the V in English

Main article: Labial consonant Fairuse image of the letter Vet, a variant form of the second letter in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... V is the twenty-second letter in the modern Latin alphabet. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ...

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). Thus בּ like the [b] is a bilabial stop (plosive), and ב like [v] is a labiodental fricative. A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture sufficient to cause audible turbulence, at one or more points along the vocal tract. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... A stop, plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... V is the twenty-second letter in the modern Latin alphabet. ... Fricative consonants are produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together (e. ...


בּ with the dagesh

When the Bet has a "dot" in its center, known as a dagesh, then it is indeed pronounced as Bet, making the same sound that the English B makes when pronounced. There are various rules in Hebrew grammar that stipulate when and why a dagesh is used. The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... Hebrew grammar is mostly analytical, expressing such forms as dative, ablative, and accusative using prepositional particles rather than grammatical cases. ...


Interestingly, the first two words of the Book of Genesis begin with a Bet: This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


בְּרֵאשִׁית, בָּרָא


("In the beginning/head God created")


As a prefix, the letter בּ may function as a preposition meaning "in" or "at". Prefix has meanings in linguistics, mathematics and computer science, and telecommunications. ... In grammar, a preposition is a type of adposition, a grammatical particle that establishes a relationship between an object (usually a noun phrase) and some other part of the sentence, often expressing a location in place or time. ...


When it is written in the caligraphy of a Torah scroll, even though the words are not punctuated or vocalized, the first letter בּ has the daggesh ("dot") inside of it. Sefer Torah (Holy Book of the Torah) refers to a hand-written copy of the Jewish Torah that meets extremely strict standards of production. ... Punctuation marks are written symbols that do not correspond to either phonemes (sounds) of a spoken language nor to lexemes (words and phrases) of a written language, but which serve to organize or clarify written language. ...


ב without the dagesh

When this letter appears as ב without the dagesh ("dot") in its center then it is pronounced as Vet, making the same sound as the English letter V. The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... V is the twenty-second letter in the modern Latin alphabet. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hebrew language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5478 words)
The vowel that follows the letter thus attached depends in general on the beginning of the next word and the presence of a definite article which may be swallowed by the one-letter word.
Although a single letter might represent two phonemes — the letter "bet," for example, represents both /b/ and /v/ — the two sounds are always related "hard" (plosive) and "soft" (fricative) forms, their pronunciaton being very often determined by context.
The letter hei at the end of a word usually indicates a final /a/, which in turn is usually indicative of feminine gender.
Hebrew language - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (3844 words)
Although the original Aramaic letter forms were derived from the same Phoenician alphabet that was used in ancient Israel, they had changed significantly, both in the hands of the Mesopotamians and of the Jews, assuming the forms familiar to us today around the first century CE.
Although a single letter might represent two phonemes — the letter "bet," for example, represents both /b/ and /v/ —; the two sounds are always related "hard" (plosive) and "soft" (fricative) forms, their pronunciaton being very often determined by context.
The letter he (ה) at the end of a word, in those cases where it marks feminine gender, is transcribed by "ah" (it is read /a/).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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