FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Bessarabian Jews

This article is a brief outline of the history of the Bessarabian Jews . Old map of Bessarabia Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia annexed by Russia in 1812. ...


Early history

  • 1889: There were 180,918 Jews of a total population of 1,628,867 in Bessarabia.
  • 1897: The Jewish population had grown to 225,637 of a total of 1,936,392
  • 1903: Kishinev in Russian Bessarabia had a Jewish population of 50,000, or 46%, of a total of about 110,000 in the city. While almost non-existent in the countryside, Jews had been present in all major towns since the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. Jewish life flourished with 16 Jewish schools and over 2,000 pupils in Chisinau alone.
  • February 16, 1903: Kishinev pogrom.
  • 1920: The Jewish population had grown to 267,000.

1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Chişinău (Russian Кишинёв, Kishinyov, also Kishinev; Moldovan Cyrillic Кишинэу), estimated population 920,000 (2002), is the capital of Moldova. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Kishinev pogrom was a pogrom (anti-Jewish riot) that took place in Kishinev, then part of the Bessarabia province of Imperial Russia (currently ChiÅŸinău is the capital of independent Moldova) on April 6-7, 1903. ... 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...

The Holocaust

  • 1941: The Einsatzkommandos, German mobile killing units drawn from the Nazi SS and commanded by Otto Ohlendorf entered Bessarabia. They were instrumental in the massacre of many Jews in Bessarabia, who did not flee in face of the German advancement. In 1941 up to 75,000 Jews from Bessarabia, northern Bukovina and present-day districts of Suceava and Botosani in Romania were deported to Transnistria, where they were locked in ghettos under Romanian control. Under 20% of these people survived, many have died of poor conditions, and many have been killed by the retreating German mobile units in 1944.
  • July 8, 1941: Ion Antonescu, Romania's ruler at the time, made a declaration in front of the Ministers' Council:
....With the risk of not being understood by some traditionalists which may be among you, I am in favour of the forced migration of the entire Jew element from Bessarabia and Bukovina, which must be thrown over the border. Also, I am in favor of the forced migration of the Ukrainian element, which does not belong here at this time. I don't care if we appear in history as barbarians. The Roman Empire has made a series of barbaric acts from a contemporary point of view and, still, was the greatest political settlement. There has never been a more suitable moment. If necessary, shoot with the machine gun. (This quote can be found in "The Stenograms of the Ministers' Council, Ion Antonescu's Government", vol. IV, July-September 1941 period, Bucharest, year 2000, page 57) (Stenogramele şedinţelor Consiliului de Miniştri, Guvernarea Ion Antonescu, vol. IV, perioada iulie-septembrie 1941, Bucureşti, anul 2000, pagina 57).

For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D executes a Jew kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Otto Ohlendorf Otto Ohlendorf (February 4, 1907 - June 8, 1951) was an SS-Gruppenführer and head of the interior division of the SD. Nazi Official Born in Hoheeggelsen bei Hildersheim near Hannover the son of a farm owner, he joined the Nazi party in 1925 (member #6631) followed by... Bukovina is the territory on the slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Suceava (German Suczawa, Yiddish שאָץ Shots) is a city in the Suceava county, Bucovina, Romania. ... Botoşani (population:129,000) is a city in Bukovina, Moldavia, Romania and it is the capital of the Botoşani County. ... Administrative map of Moldova with Transnistria highlighted in yellow Official languages Moldovan/Romanian, Russian and Ukrainian Political status unrecognized Capital Tiraspol President Igor Smirnov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Moldova  September 2, 1990  none Area 3,567 km² (2001 est. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ion Antonescu Ion Antonescu (June 15, 1882, PiteÅŸti – June 1, 1946, near Jilava) was the prime minister and conducător (Leader) of Romania during World War II from September 4, 1940 to August 23, 1944. ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or language with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine Empire. ...

Present day

  • 1993: By the end of this year, there were an estimated 15,000 Jews in the Republic of Moldova. 2,173 Jews immigrated to Israel. There were two Jewish periodical publications, both published in Kishinev (Chisinau). The one most widely circulated was Nash golosUndzer kol ("Our Voice"), in Yiddish and Russian.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jewish History of Moldova (3282 words)
By 1835, when liquidation of Bessarabian autonomy began, the "Jewish legislation" then promulgated in Russia was equally applied to Bessarabian Jewry, although the prohibition on Jewish residence in border regions was not enforced in Bessarabia until 1839, and compulsory military service until 1852.
An increasing number of Jews entered agriculture, and between 1836 and 1853, 17 Jewish agricultural settlements were established in Bessarabia, mostly in the northern districts, on lands purchased or leased from Christian or Jewish landowners.
The percentage of Moldovan Jews among the Jewry of the former U.S.S.R. declined from the census year 1989 to the end of 1993 from 2.7 percent to 1.8 percent.
Demythologizing the Shtetl (5575 words)
Jews residing in shtetlekh assumed a role similar in some respects to the role played by peasant populations in their respective national groups.
However, the percentage of Polish Jews engaged in commerce dropped significantly, from 41.3 percent in 1921 to 36.6 percent in 1931, and conversely the percentage of Jews engaged in manufacturing increased from 36.7 percent to 42.2 percent in the same period.
The Jews of Apt prided themselves on their town's having been the seat of one of the most famous Hasidic rebbes, the Apter Rov Abraham Joshua Heschel (1745-1825), as well as for generations the home of the best bands of klezmorim (musicians) in that part of the country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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