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Encyclopedia > Bessarabia
1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clark's book
1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clark's book

Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. This was the name by which Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Russia in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. The remaining Moldavia united with Wallachia in 1859 in what would become the Kingdom of Romania. In 1918, slightly before at the end of World War I, Bessarabia declared its independence from Russia and after three months united with the Kingdom of Romania. After the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in 1940 at the beginning of World War II (see Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact), and (after changing hands in 1941) again in 1944, Bessarabia was annexed to the USSR, where its core part was reorganised as the Moldavian SSR, to which parts of the previous Moldavian ASSR were added. At the same time, some smaller parts of Bessarabia, in the south (Budjak) and north (northern half of the Hotin County), were transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. In 1991, the Moldavian SSR was renamed the Republic of Moldova, and on 27 August the latter declared independence from the USSR. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (544x607, 49 KB) Comment 1 better version of map at Comment 2 This map is from the book Bessarabia, Russia, and Roumania on the Black Sea by Charles Upson Clark. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (544x607, 49 KB) Comment 1 better version of map at Comment 2 This map is from the book Bessarabia, Russia, and Roumania on the Black Sea by Charles Upson Clark. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... On June 28, 1940 Bessarabia and northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Union. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. ... Hotin County was a county (judeÅ£) in the Kingdom of Romania. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Geography

Map of Romania and Moldova with Bessarabia in yellow, Bukovina in grey and Romanian Moldova in brown.

In the administrative system of the Russian Empire Bessarabia was a region of Eastern Europe comprising most of current-day Moldova and additional districts that are now in Ukraine. It was bounded by the Dniester river to the north and east, the Prut to the west and the lower Danube river and the Black Sea to the south. It had approximately 17,600 sq mi (45,600 km²). The area has mostly hilly plains with flat steppes, it is very fertile for agriculture, and it also has some lignite deposits and stone quarries. People living in the area grow sugar beets, sunflowers, wheat, maize, tobacco, wine grapes and fruits. They also raise sheep and cattle. Currently, the main industry in the region is agricultural processing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


The region's main cities are Chişinău (Russian name Kishinev), the capital of Moldova, Izmail, Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi (historically called Cetatea Albă and Akkerman). Other towns of administrative or historical importance include: Hotin, Lipcani, Briceni, Soroca, Bălţi, Orhei, Ungheni, Tighina (historical name Bender), Cahul, Reni and Kilia (historical name Chilia). Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km²  (46. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Khotin fortress overlooks the Dniester river Khotyn (Хотин, Polish: Chocim; Romanian: Hotin; Russian: Хотин, Khotin) is a town in the Chernivetska oblast of Ukraine. ... Lipkany, Cloth & Linen Street Lipcani is a small town in Moldova, located in the Bessarabia region close to where the borders of Ukraine, Moldova and Romania meet. ... Bricheni is a Romanian city. ... County Status County capital Mayor Mihail Popovschi, since 2001 Population (2005) ~28,407 Location Web site [1] Soroca is a Moldovan city situated on the Dniester River about 160 km north of Chisinau. ... Status Municipality Founded 1421 Area 73 km² Population (2004) 127,600 - density 1,748 inh/km² - rank 4th Localities (total): 3 - cities 1 - communes 2 Mayor Vasile Panciuc, since 2001 Council 35 members, since 2007 - Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 21 - Christian-Democratic Peoples Party (Moldova... County Raionul Orhei Status County capital Mayor Ion Åžarban Population (2004) 25,680 Density  ? inh/km² Geographical coordinates 47°23′ N 28°49′ E Web site  ? Orhei (Yiddish: Uriv - אוריװ, Russian Orgeyev - Оргеев) is a town and an administrative region of Moldova with a population of 25,680. ... Ungheni is the largest town without a university in the part of Moldova not included within Transnistria. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... Cahul is a city and an administrative region in the south of Moldova. ... Reni is: Alan Wren, drummer for The Stone Roses a city in southern Ukraine, near the confluence of Prut and Danube rivers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Kilia or Kiliya (Ukrainian:Кілія; Russian: ; Romanian: Chilia) is a town in south-western Ukraine, located in the Danube Delta in Odessa Oblast (province) - in the Budjak informal region. ...


History

See also: History of Moldova and History of Moldavia

The name Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian) derives from the Wallachian family of Basarab, who once ruled over the southern part of the area. The name originally applied only to the southern part of the territory, which corresponds in size to the modern day Budjak. The Turks were the first to call it "Besarabya", which they began doing when they gained control of the area in 1484. Moldavian coat-of-arms. ... The Principality of Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian (Vlach) state founded in the 14th century by two noble Vlachs from Maramureş: Dragoş and Bogdan. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The Basarabs were an early dynasty which had an important role in the establishing of the Wallachian Principality. ... The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. ... Ottoman Bessarabia was part of the Ottoman province of Silistria (Özi) Province from 1484 to 1812. ...


From the 15th to the 20th centuries, the region passed in part or whole under the control of: Moldavia, the Ottoman Empire (only the Budjak region), Russia, Romania, the Soviet Union, Ukraine and Moldova. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. ...


Ancient times

Main article: History of Moldavia

The territory of Bessarabia has been inhabited by people for thousands of years. The Indo-European invasion occurred around the year 2000 BC. The original inhabitants were Cimmerians, and after them came Scythians. The people who settled in this area would later become the Dacians, Getae and Thyrsagetae, these being Thracian tribes. In the 7th century BC, Greek settlers established colonies in the region, mostly along the Black Sea coast and traded with the locals. Also, Celts settled in the southern parts of Bessarabia, their main city being Aliobrix. The Principality of Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian (Vlach) state founded in the 14th century by two noble Vlachs from Maramureş: Dragoş and Bogdan. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


The first state that included the whole of Bessarabia was the Dacian kingdom of Burebista, a contemporary of Julius Caesar, in the 1st century BC. After his death, the state was divided into smaller pieces and was only unified in the Dacian kingdom of Decebalus in the 1st century AD. Although this kingdom was defeated by the Roman Empire in 106, Bessarabia was never part of the empire and the Free Dacians resisted the Roman conquerors. The Romans built defensive earthen walls in Southern Bessarabia[citation needed] to defend the Scythia Minor province against invasions. Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Burebista,[1] the greatest king of Dacia, ruled between 70 BC and 44 BC. He unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (todays Moravia) in the west, to the Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 106. ... The Free Dacians were the Dacians whose territory was not conquered by the Roman Empire, in the regions of Eastern Wallachia, Moldavia, Crisana and Northern Transylvania. ... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in...


The Roman Empire romanized parts of Dacia (via colonization and cultural influence) and some of the local tribes adopted the Latin language and customs. According to the theory of the Daco-Roman continuity the Latin culture and the Romance language (Romanian) would later spread to encompass the cultural area of the ancient Dacians, including the region of Bessarabia. Some historians deny this and the continuity of Latin-speaking people north of the Danube. For more, see Origin of Romanians. A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ...


In 270, the Roman authorities began to withdraw their forces from Dacia, due to the invading Goths and Carps. The Goths, a Germanic tribe, poured into the Roman Empire through the southern part of Bessarabia (Budjak), which due to its geographic position and characteristics (mainly steppe), was swept by various nomadic tribes. From the 5th century it was overrun in turn by the Huns, the Avars, and the Bulgars. The influence of the Roman Empire (East Roman) did not die out until 567. Events Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire, and is succeeded by Aurelian Vandals and Sarmatians driven out of Roman territory Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic people. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now the Bacău county, Romania. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Events Livva I succeeds Athanagild as king of the Visigoths. ...


The Age of migrations

Main article: History of Moldavia

From the 3rd century until the 11th century, the region was invaded numerous times by the Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Slavs (South, i.e. Bulgarian, and Eastern), Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans and Mongols. The territory of Bessarabia was encompassed in dozens of ephemeral kingdoms which were disbanded when another wave of migrants arrived. Those centuries were characterized by a terrible state of insecurity and mass movement of people. The period was later known as the "Dark Ages" of Europe. The Principality of Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian (Vlach) state founded in the 14th century by two noble Vlachs from Maramureş: Dragoş and Bogdan. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: Besenyő, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...


In 561, the Avars captured Bessarabia and executed the local ruler Mesamer. Following Avars, Slavs started to arrive in the region and establish settlements. Then, in 582, Onogur Bulgars settled in south-eastern Bessarabia and northern Dobruja, from which they moved to Moesia under pressure from the Khazars and formed the nascent region of Bulgaria. With the rise of the Khazars' state in the east, the invasions began to diminish and it was possible to create larger states. According to some opinions, the Southern part of Bessarabia remained under the influence of the First Bulgarian Empire until to the end of 9th century. It has been suggested that Old Great Bulgaria be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


Between the 8th and 10th centuries, the southern part of Bessarabia was inhabitated by people from Balkan-Dunabian culture[1] (the culture of the First Bulgarian Empire). Between the 9th and 13th centuries, Bessarabia is mentioned in European and Slav chronicles as part of Bolohoveni (north) and Brodnici (south) Voevodates, believed by some authors to be Vlach (Romanian) principalities of the early Middle Ages. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Brodnici (or Brodniks) were a 13th-century Romanian or mixed Romanian-Jassic[1] population, probably vassals of Galicia for a period. ... Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) are the Romanized population in Central and Eastern Europe, including Romanians, Aromanians, Istro-Romanians and Megleno-Romanians, but since the creation of the Romanian state, this term was mostly used for the Vlachs living south of the Danube river. ...


The Tatar invasions of 1241 and 1290 led to a retreat of a big part of the population to the Eastern Carpathians and to Transylvania. Apparently, only one group east of the Prut river did not retreat to mountain regions at the time of the Tatar invasions. In later middle-age chronicles it is mentioned as the Tigheci "republic", situated near the modern town of Cahul in the southwest of Bessarabia, preserving its autonomy even during the later Principality of Moldavia. Cahul is a city and an administrative region in the south of Moldova. ...


The last large scale invasions were those of the Mongols and Tartars of 1241, 1290 and 1343, a small group of whom settled around the present day town of Orhei until they were pushed out in the 1390s. County Raionul Orhei Status County capital Mayor Ion Åžarban Population (2004) 25,680 Density  ? inh/km² Geographical coordinates 47°23′ N 28°49′ E Web site  ? Orhei (Yiddish: Uriv - אוריװ, Russian Orgeyev - Оргеев) is a town and an administrative region of Moldova with a population of 25,680. ...

During the Wallachian rule of Southern Bessarabia, it acquired its name. (1390 map)
During the Wallachian rule of Southern Bessarabia, it acquired its name. (1390 map)
Most of Bessarabia was for centuries part of the principality of Moldavia. (1800 map, Moldavia in dark orange)
Most of Bessarabia was for centuries part of the principality of Moldavia. (1800 map, Moldavia in dark orange)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x510, 60 KB) Summary Wallachia cca 1390, according to an internal document of 1387 and the Treaty with Poland of 1390 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x510, 60 KB) Summary Wallachia cca 1390, according to an internal document of 1387 and the Treaty with Poland of 1390 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Rom1793-1812. ... Image File history File links Rom1793-1812. ...

Principality of Moldavia

Main article: History of Moldavia
Cetatea Alba was one of the many important castles built by Moldavia in Bessarabia
Cetatea Alba was one of the many important castles built by Moldavia in Bessarabia

After 1343 and the defeat of Mongols, the region was included in the principality of Moldavia, which by 1392 established control over the fortresses of Cetatea Albă and Chilia, its eastern border becoming the river Dnister (Nistru in Romanian). The Principality of Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian (Vlach) state founded in the 14th century by two noble Vlachs from MaramureÅŸ: DragoÅŸ and Bogdan. ... Image File history File links Belgorod_ua. ... Image File history File links Belgorod_ua. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi ( Ukrainian: Білгород-Дністровський; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Kilia or Kiliya (Ukrainian:Кілія; Russian: ; Romanian: Chilia) is a town in south-western Ukraine, located in the Danube Delta in Odessa Oblast (province) - in the Budjak informal region. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ...


In the latter part of the 14th century, the southern part of the region was for several decades part of Wallachia. The main dynasty of Walachia was called Basarab, from which the current name of the region originated. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


In the 15th century, the entire region was a part of the principality of Moldavia. Ştefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) ruled between 1457 and 1504, a period of nearly 50 years during which he won 32 battles defending his country virtually against all his neighbours (mainly the Ottomans and the Tatars, but also the Hungarians and the Poles), while losing only two. During this period, after each victory, he raised a monastery or a church close to the battlefield honoring Christianity. Many of these battlefields and churches, as well as old fortresses are situated in Bessarabia (mainly along the Dniester river). (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Stephan the Great (Romanian icon) Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great or St. ...


In 1484 , the Turks invaded and captured Chilia and Cetatea Albă (Akkerman in Turkish), and annexed the shoreline southern part of Bessarabia, which was then divided into two sanjaks (districts) of the Ottoman Empire. In 1538 , the Ottomans annexed more Bessarabian land in the south as far as Tighina, while the central and northern parts of Bessarabia, as part of the principality of Moldavia was formally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. Kilia or Kiliya (Ukrainian:Кілія; Russian: ; Romanian: Chilia) is a town in south-western Ukraine, located in the Danube Delta in Odessa Oblast (province) - in the Budjak informal region. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants: sinjaq, sanjaq) are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means banner. In Arabic the sanjaks were also called liwas. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Between 1711 and 1812, the Russian Empire occupied the region five times during wars between Ottoman Empire, Russia, and Austria. Between 1812 and 1846 , the Bulgarian and Gagauz population migrated to the Russian Empire via the Danube, after living many oppressive years under Ottoman rule, and settled in southern Bessarabia. Turkic-speaking tribes of the Nogai Horde also inhabited the Budjak Region of southern Bessarabia from the 16th to 18th centuries, but were totally driven out prior to 1812. Ottoman redirects here. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The term Nogai can refer to more than one thing: Nogai Khan was a Khan of the Golden Horde. ... Budjak, Budzhak, or Buchak (Ukrainian: Буджак [Budžak], Romanian: Bugeac, Turkish: Bucak) is the southern part of Bessarabia, now part of Odesa region of Ukraine. ...


Annexation by the Russian Empire

By the Treaty of Bucharest of May 28, 1812 — concluding the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 — the Ottoman Empire ceded the Eastern half of the Principality of Moldavia to the Russian Empire. That region was then called Bessarabia. Prior to this year, the name was used only for approximately its southern one quarter, which as stated before was already under direct Ottoman control ever since 1484. Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 was signed on 28 May 1812 by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812). ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


In 1814, the first German settlers arrived and mainly settled in the southern parts and Bessarabian Bulgarians became settling in the region, founding towns such as Bolhrad. The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... The coat of arms of Bolhrad Bolhrad (Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: ) is a small city in the Odessa Oblast (province) of south-western Ukraine. ...


Administratively, Bessarabia became an oblast of the Russian Empire effective 1818 and a guberniya effective 1873. Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ...


By the Treaty of Adrianople that concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 the whole delta of Danube was added to Bessarabian Oblast. The 1829 peace treaty of Adrianople (called also Treaty of Edirne), was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 was sparked by the Greeks struggle for independence. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


At the end of the Crimean War, in 1856 , by the Treaty of Paris, two districts of southern Bessarabia were returned to Moldavia, the Russian Empire lost access to the Danube river. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


In 1859, Moldavia and Wallachia united as the Kingdom of Romania in 1866, including the Southern part of Bessarabia. Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ...


The Romanian War of Independence was fought in 187778, with the help of the Russian Empire as an ally. Although the treaty of alliance between Romania and the Russian Empire specified that the Russian Empire would respect the territorial integrity of Romania and not claim any part of Romania at the end of the war [citation needed], by the Treaty of Berlin, the Southern part of Bessarabia was again annexed by Russia. 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty...


The Kishinev pogrom took place in Chişinău (Kishinev in Russian), the capital of Bessarabia, on April 6, 1903 after articles were published in local newspapers inciting the public to act against Jews; 47 or 49 Jews were killed, 92 severely wounded and 700 houses destroyed. The anti-Semitic newspaper Бессарабец (Bessarabetz, meaning "Bessarabian"), published by Pavel Krushevan, insinuated that a Russian boy was killed by local Jews. Another newspaper, Свет (Svet, "Light"), used the ages-old blood libel against the Jews (alleging that the boy had been killed to use his blood in preparation of matzo). It was the first media propaganda inspired action against Jews in the 20th century. Herman S. Shapiro. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


After the Russian Revolution, a Romanian nationalist movement started to develop in Bessarabia. In the chaos brought by the Russian revolution of October 1917, a National Council (Sfatul Ţării) was established in Bessarabia, with 120 members elected from Bessarabia by some political and professional organizations and 10 elected from Transnistria (the left bank of the Dniester River, inhabited by ethnic Moldavians). ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Sfatul Ţării was in 1917-1918 the National Assembly of the Bessarabia guberniya (province) of Russian Empire, and then of the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic, which proclaimed union with the Romania in 1918. ...


On January 14, 1918, during the disorderly retreat of two Russian divisions from the Romanian front, Chişinău was sacked. The Rumcherod Committee (Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Workers, Soldiers and Sailors Deputies of Romanian Front, Black Sea Fleet and Odessa Region) proclaimed itself the supreme power in Bessarabia. The Sfatul Ţării, unable to call up any armed forces, called upon the Romanian government for help. On 16 January a Romanian division cleared Chişinău, and the following day Tighina on the shore of the river Dnister. The three-day Soviet rule in Bessarabia ended. is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Rumcherod (Russian: ) was a short-lived organ of Soviet power in the South-Western Ukraine and Bessarabia that functioned during May 1917 — May 1918. ... The term Central Executive Committee refers to governing bodies with executive power of various parties and governments. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ...


Ten days later, on January 24, 1918, Sfatul Ţării declared Bessarabia's independence as the Moldavian Democratic Republic. is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Moldavian Democratic Republic was declared on December 16, 1917 by the National Council (Sfatul Ţării) of Bassarabia (Bessarabia) elected in September 1917 in the wake of the February Revolution in the Russian Empire. ...

Declaration of unification of Romania and Bessarabia
Declaration of unification of Romania and Bessarabia

Download high resolution version (730x1336, 82 KB)Unification of Romania & Bessarabia Public domain. ... Download high resolution version (730x1336, 82 KB)Unification of Romania & Bessarabia Public domain. ...

The unification of Romania and Bessarabia

The county councils of Bălţi, Soroca and Orhei were the earliest to ask for unification with the Kingdom of Romania, and on April 9 [O.S. March 27] 1918, Sfatul Ţării voted in favour of the union, with the following conditions:


1. Sfatul Ţării would undertake an agrarian reform, which would be accepted by the Romanian Government. 2. Bessarabia would remain autonomous, with its own diet, Sfatul Ţării, elected democratically 3. Sfatul Ţării would vote for local budgets, control the councils of zemstvos and cities, and name the local administration 4. Conscription would be done on a territorial basis 5. Local laws and the form of administration could be changed only with the approval of local representatives 6. The rights of minorities had to be respected 7. Two Bessarabian representatives would be part of the Romanian government 8. Bessarabia would send to the Romanian Parliament a number of representatives equal to the proportion of its population 9. All elections must involve a direct, equal, secret, and universal vote 10. Freedom of speech and of belief must be guaranteed in the constitution 11. All individuals who had committed felonies for political reasons during the revolution would be amnestied.


There were 86 votes for, 3 votes against and 36 deputies abstained. The first condition for agrarian reform was debated and approved in November 1918, and following this, Sfatul Ţării voted a motion which removed all the other conditions, trusting that Romania would be a democratic country. Unfortunaly, the Romania's government rejected most of these 11 points (conditions), which would cause later much discontent in this new province of Romania, Bessarabia.


In the autumn of 1919, elections for the Romanian Constituent Assembly were held in Bessarabia; 90 deputies and 35 senators were chosen. On December 20, 1919, these men voted, along with the representatives of Romania's other regions, to ratificaty the unification acts that had been approved by Sfatul Ţării and the National Congresses in Transylvania and Bukovina.


The union was confirmed by Romania's European allies in the Treaty of Paris (1920). The United States refused to sign the Treaty on the grounds that Russia was not represented at the Conference.[2] The 1920 Treaty of Paris declared the union between Bessarabia and Romania. ...


Part of Romania

Main article: Greater Romania
Bessarabia was part of Greater Romania between 1920 and 1940
Bessarabia was part of Greater Romania between 1920 and 1940

A Provisional Workers' & Peasants' Government of Bessarabia was founded on May 5, 1919, in exile at Odessa, by the Bolsheviks. Anthem Trăiască Regele Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Constitutional monarchy Head of State  - 1918 - 1927 Ferdinand I of Romania  - 1927 - 1930 - 1930 - 1940 - 1940 - 1947 Michael I of Romania Carol II of Romania Michael I of Romania Legislature Adunarea DeputaÅ£ilor and Senatul Historical era Interbellum Years  - Kingdom... Image File history File links Romania_MASSR_1920. ... Image File history File links Romania_MASSR_1920. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ...


On May 11, 1919, the Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as an autonomous part of Russian SFSR, but was abolished by the military forces of Poland and France in September 1919 (see Polish-Soviet War). After the victory of Bolshevist Russia in the Russian Civil War, the Ukrainian SSR was created in 1922 , and in 1924 , a strip of Ukrainian land on the left bank of the Dniester River was declared to be the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic or Bessarabian SSR (Russian: ) was proclaimed on May 11, 1919 with capital at Odessa as an autonomous part of Russian SFSR. With the intervention of the military forces of Poland and France (see Polish-Soviet War) on August 2, 1919 the capital was moved to... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... Moldavian ASSR and Romania Moldavian ASSR or Moldovan SSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ...


At the Treaty of Paris (1920), the union with Romania was officially recognized by France, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Japan. However the treaty never came into force since it wasn't ratified by Japan. The United States and Soviet Russia (and later, USSR) did not recognize the union. The 1920 Treaty of Paris declared the union between Bessarabia and Romania. ...


World War II

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed on August 23, 1939. By Article 4 of the secret Annex to the Treaty, Bessarabia fell within the Soviet interest zone. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... On June 28, 1940 Bessarabia and northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Union. ...


By June 22, 1940 Western Europe was overrun by Nazi Germany, and the attention of the world was focussed on those events. In this context, on June 26, 1940, as a consequence of the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR issued an ultimatum note that required Romania to cede Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, and evacuate its troops and institutions in four days (otherwise war would ensue). The two provinces had an area of 51,000 km² (20,000 square miles), and were inhabited by about 3.75 million people, mostly Romanians. After weighing the possible consequences of a military clash with the Soviet Union in the summer of 1940, two days later, the Romanian administration started to retreat from the two provinces. During this retreat, from June 28 to July 3, some local Communists and Soviet sympaphazers began attacking the retreating forces and the people who also decided to retreat. Many of leaders of the attacks happened to be representatives of ethnic minorities (Jews, Ukrainians). [3][4] The Romanian Army was also attacked by the Soviet Army, which entered Bessarabia before the Romanian administration finished retreating. The casualties suffered by the Romanian Army during those seven days consisted of 356 officers and 42,876 soldiers dead or disappeared.[5] Soviet troops entered Bessarabia and northern Bukovina and incorporated them into the USSR. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 2, 1940, a Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was established on most of the territory of Bessarabia, merged with parts of the former Moldavian ASSR. Bessarabia was divided between this Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (70% of the territory and 80% of the population) and the Ukrainian SSR (the rest). Bessarabia's northern and southern districts (nowadays Budjak and parts of the Chernivtsi oblast) were alloted to Ukrainian SSR, while some territories (4,000 sq.km) on the left (eastern) bank of the Dniester, previously part of Ukrainian SSR (nowadays Transnistria) were alloted to Moldavian SSR. Following the Soviet takeover, many Bessarabians were executed or deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan. is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. ... Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Between September and November 1940 , the Germans of Bessarabia were offered resettlement to Germany, in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Fearing Soviet oppression, almost all Germans (93,000) agreed. Most of them, among them the parents of the current German President Horst Köhler, were resettled to the newly annexed Polish territories. Those who did not leave were often slaughtered while fleeing West in their wagons from the Red Army. Couple with infant The Bessarabia Germans are an ethnic group and part of the Black Sea Germans, who lived in Bessarabia (today part of Moldova and Ukraine) between 1814 and 1940. ... Dr. Horst Köhler ( , born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ...


On June 22, 1941 the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union commenced with Operation Barbarossa, accompanied in Bessarabia and northern Bukovina by Romanian troops. The Soviets employed scorched earth tactics during their forced retreat from Bessarabia, destroying the infrastructure, and transporting movable goods to Russia by railway. At the end of July, after a year of Soviet occupation, the region was once again under Romanian control. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ...


As the military operation was still in progress, there were cases of Romanian troops "taking revenge" on Jews in Bessarabia, in the form of pogroms on civilians and murdering Jewish POWs, resulting in several thousand dead. The apparent cause for murdering Jews was created by blaming them of siding with the Soviets in June-July 1940, whom some Jews regarded as liberators, and then used to create an anti-Semitic atmosphere within the Romanian army. At the same time the notorious SS Einsatzgruppe D, operating in the area where the German 11th army was assisting the Romanian army, committed summary executions of Jews under the pretext that they were spies, saboteurs, communists, or under no pretext whatsoever. The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... This article is about Sabotage sabotage can also refer to: an early Black Sabbath album (Sabotage), the Alfred Hitchcock films (Sabotage or Saboteur), a Beastie Boys song, or a type of shock site. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


The political solution of the "Jewish Question" was apparently seen by the Romanian dictator Marshal Ion Antonescu more in expulsion rather than extermination. That portion of the Jewish population of Bessarabia and Bukovina which did not flee before the retreat of the Soviet troops (110,000) was initially gathered into ghettos or concentration camps, and then deported during 1941-1942 in death marches into the Romanian-occupied Transnistria, which, unlike Greater Romania, was partially controlled by the SS. The term the Jewish Question first appeared during the Jew Bill of 1753 debates in England. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... For the use of this term in the software development industry, see death march (software development). ... Romania controlled (August 19 1941 - January 29 1944) the whole Transnistrian region between Dniester and Bug rivers and Black Sea coast. ... Anthem Trăiască Regele Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Constitutional monarchy Head of State  - 1918 - 1927 Ferdinand I of Romania  - 1927 - 1930 - 1930 - 1940 - 1940 - 1947 Michael I of Romania Carol II of Romania Michael I of Romania Legislature Adunarea DeputaÅ£ilor and Senatul Historical era Interbellum Years  - Kingdom...


After three years of relative peace, the German-Soviet front returned in 1944 to the land border on the Dniester. On August 20, 1944 the ca. 3,400,000 men strong Red Army began a major summer offensive codenamed Operation Iassy-Kishinev (from the Russian names of the cities Iaşi and Chişinău). The Soviets overran Bessarabia in a two-pronged offensive within five days. In pocket battles at Chişinău and Sărata the German 6th Army of ca. 650,000 men, newly reformed after the Battle of Stalingrad, was obliterated. Simultaneously with the success of the Russian attack, Romania broke the military alliance with the Axis and changed sides. On August 23, 1944, Marshal Ion Antonescu was arrested by King Michael, and later handed over to the Soviets. The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Romania Commanders Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Johannes Friessner Ion Antonescu Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km²  (46. ... Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km²  (46. ... Sarata (Romanian: Sărata) is a town in south-western Ukraine, in the region of Bugeac (south-western Odessa Oblast). ... Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer Army... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from...


Part of the Soviet Union

Main article: Moldovan SSR
Moldavian SSR (in red) as part of the Soviet Union (pink)
Moldavian SSR (in red) as part of the Soviet Union (pink)

The Soviet Union regained the region in 1944, and the Red Army occupied Romania. By 1947, the Soviets had imposed a communist government in Bucharest, which was friendly and obedient towards Moscow. The Soviet occupation of Romania lasted until 1958. The Romanian communist regime did not raise the matter of Bessarabia or Northern Bukovina in its diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... In 1944 Romania was occupied by Soviet troops, who would not withdraw until 1958. ...


Between 1969 and 1971 , a clandestine National Patriotic Front was established by several young intellectuals in Chişinău, totaling over 100 members, vowing to fight for the establishment of a Moldavian Democratic Republic, its secession from the Soviet Union and union with Romania.


In December 1971, following an informative note from Ion Stănescu, the President of the Council of State Security of the Romanian Socialist Republic, to Yuri Andropov, the chief of KGB, three of the leaders of the National Patriotic Front, Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgar, Gheorghe Ghimpu and Valeriu Graur, as well as a forth person, Alexandru Soltoianu, the leader of a similar clandestine movement in northern Bukovina (Bucovina), were arrested and later sentenced to long prison terms. Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... Gheorghe Ghimpu was a Moldovan politician and a political prisonier in the former Soviet Union. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ...


Rise of Independent Moldova

Main articles: Moldovan SSR and Moldova

With the weakening of the Soviet Union, in February 1988, the first non-sanctioned demonstrations were held in Chişinău. At first pro-Perestroika, they soon turned anti-government and demanded official status for the Moldavian (Romanian) language instead of the Russian language. State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


On August 31, 1989, following a 600,000-strong demonstration in Chişinău four days earlier, Moldavian (Romanian) became the official language of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. However, this was not implemented for many years. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1990, the first free elections were held for Parliament, with the opposition Frontul Popular (People's Front) all but winning them. A government led by Mircea Druc, one of the leaders of Frontul Popular, was formed. The Moldavian SSR becomes SSR Moldova, and later the Republic of Moldova. Mircea Druc (born 25 July 1949) is a Moldovan and Romanian politician who served as Prime Minister of Moldova between 26 May 1990 and 28 May 1991. ...


The Republic of Moldova became independent in 1991; its boundaries (those established on August 2, 1940) remained unchanged. is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Population

The population before World War II consisted of Romanians, Ukrainians(Ruthenians), Russians, Bulgarians, Gagauz, Germans, and Jews. According to the census data of the Russian Emprire, during the 19th century the ethnic Romanians decreased from 86% (1817) to 56% (1897). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ...


Russian Census 1817,[citation needed] (total 482,000 inhabitants) 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

  • 83,848 Romanian families (86%)
  • 6,000 Ruthenian families (6,5%)
  • 3,826 Jewish families (1,5%)
  • 1,200 Lipovan families (1,5%)
  • 640 Greek families (0,7%)
  • 530 Armenian families (0,6%)
  • 241 Bulgarian families (0,25%)
  • 241 Gagauz families (0,25%)

Russian Census 1856,[citation needed] (total 990,000 inhabitants) Lipovans or Lippovans (Old Faith Believers, Old Rite Followers) are a small (about 40,000) Slavic ethnic group of Russian origin residing in the delta of the Danube River in Tulcea county of eastern Romania. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

  • 736,000 Romanians (74%)
  • 119,000 Ukrainians (12%)
  • 79,000 Jews (8%)
  • 47,000 Bulgarians and Gagauz (5%)
  • 24,000 Germans (2.4%)
  • 11,000 Gypsies (1.1%)
  • 6,000 Russians (0.6%)

1889: 1,628,867. Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Russian Census 1897,[6] (total 1,935,412 inhabitants). Some scholars believed that "[...] the census enumerator generally has instructions to count everyone who understands the state language as being of that nationality, no matter what his everyday speech may be." [7] By language: 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

  • 920,919 Moldavians and Romanians (47.6%)
  • 379,698 Ukrainians (19.6%)
  • 228,168 Jews (11.8%)
  • 155,774 Russians (8%)
  • 103,225 Bulgarians (5.3%)
  • 60,026 Germans (3.1%)
  • 55,790 Turks (Gagauzes) (2.9%)

Romanians Census 1930, (total 3,105,530 inhabitants) Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

county Romanians Ukrainians Russians Gagauz Bulgarians Jews Germans inhabitants
Cetatea Albă 62,949 70,095 58,922 7,876 71,227 11,139 55,598 341,176
Ismail 72,020 10,665 66,987 15,591 43,375 6,306 983 225,509
Cahul 100,714 619 14,740 35,299 28,565 4,434 8,644 196,693
Tighina 163,673 9,047 44,989 39,345 19,599 16,845 10,524 306,592
Lăpuşna 326,455 2,732 29,770 37 712 50,013 2,823 419,621
Orhei 242,983 2,469 10,746 1 87 18,999 154 279,282
Bălţi 270,942 29,288 46,569 8 66 31,695 1,623 386,721
Soroca 232,720 26,039 25,736 13 69 29,191 417 315,774
Hotin 137,348 163,267 53,453 2 26 35,985 323 392,430
Iaşi and Fălciu (parts) 124,500 * * * * 5,000 * 132,023
Total 1,735,000 315,000+ 352,000 99,000 164,000 210,000 82,000 2,995,821
 % 58% 11% 12% 3% 5% 7% 3% 100%

Notes: (1) parts of Iaşi (Ungheni) and Fălciu counties were in Bessarabia; (2) * = data counted at others for these counties The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ...


Data of the 1939 was not completely processed before the Soviet occupation. Estimates of the total population at 3.5 million.


1970: 69% of Bessarabia's population were Romanians and 98% of them declared Moldovan language (Romanian language) as their native language.[vague][citation needed]
Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moldovan (also Moldavian) is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in its breakaway territory of Transnistria. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ...


1989: There were 88,419 Bessarabian Bulgarians according to official data from Republic of Moldova Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ...


1992: 4,305 immigrants to Israel from the Republic of Moldova constituted 7.1 percent of all the immigrants to Israel from the former U.S.S.R. in this year. Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


2004: There were 65,072 Bessarabian Bulgarians according to the census not including Bulgarians in Transnistria. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ...


Economy

  • 1911: There were 165 loan societies, 117 savings Banks, forty three professional savings and loan societies, and eight Zemstvo loan offices; all these had total assets of about 10,000,000 rubles. There were also eighty nine government savings banks, with deposits of about 9,000,000 rubles.
  • 1918: Railway mileage was only 657 miles, the main lines converged on Russia and were broad gauge. Rolling stock and right of way were in bad shape. There were about 400 locomotives, with only about one hundred fit for use. There were 290 passenger coaches and thirty three more out for repair. Finally, out of 4530 freight cars and 187 tank cars, only 1389 and 103 were usable. The Romanians reduced the gauge to a standard 4ft 8-1/2in, so that cars could be run to the rest of Europe. Also, there were only a few inefficient bridges of boats. Romanian highway engineers decided to build ten bridges: Cuzlău, Ţuţora, Lipcani, Şerpeniţa, Ştefăneşti-Brănişte, Cahul-Oancea, Bădărăi-Moara Domnească, Sărata, Bumbala-Leova, Badragi and Fălciu (Fălciu is a locality in Romania. Its correspondent in Bessarabia is Cantemir). Of these, only four were ever finished: Cuzlău, Fălciu, Lipcani and Sărata.

Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Ţuţora is a commune in Iaşi County, Romania. ... Lipkany, Cloth & Linen Street Lipcani is a small town in Moldova, located in the Bessarabia region close to where the borders of Ukraine, Moldova and Romania meet. ... Ştefăneşti may refer to several places in Romania: Ştefăneşti, a village in Suseni Commune, Argeş County Ştefăneşti, a village in Ileana Commune, Călăraşi County Ştefăneşti a commune in Botoşani County Ştefăneşti a commune in Vâlcea... Cahul is a city and an administrative region in the south of Moldova. ... Moara Domnească may refer to several villages in Romania: Moara Domnească, a village in Găneasa Commune, Ilfov County Moara Domnească, a village in Văleni Commune, Vaslui County and a village in Moldova: Moara Domnească, a village in Raionul Glodeni Category: ... Sarata (Romanian: Sărata) is a town in south-western Ukraine, in the region of Bugeac (south-western Odessa Oblast). ... 1. ... Falciu is a commune in Vaslui County, Romania, located at a latitude of 46. ...

See also

Moldavian coat-of-arms. ... The Principality of Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian (Vlach) state founded in the 14th century by two noble Vlachs from MaramureÅŸ: DragoÅŸ and Bogdan. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... 1889: There were 180,918 Jews of a total population of 1,628,867 in Bessarabia. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... Dazdie was the tax paid by Roma state slaves in Bessarabia to the Russian Empire after the region was incorporated in 1812. ... Moldova along with Romania are famous for their wines. ...

References

  1. ^ Чеботаренко, Г.Ф. Материалы к археологической карте памятников VІІІ-Х вв. южной части Пруто-Днестровского междуречья//Далекое прошлое Молдавии, Кишинев, 1969, с. 224-230
  2. ^ Wayne S Vucinich, Bessarabia In: Collier's Encyclopedia (Crowell Collier and MacMillan Inc., 1967) vol. 4, p. 103
  3. ^ Goma, Paul (2006). Săptămâna Roşie, 23. 
  4. ^ Nagy-Talavera, Nicolas M. (1970). Green Shirts and Others: a History of Fascism in Hungary and Romania, 305. 
  5. ^ Paul Goma (2006). Săptămâna Roşie, 206. 
  6. ^ Results of the 1897 Russian Census at demoscope.ru
  7. ^ Charles Upson Clark, Bessarabia. Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea: "These figures were based on estimates of the population of Bessarabia as consisting 70% of Moldavians, 14% Ukrainians, 12% Jews, 6% Russians, 3% Bulgarians, 3% Germans, 2% Gagautzi (Turks of Christian religion), and 1% Greeks and Armenians. This appears to be a fairly accurate guess; the official Russian figures, which the Moldavians considered as inaccurate and padded, set the Moldavian proportion considerably lower, as about one-half. Such figures are misleading in all European countries of mixed nationalities, since the census enumerator generally has instructions to count everyone who understands the state language as being of that nationality, no matter what his everyday speech may be."

Thilemann, Alfred. Steppenwind: Erzahlungen aus dem Leben der Bessarabien deutschen (The Wind from the Steppe: Stories of the Life of the Bessarabian Germans). Stuttgart, West Germany: Heimatmuseum der Deutschen aus Bessarabien, 1982 Colliers Encyclopedia is a U.S. encyclopedia. ... Paul Goma (b. ...


External links

Coordinates: 46°50′N, 29°00′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Bessarabia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2958 words)
Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia annexed by Russia in 1812.
In the chaos brought by the Russian revolution of October 1917, a National Council (Sfatul Ţării) was established in Bessarabia, with 120 members elected from Bessarabia and 10 elected from Transnistria (the left shore of the river Dnister, inhabited by ethnic Moldavians/Romanians).
Bessarabia's northern and southern districts (largely inhabited by Romanians and some Ukrainians and Germans) were exchanged with parts of Transnistria (the districts on the left or eastern bank of the Dniestr, largely inhabited today by Ukrainians and Russians).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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