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Encyclopedia > Bertolt Brecht

{{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for 'contradictions', much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. It is fairly clear that in Brecht's case the practice came before the theory, for his actual composition of a play, with its switching around of scenes and characters, even the physical cutting up and sticking together of the typescript, shows that montage was the structural technique most natural to him. Like Hašek and Joyce he had not learnt this scissors-and-paste method from the Soviet cinema but picked it out of the air" (1978, 110).</ref> In contrast to many other avant-garde approaches, however, Brecht had no desire to destroy art as an institution; rather, he hoped to 're-function' the apparatus of theatrical production to a new social use. In this regard he was a vital participant in the aesthetic debates of his era—particularly over the 'high art / popular culture' dichotomy—vying with the likes of Adorno, Lukács, Bloch, and developing a close friendship with Benjamin. Brechtian theatre articulated popular themes and forms with avant-garde formal experimentation to create a modernist realism that stood in sharp contrast both to its psychological and socialist varieties. "Brecht's work is the most important and original in European drama since Ibsen and Strindberg," Raymond Williams argues, while Peter Bürger insists that he is "the most important materialist writer of our time." [1] Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs EizenÅ¡teins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... Jaroslav HaÅ¡ek Jaroslav HaÅ¡ek (IPA: ) (April 30, 1883 in Prague – January 3 , 1923 in Lipnice nad Sázavou ) was a Czech humorist and satirist who became well-known mainly for his world-famous novel The Good Soldier Å vejk, an unfinished collection of farcical incidents about a soldier in... This article is about the writer and poet. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Refunctioning is a core strategy of the aesthetic developed by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno (September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher, pianist, musicologist, and composer. ... György Lukács (April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic. ... Ernst Simon Bloch (IPA: , July 8, 1885 – August 4, 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher and atheist theologian. ... Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... Realism in the theatre was a general movement in the later 19th century that steered theatrical texts and performances toward greater fidelity to real life. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... Ibsen redirects here. ... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 - 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ...


As Jameson among others has stressed, "Brecht is also ‘Brecht’"—collective and collaborative working methods were inherent to his approach. This 'Brecht' was a collective subject that "certainly seemed to have a distinctive style (the one we now call 'Brechtian') but was no longer personal in the bourgeois or individualistic sense." During the course of his career, Brecht sustained many long-lasting creative relationships with other writers, composers, scenographers, directors, dramaturgs and actors; the list includes: Elisabeth Hauptmann, Margarete Steffin, Ruth Berlau, Slatan Dudow, Kurt Weill, Hanns Eisler, Paul Dessau, Caspar Neher, Teo Otto, Karl von Appen, Ernst Busch, Lotte Lenya, Therese Giehse, Angelika Hurwicz, and Helene Weigel herself. This is "theatre as collective experiment [...] as something radically different from theatre as expression or as experience."[2] Fredric Jameson (b. ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Elisabeth Hauptmann (born June 20, 1897 in Peckelsheim, Westphalia; died April 20, 1973 in East Berlin) was a German writer, who worked together with Bertolt Brecht. ... Slatan Theodor Dudow was a Bulgarian born film director and screenwriter who made a number of films in the Weimar Republic and East Germany. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Hanns Eisler (July 6, 1898 - September 6, 1962) was a German and Austrian composer. ... Paul Dessau (b. ... Caspar Neher (born Rudolf Ludwig Caspar Neher, 11th April, 1897 in Augsburg; died 30th June, 1962 in Wien) was a Austrian-German scenographer known principally for his career-long working relationship with Bertolt Brecht. ... Ernst Busch (6 July 1885 - 17 July 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Essen-Steele, Germany, and was educated at the Groß Lichterfelde Cadet Academy. ... Lotte Lenya (October 18, 1898 – November 27, 1981), singer and actor, born Karoline Wilhelmine Blamauer, in Vienna, Austria. ... Therese Giehse (Munich,1898-Munich, 1975), real name Therese Gift, was a German actress. ... Born in Vienna in 1900 the daughter of a Jewish Lawyer, she was one of the most outstanding German actors of her generation, a Communist Party member from 1930 and Artistic Director of The Berliner Ensemble after her husband Bertholt Brechts death in 1956. ...


There are few areas of modern theatrical culture that have not felt the impact or influence of Brecht's ideas and practices; dramatists and directors in whom one may trace a clear Brechtian legacy include: Dario Fo, Augusto Boal, Joan Littlewood, Peter Brook, Peter Weiss, Heiner Müller, Pina Bausch, Tony Kushner and Caryl Churchill. In addition to the theatre, Brechtian theories and techniques have exerted considerable sway over certain strands of film theory and cinematic practice; Brecht's influence may be detected in the films of Jean-Luc Godard, Lindsay Anderson, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Nagisa Oshima, Ritwik Ghatak, Lars von Trier, Jan Bucquoy and Hal Hartley. Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist, playwright, theater director, actor, and composer. ... Augusto Boal (born 1931 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is an innovative and influential theatrical director, writer and politician. ... Joan Maud Littlewood (6 October 1914 - 20 September 2002) was a theatrical director, famous for her work in developing the left-wing Theatre Workshop. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ... Peter Weiss (November 8, 1916 - May 10, 1982) was a German writer, painter and artist. ... Heiner Müller (January 9, 1929 – December 30, 1995) was an East German dramatist and writer. ... Pina Bausch is a choreographer; one of the giant figures of modern dance, and a leading influence in the development of the Tanztheater style of dance. ... Tony Kushner (born July 16, 1956) is an award-winning American playwright most famous for his play Angels in America, for which he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. ... Caryl Churchill (born September 3, 1938) is an English writer of stage plays known for her use of non-realistic techniques and feminist themes. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... Lindsay Anderson (April 17, 1923 - August 30, 1994), English film and documentary director. ... Rainer Werner Fassbinder (May 31, 1945 – June 10, 1982) was a German movie director, screenwriter and actor, one of the most important representatives of the New German Cinema. ... Nagisa Oshima (大島 渚 ÅŒshima Nagisa, born March 31, 1932) is a famous Japanese director. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier, April 30, 1956) is a Danish film director closely associated with the Dogme95 collective, calling for a return to plausible stories in filmmaking and a move away from artifice and towards technical minimalism. ... Jan Bucquoy (b. ... Hal Hartley (b. ...

Contents

Life and career

Bavaria (1898-1924)

Brecht was born in Augsburg, Bavaria (about forty miles west of Munich) to a conventionally-devout Protestant mother and a Catholic father (who had been persuaded to a Protestant wedding). His father worked for a paper mill, becoming its managing director in 1914.[3] Thanks to his mother's influence, Brecht knew his Bible, a familiarity that would impact on his writing in years to come. From her, too, came the "dangerous image of the self-denying woman" that recurs in his drama.[4] Brecht's home life was comfortably middle class, despite what his occasional attempt to claim peasant origins implied.[5] From 1904-1908, Brecht attended Volksschule for elementary school and from 1908-1917, Königlich-Bayerisches Realgymnasium. At school in Augsburg he met Caspar Neher, with whom he formed a life-long creative partnership, Neher designing many of the sets for Brecht's dramas and helping to forge the distinctive visual iconography of their epic theatre. At sixteen, the first World War broke out; initially enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his classmates "swallowed by the army".[3] On his father's recommendation, Brecht sought a loophole by registering for an additional medical course at Munich University, where he enrolled in 1917.[6] There he studied drama with Artur Kutscher, who inspired in the young Brecht an admiration for the iconoclastic dramatist and cabaret-star Wedekind.[7] For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Caspar Neher (born Rudolf Ludwig Caspar Neher, 11th April, 1897 in Augsburg; died 30th June, 1962 in Wien) was a Austrian-German scenographer known principally for his career-long working relationship with Bertolt Brecht. ... Scenic design also known as Stage design is the creation of theatrical scenery. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Epic theater, also known as theater of alienation or theater of politics, is a theater movement arising in the early to mid-20th century, inextricably linked to the German playwright Bertolt Brecht. ... WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Main building of the Ludwig Maximilians University Main staircase of the university, Munich The Atrium at the main building The Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München), also known as LMU or simply University of Munich, is a university in the heart of Munich. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Arthur Kutscher (July 17, 1878, Hannover - August 29, 1960, Munich) was a German historian of literature and researcher in dramatics. ... Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. ... Benjamin Franklin Wedekind (July 24, 1864 - March 9, 1918) was a German playwright. ...


From July 1916, Brecht's newspaper articles began appearing under the new name "Bert Brecht" (his first theatre criticism for the Augsburger Volkswille appeared in October 1919).[8] Brecht was finally drafted into military service in the autumn of 1918, only to be posted back to Augsburg as a medical orderly in a military VD clinic; the war ended a month later.[3] 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A sexual health clinic is a clinic that specializes in treatment of sex-related problems. ...


Brecht's first significant play—Baal (written 1918)—arose in response to an argument in one of Kutscher's drama seminars, initiating a trend that persisted throughout his career of creative activity that was generated by a desire to counter another work (both others' and his own, as his many adaptations and re-writes attest). "Anyone can be creative," he quipped, "it's rewriting other people that's a challenge."[9] Baal is Bertolt Brechts first full-length play. ...


Brecht completed his second major play—later to be renamed Drums in the Night—in February 1919,[10] about the same time that he took a small part in the political cabaret of the Munich comedian Karl Valentin.[11] Writing in his Messingkauf Dialogues years later, Brecht identified Valentin, along with Wedekind and Büchner, as his "chief influences" at that time: Drums in the Night (German Trommeln in der Nacht) is a play by Bertolt Brecht. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. ... A comedian, or comic, is an entertainer who amuses an audience by making them laugh. ... Karl Valentin (* 4th June, 1882 in Munich; + 9th February, 1948 in Planegg near Munich); actually Valentin Ludwig Fey, was a Bavarian comedian, author and film producer, who had great influence on German culture. ... The Messingkauf Dialogues (Dialogue aus dem Messingkauf) is an incomplete theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Karl Georg Büchner (October 17, 1813 – February 19, 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of prose. ...

"But the man he [Brecht writes of himself in the third person] learnt most from was the clown Valentin, who performed in a beer-hall. He did short sketches in which he played refractory employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employer and made him look ridiculous. The employer was played by his partner, a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself out and speak in a deep bass voice."[12]

In July 1919, Brecht and Paula Banholzer (who had begun a relationship in 1917) had a son, Frank. In 1920 Brecht's mother died.[13] Grammatical person, in linguistics, is used for the grammatical categories a language uses to describe the relationship between the speaker and the persons or things she is talking about. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


In 1922 while still living in Munich, Brecht came to the attention of an influential Berlin critic, Herbert Ihering: "At 24 the writer Bert Brecht has changed Germany's literary complexion overnight"—he enthused in his review of Brecht's first play to be produced, Drums in the Night—"[he] has given our time a new tone, a new melody, a new vision. [...] It is a language you can feel on your tongue, in your gums, your ear, your spinal column."[14] In November it was announced that Brecht had been awarded the prestigious Kleist Prize (intended for unestablished writers and probably Germany's most significant literary award, until it was abolished in 1932) for his first three plays (Baal, Drums in the Night, and In the Jungle, although at that point only Drums had been produced).[15] The citation for the award insisted that: Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Drums in the Night (German Trommeln in der Nacht) is a play by Bertolt Brecht. ... The Kleist Prize is an annual German literature prize. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In The Jungle of Cities (Im Dickicht der Städte) is a play by the German modernist playwright Bertolt Brecht. ...

"[Brecht's] language is vivid without being deliberately poetic, symbolical without being over literary. Brecht is a dramatist because his language is felt physically and in the round."[16]

That year he married the Viennese opera-singer Marianne Zoff. Their daughter—Hanne Hiob (born in 1923)—is a successful German actress.[3] The Viennese language is an East Central Austro-Bavarian dialect spoken mostly in the Austrian capital of Vienna. ... Hanne Hiob, born Hanne Marianne Brecht, (* March 12, 1923 in Munich, Germany), German actress. ...


In 1924 Brecht worked with the novelist and playwright Lion Feuchtwanger (who he had met in 1919) on an adaptation of Edward II that proved to be a milestone in Brecht's early theatrical and dramaturgical development.[17] It was his first attempt at collaborative writing, and was the first of many classic texts he was to adapt; the production was his solo directorial début and in it he located the germ of his conception of 'epic theatre'.[18] That September, a job as assistant dramaturg at Max Reinhardt's Deutsches Theater—at the time one of the leading three or four theatres in the world—brought him to Berlin.[19] Lion Feuchtwanger (pseudonym: J.L. Wetcheek) (7 July 1884 - 21 December 1958) was a German-Jewish novelist who was imprisoned in a French internment camp in Les Milles and later escaped to Los Angeles with the help of his wife, Marta. ... Edward I creating his son, the later Edward II, prince of Wales, 1301. ... A theatre director is a principal in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavors and aspects of production. ... Epic theater, also known as theater of alienation or theater of politics, is a theater movement arising in the early to mid-20th century, inextricably linked to the German playwright Bertolt Brecht. ... In the theater, a dramaturg holds a position that gained its modern-day function through the innovations of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, a playwright and theater practitioner who worked in Germany in the 18th century. ... Max Reinhardt Max Reinhardt (born September 9, 1873 in Baden bei Wien; died October 31, 1943 in New York City) was an influential Austrian director and actor. ... The Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Germany is a well known theater, which was built in 1850 (then as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Friedrich Wilhelm). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Weimar Republic Berlin (1924-1933)

In 1924 Brecht's marriage to Zoff began to break down (though they did not divorce until 1926). Brecht had become involved with both Elisabeth Hauptmann and Helene Weigel.[20] Brecht and Weigel's son, Stefan, was born in October of that year. Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Elisabeth Hauptmann (born June 20, 1897 in Peckelsheim, Westphalia; died April 20, 1973 in East Berlin) was a German writer, who worked together with Bertolt Brecht. ... Born in Vienna in 1900 the daughter of a Jewish Lawyer, she was one of the most outstanding German actors of her generation, a Communist Party member from 1930 and Artistic Director of The Berliner Ensemble after her husband Bertholt Brechts death in 1956. ... Stefan Brecht (b. ...


In his role as dramaturg, Brecht had much to stimulate him but little work of his own.[21] Reinhardt staged Shaw's Saint Joan, Goldoni's Servant of Two Masters (with the improvisational approach of the commedia dell'arte in which the actors chatted with the prompter about their roles), and Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author in his group of Berlin theatres.[22] A new version of Brecht's third play, now entitled Jungle: Decline of a Family, opened at the Deutsches Theater in October 1924, but was not a success.[23] George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... Saint Joan is a 1923 play by G. Bernard Shaw that he wrote shortly after the Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan of Arc. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... A Servant to Two Masters (Arlecchino servitore di due padroni) is a comedy by the Italian playwright Carlo Goldoni written in 1753. ... “Commedia” redirects here. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Six Characters in Search of an Author (Sei personaggi in cerca dautore) is the most famous play of Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello. ... In The Jungle of Cities (Im Dickicht der Städte) is a play by the German modernist playwright Bertolt Brecht. ...

In the asphalt city I'm at home. From the very start
Provided with every last sacrament:
With newspapers. And tobacco. And brandy
To the end mistrustful, lazy and content.
Bertolt Brecht, "Of Poor BB".

At this time Brecht revised his important 'transitional poem' "Of Poor BB".[24] In 1925, his publishers provided him with Elisabeth Hauptmann as an assistant for the completion of his collection of poems, Devotions for the Home (Hauspostille, eventually published in January 1927). She continued to work with him after the publisher's commission ran out.[25] Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elisabeth Hauptmann (born June 20, 1897 in Peckelsheim, Westphalia; died April 20, 1973 in East Berlin) was a German writer, who worked together with Bertolt Brecht. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1925 in Mannheim the artistic exhibition Neue Sachlichkeit ('new sobriety' or 'new objectivity') had given its name to the new post-Expressionist movement in the German arts. With little to do at the Deutsches Theater, Brecht began to develop his Man Equals Man project, which was to become the first product of "the 'Brecht collective' — that shifting group of friends and collaborators on whom he henceforward depended."[26] This collaborative approach to artistic production, together with aspects of Brecht's writing and style of theatrical production, mark Brecht's work from this period as part of the Neue Sachlichkeit movement.[27] The collective's work "mirrored the artistic climate of the middle 1920s," Willett and Manheim argue: Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Die Neue Sachlichkeit (The New Objectivity) was an Expressionist art movement founded in Germany in the aftermath of World War I, by Otto Dix and George Grosz. ... On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Man Equals Man or A Mans a Man is a classic play about war and personality by one of the giants of twentieth century drama, Bertolt Brecht. ... Die Neue Sachlichkeit (The New Objectivity) was an Expressionist art movement founded in Germany in the aftermath of World War I, by Otto Dix and George Grosz. ...

with their attitude of 'Neue Sachlichkeit' (or New Matter-of-Factness), their stressing of the collectivity and downplaying of the individual, and their new cult of Anglo-Saxon imagery and sport. Together the 'collective' would go to fights, not only absorbing their terminology and ethos (which permeates Man Equals Man) but also drawing those conclusions for the theatre as a whole which Brecht set down in his theoretical essay 'Emphasis on Sport' and tried to realise by means of the harsh lighting, the boxing-ring stage and other anti-illusionistic devices that henceforward appeared in his own productions.[28] The New Objectivity, or neue Sachlichkeit (new matter-of-factness), was an art movement which arose in Germany during the 1920s as an outgrowth of, and in opposition to, expressionism. ...

Chaplin's silent comedy The Gold Rush (1925).

In 1925, Brecht also saw two films that had a significant influence on him: Chaplin's The Gold Rush and Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin.[29] Brecht had compared Valentin to Chaplin, and the two of them provided models for Galy Gay in Man Equals Man.[30] Brecht later wrote that Chaplin "would in many ways come closer to the epic than to the dramatic theatre's requirements."[31] They met several times during Brecht's time in the United States, and discussed Chaplin's Monsieur Verdoux project, which it is possible Brecht influenced.[32] Image File history File links TheGoldRush. ... Image File history File links TheGoldRush. ... “Charles Chaplin” redirects here. ... The Gold Rush is a 1925 silent film comedy written, directed by, and starring Charlie Chaplin in his Little Tramp role. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Charles Chaplin” redirects here. ... The Gold Rush is a 1925 silent film comedy written, directed by, and starring Charlie Chaplin in his Little Tramp role. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs Eizenšteins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... The Battleship Potemkin (Russian: , ), sometimes rendered as The Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. ... Karl Valentin (* 4th June, 1882 in Munich; + 9th February, 1948 in Planegg near Munich); actually Valentin Ludwig Fey, was a Bavarian comedian, author and film producer, who had great influence on German culture. ... Man Equals Man or A Mans a Man is a classic play about war and personality by one of the giants of twentieth century drama, Bertolt Brecht. ... Demonstration is a central part of the Brechtian approach to acting. ... Monsieur Verdoux is a film by Charles Chaplin that debuted in 1947. ...


In 1926 a series of short stories was published under Brecht's name, though Hauptmann was closely associated with writing them.[33] Following the production of Man Equals Man in Darmstadt that year, Brecht began studying Marxism and socialism in earnest, under the supervision of Hauptmann.[34] "When I read Marx's Capital", a note by Brecht reveals, "I understood my plays." Marx was, it continues, "the only spectator for my plays I'd ever come across."[35] Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Man Equals Man or A Mans a Man is a classic play about war and personality by one of the giants of twentieth century drama, Bertolt Brecht. ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ...

For us, man portrayed on the stage is significant as a social function. It is not his relationship to himself, nor his relationship to God, but his relationship to society which is central. Whenever he appears, his class or social stratum appears with him. His moral, spiritual or sexual conflicts are conflicts with society.
Erwin Piscator, 1929.[36]

In 1927 Brecht became part of the 'dramaturgical collective' of Erwin Piscator's first company, which was designed to tackle the problem of finding new plays for its "epic, political, confrontational, documentary theatre".[37] Brecht collaborated with Piscator during the period of the latter's landmark productions, Hoppla, We're Alive! by Toller, Rasputin, The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schweik, and Konjunktur by Lania.[38] Brecht's most significant contribution was to the adaptation of the unfinished episodic comic novel Schweik, which he later described as a "montage from the novel".[39] The Piscator productions influenced Brecht's ideas about staging and design, and alerted him to the radical potentials offered to the 'epic' playwright by the development of stage technology (particularly projections).[40] What Brecht took from Piscator "is fairly plain, and he acknowledged it" Willett suggests: Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator, (December 17, 1893 – March 30, 1966), German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the theater, a dramaturg holds a position that gained its modern-day function through the innovations of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, a playwright and theater practitioner who worked in Germany in the 18th century. ... Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator, (December 17, 1893 – March 30, 1966), German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. ... Ernst Toller (December 1, 1893 - May 22, 1939) was a German Communist playwright. ... The Good Soldier Švejk (spelled Schweik or Schwejk in many translations, and pronounced or shvake in plain English transcription) is the shortened title of an unfinished satirical novel by Jaroslav Hašek. ... Non-Aristotelian drama, or the epic form of the drama, refers to a kind of play whose dramaturgical structure departs from the features of classical tragedy in favour of the features of the epic, as defined in each case by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle in his Poetics (c. ...

The emphasis on Reason and didacticism, the sense that the new subject matter demanded a new dramatic form, the use of songs to interrupt and comment: all these are found in his notes and essays of the 1920s, and he bolstered them by citing such Piscatorial examples as the step-by-step narrative technique of Schweik and the oil interests handled in Konjunktur ('Petroleum resists the five-act form').[41] Non-Aristotelian drama, or the epic form of the drama, refers to a kind of play whose dramaturgical structure departs from the features of classical tragedy in favour of the features of the epic, as defined in each case by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle in his Poetics (c. ... The technique of interruption pervades all levels of the stage work of the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht—the dramatic, theatrical and performative. ...

Brecht was struggling at the time with the question of how to dramatize the complex economic relationships of modern capitalism in his unfinished project Joe P. Fleischhacker (which Piscator's theatre announced in its programme for the 1927-28 season). It wasn't until his Saint Joan of the Stockyards (written between 1929-1931) that Brecht solved it.[42] In 1928 he discussed with Piscator plans to stage Shakespeare's Julius Caesar and Brecht's own Drums in the Night, but the productions did not materialize.[43] Saint Joan of the Stockyards is a play written by Bertolt Brecht in 1928 after the success of his play, The Threepenny Opera. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Tragedy of Julius Cæsar, more commonly known simply as Julius Caesar, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written in 1599. ... Drums in the Night (German Trommeln in der Nacht) is a play by Bertolt Brecht. ...


1927 also saw the first collaboration between Brecht and the young composer Kurt Weill.[44] Together they began to develop Brecht's Mahagonny project, along thematic lines of the biblical Cities of the Plain but rendered in terms of the Neue Sachlichkeit's Amerikanismus, which had informed Brecht's previous work.[45] They produced The Little Mahagonny for a music festival in July, as what Weill called a "stylistic exercise" in preparation for the large-scale piece. From that point on Caspar Neher became an integral part of the collaborative effort, with words, music and visuals conceived in relation to one another from the start.[46] The model for their mutual articulation lay in Brecht's newly-formulated principle of the 'separation of the elements', which he first outlined in "The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre" (1930). The principle, a variety of montage, proposed by-passing the "great struggle for supremacy between words, music and production" as Brecht put it, by showing each as self-contained, independent works of art that adopt attitudes towards one another.[47] Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny) is a political-satirical opera composed by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht. ... For other uses, see Sodom and Gomorrah (disambiguation). ... Die Neue Sachlichkeit (The New Objectivity) was an Expressionist art movement founded in Germany in the aftermath of World War I, by Otto Dix and George Grosz. ... Mahagonny-Songspiel, also known as The Little Mahagonny, is a small-scale scenic cantata written by the composer Kurt Weill and the dramatist Bertolt Brecht in 1927. ... Caspar Neher (born Rudolf Ludwig Caspar Neher, 11th April, 1897 in Augsburg; died 30th June, 1962 in Wien) was a Austrian-German scenographer known principally for his career-long working relationship with Bertolt Brecht. ... Separation of the elements is an aesthetic principle formulated by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre is a theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Soviet montage theory is an approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing (montage is French for putting together). Although Soviet filmmakers in the 1920s disagreed about how exactly to view montage, Sergei Eisenstein marked a note of accord in A Dialectic Approach to Film Form when... Gestus is a term often used when referring to Brechtian theatre. ...


In 1930 Brecht married Weigel; their daughter Barbara Brecht-Schall was born soon after the wedding. She also became an actress and currently holds the copyrights to all of Brecht's work. Not to be confused with copywriting. ...

Die Dreigroschenoper, original German poster from Berlin, 1928.
Die Dreigroschenoper, original German poster from Berlin, 1928.

Brecht formed a writing collective which became prolific and very influential. Elisabeth Hauptmann, Margarete Steffin, Emil Burri, Ruth Berlau and others worked with Brecht and produced the multiple teaching plays, which attempted to create a new dramaturgy for participants rather than passive audiences. These addressed themselves to the massive worker arts organisation that existed in Germany and Austria in the 1920s. So did Brecht's first great play, Saint Joan of the Stockyards, which attempted to portray the drama in financial transactions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x636, 55 KB) Summary Die Dreigroschenoper - German poster from 1928. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x636, 55 KB) Summary Die Dreigroschenoper - German poster from 1928. ... Elisabeth Hauptmann (born June 20, 1897 in Peckelsheim, Westphalia; died April 20, 1973 in East Berlin) was a German writer, who worked together with Bertolt Brecht. ... Look up work in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Multiple is a comic book superhero in the Marvel Comics universe. ... The Lehrstücke (plural form; singular: Lehrstuck)--or learning- or teaching- plays--are a radical and experimental form of modernist theatre developed in the twentieth century from the late twenties into the early thirties by Bertolt Brecht and his collaborators. ... Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. ... Saint Joan of the Stockyards is a play written by Bertolt Brecht in 1928 after the success of his play, The Threepenny Opera. ...


This collective adapted John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, with Brecht's songs set to music by Kurt Weill. Retitled The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) it was the biggest hit in Berlin of the 1920s and a renewing influence on the musical worldwide. One of its most famous lines underscored the hypocrisy of conventional morality imposed by the Church, working in conjunction with the established order, in the face of working-class hunger and deprivation: John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Die Dreigroschenoper, original German poster from Berlin, 1928. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ...

Erst kommt das Fressen
Dann kommt die Moral.
First the grub (lit. "eating like animals, gorging")
Then the morality.

The success of The Threepenny Opera was followed by the quickly thrown together Happy End. It was a personal and a commercial failure. At the time the book was purported to be by the mysterious Dorothy Lane (now known to be Elisabeth Hauptmann, Brecht's secretary and close collaborator). Brecht only claimed authorship of the song texts. Brecht would later use elements of Happy End as the germ for his Saint Joan of the Stockyards, a play that would never see the stage in Brecht's lifetime. Happy End's most redeeming quality was its inspired score by Weill, producing many Brecht/Weill hits like "Der Bilbao-Song" and "Surabaya-Jonny". Die Dreigroschenoper, original German poster from Berlin, 1928. ... Elisabeth Hauptmann (born June 20, 1897 in Peckelsheim, Westphalia; died April 20, 1973 in East Berlin) was a German writer, who worked together with Bertolt Brecht. ...


The masterpiece of the Brecht/Weill collaborations, Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny), caused an uproar when it premiered in 1930 in Leipzig, with Nazis in the audience protesting. The Mahagonny opera would premier later in Berlin in 1931 as a triumphant sensation. Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny) is a political-satirical opera composed by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht. ...


Brecht spent his last years in the Weimar-era Berlin (1930-1933) working with his ‘collective’ on the Lehrstücke. These were a group of plays driven by morals, music and Brecht's budding Epic Theatre. The Lehrstücke often aimed at educating workers on Socialist issues. The Measures Taken (Die Massnahme) was scored by Hanns Eisler. In addition, Brecht worked on a script for a semi-documentary feature film about the human impact of mass unemployment, Kuhle Wampe (1932), which was directed by Slatan Dudow. This striking film is notable for its subversive humour, outstanding cinematography by Günther Krampf, and Hanns Eisler's dynamic musical contribution. It still provides a vivid insight into Berlin during the last years of the Weimar Republic. Epic theater, also known as theater of alienation or theater of politics, is a theater movement arising in the early to mid-20th century, inextricably linked to the German director Bertolt Brecht. ... Hanns Eisler (July 6, 1898 - September 6, 1962) was a German and Austrian composer. ... Kuhle Wampe ( the full title is Kuhle Wampe oder Wem gehört die Welt) is a German feature film, released in 1932, about unemployment and left wing politics in the Weimar Republic. ... Slatan Theodor Dudow was a Bulgarian born film director and screenwriter who made a number of films in the Weimar Republic and East Germany. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


By February 1933, Brecht’s work was eclipsed by the rise of Nazi rule in Germany. (Brecht would also have his work challenged again in later life by the U.S. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), which believed he was under the influence of communism.[48][49]) Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Nazi Germany and World War II (1933-1945)

As a Marxist socialist, Brecht decided to leave Germany in February 1933, when Hitler took power. He went to Denmark, but when war seemed imminent in 1939, he moved to Stockholm, Sweden. He stayed there for one year. Then Hitler invaded Norway and Denmark, and Brecht felt the need to leave Sweden for Finland where he waited for his visa for the United States until May 3, 1941. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 &#8211; April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


During the war years, Brecht expressed his opposition to the National Socialist and Fascist movements in his most famous plays: Galileo, Mother Courage and Her Children, The Good Person of Sezuan, The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, and many others. Life of Galileo is a play by Bertolt Brecht. ... Mother Courage and Her Children (German: Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) was a play written in 1939 by the German dramatist and poet Bertolt Brecht (1898 - 1956) with significant contributions from his mistress at the time, Margarete Steffin. ... < die gute Person des i>The von Sezuan, auch bekannt als die gute Frau von Setzuan, ist ein Spiel durch [ [ Deutschland|Deutscher ] ] [ [ playwright ] ], [ [ Dichter ] ], Theater [ [ Kritiker ] ] und [ [ Theoretiker ] ] [ [ Bertolt Brecht ] ]. Es wurde innen [ [ 1943 ] ] w�hrend der Autor in tempor�rem self-imposed politischem exile innen lebte [ [ die Vereinigten Staaten... The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui (original German title: Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui) is a play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht, originally written in 1941. ... The Caucasian Chalk Circle is one of Bertolt Brechts most important plays and one of the most regularly performed German plays. ...


Brecht also wrote poetry which continues to attract attention and respect. Though he derived no real success or pleasure in this, he worked on a few screenplays for Hollywood, including Hangmen Also Die. ... Hangmen Also Die was a 1943 film directed by the legendary German director Fritz Lang with a script by Bertolt Brecht and John Wexley. ...


Cold War and final years in East Germany (1945-1956)

Statue of Brecht outside the Berliner Ensemble's theatre in Berlin
Statue of Brecht outside the Berliner Ensemble's theatre in Berlin

In the years of the Cold War and "red scare", the House Un-American Activities Committee called Brecht to account for his communist allegiances, and he was soon blacklisted by movie studio bosses. Brecht, along with about 41 other Hollywood writers, directors, actors and producers, was subpoenaed to appear before the HUAC in September 1947. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Political cartoon of 1919 depicting a European anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ...


Initially, Brecht was one of 19 witnesses who declared that they would refuse to testify about their political affiliations. Eleven members of this group were actually questioned on this point but, as Brecht later explained, he did not want to delay a planned trip to Europe, so he followed the advice of attorneys and broke with his earlier avowal. On October 30, 1947, he appeared before the committee and testified that he had never actually held party membership.[49] is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During his appearance before the committee, Brecht wore overalls and smoked an acrid cigar that made some of the committee members feel slightly ill. He made wry jokes throughout the proceedings, punctuating his inability to speak English well with continuous references to the translators present, who transformed his German statements into English ones unintelligible to himself.


It may be that Brecht never joined the Communist Party because he was unsure that the party would follow through with its proposals, though he was in agreement with fundamental principles of communism. Thus, his answer to the HUAC may have been sincere. It did, however, generate a good deal of subsequent criticism, including accusations of betrayal. The remaining witnesses, the so called Hollywood Ten, refused to testify and were cited for contempt. HUAC Vice Chairman Karl Mundt thanked Brecht for cooperating. The day after his testimony, Brecht flew to Europe.[50] The Hollywood Ten was a group of American screenwriters, actors, and directors, alleged members of the Communist Party, who were convicted of contempt of Congress during the height of the Red Scare. ... Karl Earl Mundt (1900 - 1974) was a U.S. educator and a Republican United States Senator from South Dakota from 1948 to 1973. ...


In Switzerland, Brecht composed an adaptation of Sophocles' Antigone, which was performed at Chur. It was based on the translation by Hölderlin, but was considerably modified. It was published under the title Antigonemodell 1948, accompanied by an essay on the importance of creating a 'non-Aristotelian' form of theatre. He was subsequently invited to return to Berlin by the Communist regime in East Germany. Horrified at the reinstatement of former Nazis into West Germany's government, Brecht accepted the offer and made East Berlin his home in 1949. He was enticed by the offer of his own theatre (completed in 1954) and theatre company (the Berliner Ensemble). He retained his Austrian nationality, however, and overseas bank accounts from which he received valuable hard currency remittances. The copyrights on his writings were held by a Swiss company. He used to drive around East Berlin in a pre-war DKW car — a rare luxury in the austere divided capital. This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Antigone (play) redirects here. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ... DKW Auto Union logotype Dampf-Kraft Wagen (German: steam-powered vehicle) or DKW is a historic car and motorcycle marque. ...


While Brecht's communist sympathies were a bane in the United States, East German officials sought to make him their hero. Though he had not been a member of the communist party, he had been deeply schooled in Marxism by the dissident communist Karl Korsch, and his communist allegiances were sincere. He claimed communism appeared to be the only reliable antidote to militarist fascism and spoke out against the remilitarization of the West and the division of Germany. Brecht used Korsch's version of the Marxist dialectic in both his aesthetic theory and practice in a central way when presenting his plays. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Karl Korsch (August 15, 1886 - October 21, 1961) was a German Marxist theorist. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ...

Grave of Bertolt Brecht and Helene Weigel.
Grave of Bertolt Brecht and Helene Weigel.

Brecht wrote very few plays in his last years in East Berlin, none of them as famous as his previous works. Some of his most famous poems, however, including the "Buckower Elegies", came from this era. One of the poems in the "Buckower Elegies," Die Lösung (The Solution) was Brecht's later commentary on the uprising of 17 June 1953 in East Germany: Image File history File links Brechtgrave. ... Image File history File links Brechtgrave. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ...

After the uprising of the 17th of June
The Secretary of the Writers Union
Had leaflets distributed in the Stalinallee
Stating that the people
Had forfeited the confidence of the government
And could win it back only
By redoubled efforts. Would it not be easier
In that case for the government
To dissolve the people
And elect another?

Brecht had previously supported the measures taken by the East German government to crush the uprising, including the use of Soviet military force; he even wrote a letter on the day of the uprising (17 June) to SED First Secretary Walter Ulbricht stating as such, although in that letter he also urged the SED leadership to have a "grand dialogue with the masses" concerning the political and economic conditions in the country. “CCCP” redirects here. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893 – August 1, 1973) was a German communist statesman. ...


Death

Brecht died on 14 August 1956 of a heart attack at the age of 58. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ...


In his will he provided instructions that a stiletto be placed in his heart and that he be buried in a steel coffin so that his corpse could not be eaten by worms[citation needed]. He is buried in the Dorotheenstädtischer Friedhof on Chausseestraße in the Mitte neighborhood of Berlin. In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... A stiletto is a long, narrow-bladed dagger. ... The location of Mitte in Berlin. ...


Impact

Brecht left the Berliner Ensemble to his wife, the actress Helene Weigel, which she ran until her death in 1971. Perhaps the most famous German touring theater of the postwar era, it was primarily devoted to performing Brecht plays. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ... Born in Vienna in 1900 the daughter of a Jewish Lawyer, she was one of the most outstanding German actors of her generation, a Communist Party member from 1930 and Artistic Director of The Berliner Ensemble after her husband Bertholt Brechts death in 1956. ...


His son, Stefan Brecht, became a poet and theatre critic interested in New York's avant-garde theatre. Stefan Brecht (b. ...


Brecht's influence can be seen in the cinema. Such filmmakers as Lars Von Trier, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Nagisa Oshima, Ritwik Ghatak and Jean-Luc Godard were influenced by Brecht and his theory of the Verfremdungseffekt. Often mis-translated as the 'Alienation effect', it is a process of emotionally distancing the audience from the on-stage action.[citation needed] Ghatak first translated Brecht into Bengali, before then making use of some of his key theories in the later films Cloud-Capped Star and Subarna-Rekha. Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier, April 30, 1956) is a Danish film director closely associated with the Dogme95 collective, calling for a return to plausible stories in filmmaking and a move away from artifice and towards technical minimalism. ... Rainer Werner Fassbinder (May 31, 1945 – June 10, 1982) was a German movie director, screenwriter and actor, one of the most important representatives of the New German Cinema. ... Nagisa Oshima (大島 渚 Ōshima Nagisa, born March 31, 1932) is a famous Japanese director. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... Bertolt Brecht (February 10, 1898 - August 14, 1956) was an influential German dramatist, stage director, and poet of the 20th century. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ...


Dramatic works

Entries show: English-language translation of title (German-language title) [year written] / [year first produced][51] {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ...

  • Baal (Baal) 1918/1923
  • Drums in the Night (Trommeln in der Nacht) 1918-20/1922
  • The Beggar (Der Bettler oder Der tote Hund) 1919/?
  • A Respectable Wedding (Die Kleinbürgerhochzeit) 1919/1926
  • Driving Out a Devil (Er treibt einen Teufel aus) 1919/?
  • Lux in Tenebris (Lux in Tenebris) 1919/?
  • The Catch (Der Fischzug) 1919?/?
  • In The Jungle of Cities (Im Dickicht der Städte) 1921-24/1923
  • Edward II (Leben Eduards des Zweiten von England) 1924/1924
  • Man Equals Man (Mann ist Mann) 1924-26/1926
  • The Elephant Calf (Das Elefantenkalb) 1924-6/1926
  • Little Mahagonny (Mahagonny-Songspiel) 1927/1927
  • The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) 1928/1928
  • The Flight across the Ocean (Der Ozeanflug; originally Lindbergh's Flight [(Lindberghflug]) 1928-29/1929
  • The Baden-Baden Lesson on Consent (Badener Lehrstück vom Einverständnis) 1929/1929
  • Happy End (Happy End) 1929/1929
  • The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny) 1927-29/1930
  • He Said Yes / He Said No (Der Jasager; Der Neinsager) 1929-30/1930-?
  • The Decision (Die Maßnahme) 1930/1930
  • Saint Joan of the Stockyards (Die heilige Johanna der Schlachthöfe) 1929-31/1959
    Stamp from the former East Germany depicting Brecht and a scene from his Life of Galileo.
    Stamp from the former East Germany depicting Brecht and a scene from his Life of Galileo.
  • The Exception and the Rule (Die Ausnahme und die Regel) 1930/1938
  • The Mother (Die Mutter) 1930-31/1932
  • Kuhle Wampe (screenplay) 1931/1932
  • The Seven Deadly Sins (Die sieben Todsünden der Kleinbürger) 1933/1933
  • Round Heads and Pointed Heads (Die Rundköpfe und die Spitzköpfe) 1931-34/1936
  • The Horatians and the Curiatians (Die Horatier und die Kuriatier) 1933-34/1958
  • Fear and Misery of the Third Reich (Furcht und Elend des Dritten Reiches) 1935-38/1938
  • Señora Carrar's Rifles (Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar) 1937/1937
  • Life of Galileo (Leben des Galilei) 1937-9/1943
  • How Much Is Your Iron? (Was kostet das Eisen?) 1939/1939
  • Dansen (Dansen) 1939/?
  • Mother Courage and Her Children (Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) 1938-39/1941
  • The Trial of Lucullus (Das Verhör des Lukullus) 1938-39/1940
  • Mr Puntila and his Man Matti (Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti) 1940/1948
  • The Good Person of Szechwan (Der gute Mensch von Sezuan) 1939-42/1943
  • The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui (Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui) 1941/1958
  • Hangmen Also Die (screenplay) 1942/1943
  • The Visions of Simone Machard (Die Gesichte der Simone Machard ) 1942-43/1957
  • The Duchess of Malfi 1943/1943
  • Schweyk in the Second World War (Schweyk im Zweiten Weltkrieg) 1941-43/1957
  • The Caucasian Chalk Circle (Der kaukasische Kreidekreis) 1943-45/1948
  • Antigone (Die Antigone des Sophokles) 1947/1948
  • The Days of the Commune (Die Tage der Commune) 1948-49/1956
  • The Tutor (Der Hofmeister) 1950/1950
  • The Condemnation of Lucullus (Die Verurteilung des Lukullus) 1938-39/1951
  • Report from Herrnburg (Herrnburger Bericht) 1951/1951
  • Coriolanus (Coriolan) 1951-53/1962
  • Joan of Arc (Der Prozess der Jeanne D'Arc zu Rouen, 1431) 1952/1952
  • Turandot (Turandot oder Der Kongreß der Weißwäscher) 1953-54/1969
  • Don Juan (Don Juan) 1952/1954
  • Trumpets and Drums (Pauken und Trompeten) 1955/1955

Baal is Bertolt Brechts first full-length play. ... Drums in the Night (German Trommeln in der Nacht) is a play by Bertolt Brecht. ... The Beggar is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... A Respectable Wedding is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Driving Out a Devil is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Lux in Tenebris is a short one-act farce, written in prose, by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... The Catch is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... In The Jungle of Cities (Im Dickicht der Städte) is a play by the German modernist playwright Bertolt Brecht. ... Edward I creating his son, the later Edward II, prince of Wales, 1301. ... Man Equals Man or A Mans a Man is a classic play about war and personality by one of the giants of twentieth century drama, Bertolt Brecht. ... The Elephant Calf (Das Elefantenkalb), also known as The Baby Elephant, is an early one-act surrealistic prose farce written by the German modernist playwright Bertolt Brecht. ... Mahagonny-Songspiel, also known as The Little Mahagonny, is a small-scale scenic cantata written by the composer Kurt Weill and the dramatist Bertolt Brecht in 1927. ... Die Dreigroschenoper, original German poster from Berlin, 1928. ... The Flight across the Ocean (Der Ozeanflug) is a Lehrstuck by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... The Baden-Baden Lesson on Consent (Badener Lehrstück vom Einverständnis) is a Lehrstuck by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Happy End is a three-act musical comedy by Kurt Weill, Elisabeth Hauptmann and Bertolt Brecht which first opened in Berlin at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm on September 2, 1929. ... Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny) is a political-satirical opera composed by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht. ... He Said Yes (Der Jasager) and He Said No (Der Neinsager) are a pair of related Lehrstücke by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... He Said Yes (Der Jasager) and He Said No (Der Neinsager) are a pair of related Lehrstücke by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Der Jasager (The Affirmer or He Said Yes) is an opera (specifically a Schuloper or school-opera) by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht (after Elisabeth Hauptmanns translation from Arthur Waleys English version of the Japanese Nō drama Taniko). ... The Decision (Die Maβnahme), also known as The Measures Taken, is a Lehrstuck by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Saint Joan of the Stockyards is a play written by Bertolt Brecht in 1928 after the success of his play, The Threepenny Opera. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (991x1411, 193 KB) Other versions unknown File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (991x1411, 193 KB) Other versions unknown File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ... Life of Galileo, also known simply as Galileo, is a play by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht which was first published in 1940. ... The Exception and the Rule author Bertolt Brecht The Exception and the Rule is a short play by famous German playwright Bertolt Brecht and is one of the many Lehrstücke (Teaching plays) he wrote in his later life. ... Die Mutter (The Mother) is a 1930s stageplay by Bertolt Brecht based on Maxim Gorky’s 1906 novel of the same name. ... Kuhle Wampe ( the full title is Kuhle Wampe oder Wem gehört die Welt) is a German feature film, released in 1932, about unemployment and left wing politics in the Weimar Republic. ... The Seven Deadly Sins (German: Die sieben Todsünden[1]) is a satirical ballet chanté (sung ballet) in nine scenes composed by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht. ... Round Heads and Pointed Heads is a play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... The Horatians and the Curiatians is a Lehrstuck by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Fear and Misery of the Third Reich is one of Brechts most famous plays. ... Señora Carrars Rifles (Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar) is a one-act play by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Life of Galileo, also known simply as Galileo, is a play by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht which was first published in 1940. ... Mother Courage and Her Children (German: Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) was a play written in 1939 by the German dramatist and poet Bertolt Brecht (1898 - 1956) with significant contributions from his mistress at the time, Margarete Steffin. ... The Trial of Lucullus is a radio play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... The play Mr Puntila and his Man Matti (Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti, 1941) is one of Bertolt Brechts modern social criticism plays. ... < die gute Person des i>The von Sezuan, auch bekannt als die gute Frau von Setzuan, ist ein Spiel durch [ [ Deutschland|Deutscher ] ] [ [ playwright ] ], [ [ Dichter ] ], Theater [ [ Kritiker ] ] und [ [ Theoretiker ] ] [ [ Bertolt Brecht ] ]. Es wurde innen [ [ 1943 ] ] w�hrend der Autor in tempor�rem self-imposed politischem exile innen lebte [ [ die Vereinigten Staaten... The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui (original German title: Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui) is a play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht, originally written in 1941. ... Hangmen Also Die was a 1943 film directed by the legendary German director Fritz Lang with a script by Bertolt Brecht and John Wexley. ... The Visions of Simone Machard is a play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... The Duchess of Malfi is an adaptation by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of the English seventeenth-century tragedy by John Webster. ... Schweik in the Second World War (org. ... The Caucasian Chalk Circle is one of Bertolt Brechts most important plays and one of the most regularly performed German plays. ... Antigone, also known as The Antigone of Sophocles, is an adaptation by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of Hölderlins translation of Sophocles tragedy. ... The Days of the Commune is a play by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... The Tutor is an adaptation by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of an eighteenth-century play by Lenz. ... Die Verurteilung des Lukullus (The Condemnation of Lucullus) is a opera by Paul Dessau to a libretto by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Report from Herrnburg is a production performed by a youth chorus that consisted of ten songs, each with a brief introductory commentary, written by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht, and two fragments of film, given on a concert platform in the form of a report. ... Coriolanus is an adaptation by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of the English seventeenth-century tragedy by William Shakespeare. ... The Trial of Joan of Arc of Proven, 1431 is an adaptation by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of a radio play by Anna Seghers. ... Turandot, or the Whitewashers Congress is a play written by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht in 1953-4 and first produced at the Zürich Schauspielhaus in 1969, in a production directed by Benno Besson and Horst Sagert. ... Don Juan is an adaptation by the twentieth-century German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of a seventeenth-century French play by Molière. ... Trumpets and Drums is an adaptation by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of an eighteenth-century English Restoration comedy by Farquhar, The Recruiting Officer. ...

Theory of theatre

Theories and Techniques of Bertolt Brecht
v  d  e
Epic TheatreNon-Aristotelian DramaLehrstuckDialectical Theatre
FabelGestusDefamiliarizationDemonstrationNot / ButHistoricization
RefunctioningSeparation of the ElementsInterruptionsNodal PointComplex Seeing
Modern Theatre is Epic TheatreStreet SceneA Short OrganumMessingkauf Dialogues

Above all things that theatre was and what he wanted theatre to be, Brecht believed that the theatre's broadest function was to educate. "It is the noblest function that we have found for 'theatre'".[52] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 424 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (519 × 734 pixel, file size: 264 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bildbeschreibung: Bronzeskulptur Bertolt Brecht von Fritz Cremer Aufnahme während des Brecht-Festes zum 50. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Epic theater, also known as theater of alienation or theater of politics, is a theater movement arising in the early to mid-20th century, inextricably linked to the German playwright Bertolt Brecht. ... Non-Aristotelian drama, or the epic form of the drama, refers to a kind of play whose dramaturgical structure departs from the features of classical tragedy in favour of the features of the epic, as defined in each case by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle in his Poetics (c. ... The Lehrstücke (plural form; singular: Lehrstuck)--or learning- or teaching- plays--are a radical and experimental form of modernist theatre developed in the twentieth century from the late twenties into the early thirties by Bertolt Brecht and his collaborators. ... Dialectical theatre is a label that the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht came to prefer to epic theatre towards the end of his career to describe the type of theatre that he had developed. ... Fabel is a critical term and dramaturgical technique pioneered by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Gestus is a term often used when referring to Brechtian theatre. ... The alienation effect (from the German Verfremdungseffekt) is a theatrical and cinematic device which prevents the audience from losing itself passively and completely in the character created by the actor, and which consequently leads the audience to be a consciously critical observer. ... Demonstration is a central part of the Brechtian approach to acting. ... Not / But, or the not. ... The principle of historicizaton is a fundamental part of the aesthetic developed by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Refunctioning is a core strategy of the aesthetic developed by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Separation of the elements is an aesthetic principle formulated by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... The technique of interruption pervades all levels of the stage work of the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht—the dramatic, theatrical and performative. ... Complex seeing is a type of spectator response that epic theatre seeks to provoke in its audience. ... The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre is a theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... The Street Scene is a basic model for epic theater set forth by Bertolt Brecht. ... A Short Organum for the Theatre (Kleines Organon für das Theater) is a theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... The Messingkauf Dialogues (Dialogue aus dem Messingkauf) is an incomplete theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


Brecht wanted the answer to Lenin’s question ‘Wie und was soll man lernen?’ ('How and what should one learn?'). He created an influential theory of theatre, the epic theatre, wherein a play should not cause the spectator to emotionally identify with the action before him or her, but should instead provoke rational self-reflection and a critical view of the actions on the stage. He believed that the experience of a climactic catharsis of emotion left an audience complacent. Instead, he wanted his audiences to use this critical perspective to identify social ills at work in the world and be moved to go forth from the theatre and effect change. Epic theater, also known as theater of alienation or theater of politics, is a theater movement arising in the early to mid-20th century, inextricably linked to the German director Bertolt Brecht. ...


Hans Eisler has noted that these plays resemble political seminars[citation needed]. Brecht described them as "a collective political meeting" in which the audience is to participate actively. One sees in this model a rejection of the concept of the bureaucratic elite party where the politicians are to issue directives and control the behaviour of the masses.


For this purpose, Brecht employed the use of techniques that remind the spectator that the play is a representation of reality and not reality itself, which he called the Verfremdungseffekt (translated as distancing effect, estrangement effect, or alienation effect). Such techniques included the direct address by actors to the audience, transposition of text to third person or past tense, speaking the stage direction out loud, exaggerated, unnatural stage lighting, the use of song, and explanatory placards.[53] By highlighting the constructed nature of the theatrical event, Brecht hoped to communicate that the audience's reality was, in fact a construction and, as such, was changeable. Bertolt Brecht (February 10, 1898 - August 14, 1956) was an influential German dramatist, stage director, and poet of the 20th century. ...


Another technique that Brecht employed to achieve his Verfremdungseffekt was the principle of historicisation. The content of many of his plays dealt with fictional tellings of historical figures or events. His idea was that if one were to tell a story from a time that is contemporary to an audience, they may not be able to maintain the critical perspective he hoped to achieve. Instead, he focused on historical stories that had parallel themes to the social ills he was hoping to illuminate in his own time. He hoped that, in viewing these historical stories from a critical perspective, the contemporary issues Brecht was addressing would be illuminated to the audience. The principle of historicizaton is a fundamental part of the aesthetic developed by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ...


In one of his first productions, Brecht famously put up signs that said "Glotzt nicht so romantisch!" ("Don't stare so romantically!"). His manner of stagecraft has proven both fruitful and confusing to those who try to produce his works or works in his style. His theory of theatre has heavily influenced modern theatre. Some of his innovations have become so common that they've entered the theatrical canon.


Although Brecht's work and ideas about theatre are generally thought of as belonging to modernism, there is recent thought that he is the forerunner of contemporary postmodern theatre practice.[citation needed] This is particularly so because he questioned and dissolved many of the accepted practices of the theatre of his time and created a political theatre that involved the audience in understanding its meaning. Moreover, he was one of the first theatre practitioners to incorporate multimedia into the semiotics of theatre.[citation needed] For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... . ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ...


The birth of Brecht's theories, centering around his writing of Baal and In the Jungle of Cities, was the core of the plot of the play The Concrete Girl by Bertolt Brecht written by Josh Morrall and Simon Farid. Set in 1921, when Brecht was 23, the short play featured an actor portraying Brecht on stage as a tortured, young, famine stricken writer, recently arrived in Berlin. In order to inspire himself to finish a play he is writing (the ficticious, supposedly 'lost' play The Concrete Girl) Brecht summons Frank Wedekind from his grave. Brecht hopes Wedekind will aid him in the writing of the play, but is ultimately left feeling discouraged, and burns the work, setting the tone for his early theory and later works. Baal is Bertolt Brechts first full-length play. ... In The Jungle of Cities (Im Dickicht der Städte) is a play by the German modernist playwright Bertolt Brecht. ... Benjamin Franklin Wedekind (July 24, 1864 - March 9, 1918) was a German playwright. ...


Theoretical works

  • "The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre" (1930)
  • "The Threepenny Lawsuit" (written 1931; published 1932)
  • "The Street Scene" (written 1938; published 1950)
  • "The Popular and the Realistic" (written 1938; published 1958)
  • "Short Description of a New Technique of Acting which Produces an Alienation Effect" (written 1940; published 1951)
  • "A Short Organum for the Theatre" ("Kleines Organon für das Theater", written 1948; published 1949)
  • The Messingkauf Dialogues (Dialogue aus dem Messingkauf, published 1963)

The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre is a theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... The Street Scene is a basic model for epic theater set forth by Bertolt Brecht. ... A Short Organum for the Theatre (Kleines Organon für das Theater) is a theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... The Messingkauf Dialogues (Dialogue aus dem Messingkauf) is an incomplete theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ...

Collaborators and associates

The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ... Born in Vienna in 1900 the daughter of a Jewish Lawyer, she was one of the most outstanding German actors of her generation, a Communist Party member from 1930 and Artistic Director of The Berliner Ensemble after her husband Bertholt Brechts death in 1956. ... Elisabeth Hauptmann (born June 20, 1897 in Peckelsheim, Westphalia; died April 20, 1973 in East Berlin) was a German writer, who worked together with Bertolt Brecht. ... Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator, (December 17, 1893 – March 30, 1966), German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. ... Lion Feuchtwanger (pseudonym: J.L. Wetcheek) (7 July 1884 - 21 December 1958) was a German-Jewish novelist who was imprisoned in a French internment camp in Les Milles and later escaped to Los Angeles with the help of his wife, Marta. ... Arnolt Bronnen (1895 - 1959) was an Austrian playwright and director. ... Slatan Theodor Dudow was a Bulgarian born film director and screenwriter who made a number of films in the Weimar Republic and East Germany. ... Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of expressionism. ... Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ... Carl Weber is a theatre director and has been Professor of drama at Stanford University since 1984. ... The Théâtre Benno Besson in Yverdon, named in his honour Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson, November 4, 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died February 23, 2006 in Berlin) was a Swiss actor and film director. ... Ruth Berghaus (July 2, 1927 in Dresden – January 25, 1996 in Zeuthen, Berlin) was a German choreographer and opera and theater stage director. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Hanns Eisler (July 6, 1898 - September 6, 1962) was a German and Austrian composer. ... Paul Dessau (b. ... Caspar Neher (born Rudolf Ludwig Caspar Neher, 11th April, 1897 in Augsburg; died 30th June, 1962 in Wien) was a Austrian-German scenographer known principally for his career-long working relationship with Bertolt Brecht. ... Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... John Willett was a translator and a scholar who is famous for translating the work of Bertolt Brecht into English. ... Eric Bentley Eric Bentley, (September 14, 1916 -) born in Bolton, Lancashire, England, became an American citizen in 1948. ... Ralph Manheim (1907 - 26 September 1992) was a translator of German and French literature. ... Lotte Lenya (October 18, 1898 – November 27, 1981), singer and actor, born Karoline Wilhelmine Blamauer, in Vienna, Austria. ... Charles Laughton (1 July 1899 – 15 December 1962) was an English stage and film actor. ... Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964), born László Loewenstein, was an Austro-Hungarian actor frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner. ... Ernst Busch (22 January 1900 - 8 June 1980) was a singer and actor. ... Therese Giehse (Munich,1898-Munich, 1975), real name Therese Gift, was a German actress. ... Alexander Granach was a Polish actor born in April 18, 1890 (his birth first name was Jessaja) that rose to theatrical prominence at the Volksbeinen in Berlin. ... Oscar Homolka (born August 12, 1898 in Vienna; died January 27, 1978 in Sussex, England) was an Austrian-born actor. ... Fritz Kortner (May 12, 1892, Vienna - July 22, 1970, Munich) was an Austrian-born stage and film actor. ... Grave of Renate and Wolfgang Langhoff in the cemetery of the congregation of Dorothenstadt and Friedrichswerder in Berlin Wolfgang Langhoff (born: 6th October, 1901 in Berlin, Germany; died: 26th August, 1966 in Berlin, GDR)[1] was a German theatre, film and television actor and theatre director. ...

Bibliography

Primary sources

Essays, diaries and journals

  • Brecht, Bertolt. 1964. Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic. Ed. and trans. John Willett. British edition. London: Methuen. ISBN 041338800X. USA edition. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 0809031000.
  • ---. 2000a. Brecht on Film and Radio. Ed. and trans. Marc Silberman. British edition. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413725006.
  • ---. 2003a. Brecht on Art and Politics. Ed. and trans. Thomas Kuhn and Steve Giles. British edition. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413758907.
  • ---. 1965. The Messingkauf Dialogues. Trans. John Willett. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen, 1985. ISBN 0413388905.
  • ---. 1993. Journals 1934-1955. Trans. Hugh Rorrison. Ed. John Willett. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0415912822.

Drama, poetry and prose

  • Brecht, Bertolt. 1994a. Collected Plays: One. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413685705.
  • ---. 1994b. Collected Plays: Two. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413685608.
  • ---. 1997. Collected Plays: Three. Ed. John Willett. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413704602.
  • ---. 2003b. Collected Plays: Four. Ed. Tom Kuhn and John Willett. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 041370470X.
  • ---. 1995. Collected Plays: Five. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413699706.
  • ---. 1994c. Collected Plays: Six. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413685802.
  • ---. 1994d. Collected Plays: Seven. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 041368590X.
  • ---. 2004. Collected Plays: Eight. Ed. Tom Kuhn and David Constantine. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413773523.
  • ---. 1972. Collected Plays: Nine. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0394718194.
  • ---. 2000b. Poems: 1913-1956. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry, Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413152103.
  • ---. 2001. Stories of Mr. Keuner. Trans. Martin Chalmers. San Francisco: City Lights. ISBN 0872863832.

Secondary sources

  • [Anon.] 1952. "Brecht Directs". In Directors on Directing: A Source Book to the Modern Theater. Ed. Toby Cole and Helen Krich Chinoy. Rev. ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1963. ISBN 0023233001. p.291- [Account of Brecht in rehearsal from anonymous colleague published in Theaterarbeit]
  • Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. "Brecht, Bertolt" In The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521434378. p.129.
  • Benjamin, Walter. 1983. Understanding Brecht. Trans. Anna Bostock. London and New York: Verso. ISBN 0902308998.
  • Brooker, Peter. 1994. "Key Words in Brecht's Theory and Practice of Theatre." In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 185-200).
  • Bürger, Peter. 1984. Theory of the Avant-Garde. Trans. of Theorie der Avantgarde (2nd ed., 1980). Theory and History of Literature Ser. 4. Trans. Michael Shaw. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816610681.
  • Calandra, Denis. 2003. "Karl Valentin and Bertolt Brecht." In Popular Theatre: A Sourcebook. Ed. Joel Schechter. Worlds of Performance Ser. London and New York: Routledge. p.189-201. ISBN 0415258308.
  • Counsell, Colin. 1996. Signs of Performance: An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Theatre. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415106435.
  • Demetz, Peter, ed. 1962. "From the Testimony of Berthold Brecht: Hearings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, October 30, 1947." Brecht: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Ser. Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0130817600. p.30-42.
  • Diamond, Elin. 1997. Unmaking Mimesis: Essays on Feminism and Theater. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415012295.
  • Eagleton, Terry. 1985. "Brecht and Rhetoric." New Literary History 16.3 (Spring). p.633-638.
  • Eddershaw, Margaret. 1982. "Acting Methods: Brecht and Stanislavski." In Brecht in Perspective. Ed. Graham Bartram and Anthony Waine. London: Longman. ISBN 058249205X. p.128-144.
  • Fuegi, John. 1994. "The Zelda Syndrome: Brecht and Elizabeth Hauptmann." In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 104-116).
  • Giles, Steve. 1998. "Marxist Aesthetics and Cultural Modernity in Der Dreigroschenprozeß." Bertolt Brecht: Centenary Essays. Ed. Steve Giles and Rodney Livingstone. German Monitor 41. Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA: Rodopi. ISBN 904200309X. p.49-61
  • Jameson, Fredric. 1998. Brecht and Method. London and New York: Verso. ISBN 1859848095.
  • Kolocotroni, Vassiliki, Jane Goldman and Olga Taxidou, eds. 1998. Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748609733.
  • Krause, Duane. 1995. "An Epic System." In Acting (Re)considered: Theories and Practices. Ed. Phillip B. Zarrilli. 1st ed. Worlds of Performance Ser. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415098599. p.262-274.
  • Leach, Robert. 1994. "Mother Courage and Her Children". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 128-138).
  • Meech, Tony. 1994. "Brecht's Early Plays." In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 43-55).
  • Mitter, Schomit. 1992. "To Be And Not To Be: Bertolt Brecht and Peter Brook". Systems of Rehearsal: Stanislavsky, Brecht, Grotowski and Brook. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415067847. p.42-77.
  • Müller, Heiner. 1990. Germania. Trans. Bernard Schütze and Caroline Schütze. Ed. Sylvère Lotringer. Semiotext(e) Foreign Agents Ser. New York: Semiotext(e). ISBN 0936756632.
  • Pabst, G.W. 1984. The Threepenny Opera. Classic Film Scripts Ser. London: Lorrimer. ISBN 0856470066.
  • Reinelt, Janelle. 1990. "Rethinking Brecht: Deconstruction, Feminism, and the Politics of Form." The Brecht Yearbook 15. Ed. Marc Silberman et al. Madison, Wisconsin: The International Brecht Society-University of Wisconsin Press. p.99-107.
  • ---. 1994. "A Feminist Reconsideration of the Brecht/Lukács Debate." Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory 7.1 (Issue 13). p.122-139.
  • Rouse, John. 1995. "Brecht and the Contradictory Actor." In Acting (Re)considered: A Theoretical and Practical Guide. Ed. Phillip B. Zarrilli. 2nd ed. Worlds of Performance Ser. London: Routledge. ISBN 041526300X. p.248-259.
  • Sacks, Glendyr. 1994. "A Brecht Calendar." In Thomson and Sacks (1994, xvii-xxvii).
  • Schechter, Joel. 1994. "Brecht's Clowns: Man is Man and After". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 68-78).
  • Smith, Iris. 1991. "Brecht and the Mothers of Epic Theater." Theatre Journal 43. p.491-505.
  • Szondi, Peter. 1965. Theory of the Modern Drama. Ed. and trans. Michael Hays. Theory and History of Literature Ser. 29. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987. ISBN 0816612854.
  • Taxidou, Olga. 1995. "Crude Thinking: John Fuegi and Recent Brecht Criticism." New Theatre Quarterly XI.44 (Nov. 1995). p.381-384.
  • ---. 2007. Modernism and Performance: Jarry to Brecht. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403941017.
  • Thomson, Peter. 1994. "Brecht's Lives". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 22-39).
  • ---. 2000. "Brecht and Actor Training: On Whose Behalf Do We Act?" In Twentieth Century Actor Training. Ed. Alison Hodge. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415194520. p.98-112.
  • Thomson, Peter and Glendyr Sacks, eds. 1994. The Cambridge Companion to Brecht. Cambridge Companions to Literature Ser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521414466.
  • Willett, John. 1967. The Theatre of Bertolt Brecht: A Study from Eight Aspects. Third rev. ed. London: Methuen, 1977. ISBN 041334360X.
  • ---. 1978. Art and Politics in the Weimar Period: The New Sobriety 1917-1933. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 0306807246.
  • ---. 1998. Brecht in Context: Comparative Approaches. Rev. ed. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413723100.
  • Willett, John and Ralph Manheim. 1970. Introduction. In Collected Plays: One by Bertolt Brecht. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry and Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 041603280X. p.vii-xvii.
  • Weber, Carl. 1984. "The Actor and Brecht, or: The Truth Is Concrete: Some Notes on Directing Brecht with American Actors." The Brecht Yearbook-Das Brecht Jahrbuch 13. Madison, WI: BrechtJ. p.63-74.
  • ---. 1994. "Brecht and the Berliner Ensemble - the Making of a Model." In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 167-184).
  • Williams, Raymond. 1993. Drama from Ibsen to Brecht. London: Hogarth. ISBN 0701207930. p.277-290.
  • Witt, Hubert, ed. 1975. Brecht As They Knew Him. Trans. John Peet. London: Lawrence and Wishart; New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0853152853.
  • Wright, Elizabeth. 1989. Postmodern Brecht. Critics of the Twentieth Century Ser. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415023300.
  • Youngkin, Stephen D. 2005. The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813123607. [Contains a detailed discussion of the personal and professional friendship between Brecht and classic film actor Peter Lorre.]

The Messingkauf Dialogues (Dialogue aus dem Messingkauf) is an incomplete theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... Terry Eagleton (born in Salford, Lancashire (now Greater Manchester), England, on February 22, 1943) is a British literary critic and philosopher. ... Fredric Jameson (b. ... Heiner Müller (January 9, 1929 – December 30, 1995) was an East German dramatist and writer. ... Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ... John Willett was a translator and a scholar who is famous for translating the work of Bertolt Brecht into English. ... John Willett was a translator and a scholar who is famous for translating the work of Bertolt Brecht into English. ... Ralph Manheim (1907 - 26 September 1992) was a translator of German and French literature. ... Carl Weber is a theatre director and has been Professor of drama at Stanford University since 1984. ... Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 - 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The introduction of this article draws on the following sources: Banham (1998, 129); Bürger (1984, 87-92); Jameson (1998, 43-58); Kolocotroni, Goldman and Taxidou (1998, 465-466); Williams (1993, 277-290); Wright (1989, 68-89; 113-137). The quotation from Raymond Williams is on page 277 of his book and that from Peter Bürger on page 88 of his.
  2. ^ Jameson (1998, 10-11). See also the discussions of Brecht's collaborative relationships in the essays collected in Thomson and Sacks (1994). John Fuegi's take on Brecht's collaborations, detailed in Brecht & Co. (New York: Grove, 1994; also known as The Life and Lies of Bertolt Brecht) and summarized in his contribution to Thomson and Sacks (1994, 104-116), offers a particularly negative perspective; Jameson comments "his book will remain a fundamental document for future students of the ideological confusions of Western intellectuals during the immediate post-Cold War years" (1998, 31); Olga Taxidou offers a perspicuous account of Fuegi's project from a feminist perspective in "Crude Thinking: John Fuegi and Recent Brecht Criticism" in New Theatre Quarterly XI.44 (Nov. 1995), p.381-384.
  3. ^ a b c d Thomson (1994).
  4. ^ Thomson (1994, 22-23). See also Smith (1991).
  5. ^ See Brecht's poem "Of Poor B.B." (first version, 1922), in Brecht (2000b, 107-108).
  6. ^ Thomson (1994, 24) and Sacks (xvii).
  7. ^ Thomson (1994, 24). In his Messingkauf Dialogues, Brecht cites Wedekind, along with Büchner and Valentin, as his "chief influences" in his early years: "he," Brecht writes of himself in the third person, "also saw the writer Wedekind performing his own works in a style which he had developed in cabaret. Wedekind had worked as a ballad singer; he accompanied himself on the lute." (1965, 69). Kutscher was "bitterly critical" of Brecht's own early dramatic writings (Willet and Manheim 1970, vii).
  8. ^ Thomson (1994, 24) and Willett (1967, 17).
  9. ^ Quoted in Thomson (1994, 25).
  10. ^ It was during this year that many of Brecht's one-act plays were probably composed (The Beggar, A Wedding, Driving Out a Devil, Lux in Tenebris, The Catch).
  11. ^ Sacks (1994). Brecht is shown participating in the Valentin sketch Oktoberfestschaubude in a photograph reproduced in Willett (1967, 145). Brecht compared Valentin to Chaplin, for his "virtually complete rejection of mimicry and cheap psychology" (Willett and Manheim 1970, x).
  12. ^ Brecht (1965, 69-70).
  13. ^ Willett and Manheim (1970, vii).
  14. ^ Herbert Ihering's review for Drums in the Night in the Berliner Börsen-Courier on the 5th October, 1922. Quoted in Willett and Manheim (1970, viii-ix).
  15. ^ See Thomson and Sacks (1994, 50) and Willett and Manheim (1970, viii-ix).
  16. ^ Herbert Ihering, quoted in Willett and Manheim (1970, ix).
  17. ^ Thomson (1994, 26-27) and Meech (1994, 54-55).
  18. ^ Meech (1994, 54-55) and Benjamin (1983, 115). See the article on Edward II for details of Brecht's germinal 'epic' ideas and techniques in this production.
  19. ^ Brecht was recommended for the job by Erich Engel; Carl Zuckmayer was to join Brecht in the position. See Sacks (1994, xviii), Willett (1967, 145), and Willett and Manheim (1970, vii).
  20. ^ Thomson (1994, 28).
  21. ^ According to Willett, Brecht was disgruntled with the Deutsches Theater at not being given a Shakespeare production to direct. At the end of the 1924-1925 season, both his and Carl Zuckmayer's (his fellow dramaturg) contracts were not renewed. (Willett 1967, 145). Zuckmayer relates how: "Brecht seldom turned up there; with his flapping leather jacket he looked like a cross between a lorry driver and a Jesuit seminarist. Roughly speaking, what he wanted was to take over complete control; the season's programme must be regulated entirely according to his theories, and the stage be rechristened 'epic smoke theatre', it being his view that people might actually be disposed to think if they were allowed to smoke at the same time. As this was refused him he confined himself to coming and drawing his pay." (Quoted by Willett 1967, 145).
  22. ^ Willett (1967, 145).
  23. ^ Willett and Manheim (1979, viii).
  24. ^ Willett and Manheim point to the significance of this poem as a marker of the shift in Brecht's work towards "a much more urban, industrialized flavour" (1979, viii).
  25. ^ Willett and Manheim (1979, viii, x).
  26. ^ Willett and Manheim (1979, viii); Joel Schechter writes: "The subjugation of an individual to that of a collective was endorsed by the affirmations of comedy, and by the decision of the coauthors of Man is Man (Emil Burri, Slatan Dudow, Caspar Neher, Bernhard Reich, Elisabeth Hauptmann) to call themselves 'The Brecht Collective'." (1994, 74).
  27. ^ Willett (1978).
  28. ^ Willett and Manheim (1979, viii-ix).
  29. ^ Willett and Manheim (1979, xxxiii).
  30. ^ Schechter (1994, 68).
  31. ^ Brecht (1964, 56).
  32. ^ Schechter (1994, 72).
  33. ^ Sacks (1994, xviii).
  34. ^ Thomson (1994, 28-29).
  35. ^ Brecht (1964, 23-24).
  36. ^ Erwin Piscator, "Basic Principles of a Sociological Drama" in Kolocotroni, Goldman and Taxidou (1998, 243).
  37. ^ Willett (1998, 103) and (1978, 72). In his book The Political Theatre, Piscator wrote: "Perhaps my whole style of directing is a direct result of the total lack of suitable plays. It would certainly not have taken so dominant form if adequate plays had been on hand when I started" (1929, 185).
  38. ^ Willett (1978, 74).
  39. ^ See Brecht's Journal entry for 24th June, 1943. Brecht claimed to have written the adaptation (in his Journal entry), but Piscator contested that; the manuscript bears the names "Brecht, Gasbarra, Piscator, G. Grosz" in Brecht's handwriting (Willett 1978, 110). See also Willett (1978, 90-95). Brecht wrote a sequel to the novel in 1943, Schweik in the Second World War.
  40. ^ Willett (1998, 104). In relation to his innovations in the use of theatre technology, Piscator wrote: "technical innovations were never an end in themselves for me. Any means I have used or am currently in the process of using were designed to elevate the events on the stage onto a historical plane and not just to enlarge the technical range of the stage machinery. This elevation, which was inextricably bound up with the use of Marxist dialectics in the theatre, had not been achieved by the plays themselves. My technical devices had been developed to cover up the deficiencies of the dramatists' products" ("Basic Principles of a Sociological Drama" [1929]; in Kolocotroni, Goldman and Taxidou [1998, 243]).
  41. ^ Willett (1978, 109-110). The similarities between Brecht's and Piscator's theoretical formulations from the time indicate that the two agreed on fundamentals; compare Piscator's summation of the achievements of his first company (1929), which follows, with Brecht's Mahagonny Notes (1930): "In lieu of private themes we had generalisation, in lieu of what was special the typical, in lieu of accident causality. Decorativeness gave way to constructedness, Reason was put on a par with Emotion, while sensuality was replaced by didacticism and fantasy by documentary reality." From a speech given by Piscator on 25th March, 1929, and reproduced in Schriften 2 p.50; Quoted by Willett (1978, 107). See also Willett (1998, 104-105).
  42. ^ Willett (1998, 104-105).
  43. ^ Willett (1978, 76).
  44. ^ The two first met in March 1927, after Weill had written a critical introduction to the broadcast on Berlin Radio of an adaptation of Brecht's Man Equals Man. When they met, Brecht was 29 years old and Weill was 27. Brecht had experience of writing songs and had performed his own with tunes he had composed; at the time he was also married to an opera singer (Zoff). Weill had collaborated with Georg Kaiser, one of the few Expressionist playwrights that Brecht admired; he was married to the actress Lotte Lenya. Willett and Manheim (1979, xv).
  45. ^ Willet and Manheim (1979, xv-xviii). In Munich in 1924 Brecht had begun referring to some of the stranger aspects of life in post-putsch Bavaria under the codename 'Mahagonny'. The Amerikanismus imagery appears in his first three 'Mahagonny Songs', with their Wild West references. With that, however, the project stalled for two and a half years. With Hauptmann, who wrote the two English-language 'Mahagonny Songs', Brecht had begun work on an opera to be called Sodom and Gomorrah or The Man from Manhattan and a radio play called The Flood or 'The Collapse of Miami, the Paradise City', both of which came to underlie the new scheme with Weill. See Willett and Manheim (1979, xv-xvi). The influence of Amerikanismus is most clearly discernible in Brecht's In The Jungle of Cities.
  46. ^ In this respect, the creative process for Mahagonny was quite different from The Threepenny Opera, with the former being durchkomponiert or set to music right through, whereas on the latter Weill was brought at a late stage to set the songs. See Willett and Manheim (1979, xv).
  47. ^ Willett and Manheim (1979, xvii) and Brecht (1964, 37-38).
  48. ^ http://www.transformatorlyd.com/sounds/stonxy_teeth.mp3
  49. ^ a b http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Brecht_HUAC_hearing_(1947-10-30).ogg
  50. ^ http://www.usc.edu/isd/archives/arc/libraries/feuchtwanger/exhibits/Brecht/HUAC.html
  51. ^ The translations of the titles are based on the standard of the Brecht Collected Plays series (see bibliography, primary sources). Chronology provided through consultation with Sacks (1994) and Willett (1967), preferring the former with any conflicts.
  52. ^ Willett, John "Brecht on Theatre", page 180. Hill and Wang, 1992
  53. ^ Willett, John "Brecht on Theatre", page 138. Hill and Wang, 1992

The Messingkauf Dialogues (Dialogue aus dem Messingkauf) is an incomplete theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Karl Georg Büchner (October 17, 1813 – February 19, 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of prose. ... Karl Valentin (* 4th June, 1882 in Munich; + 9th February, 1948 in Planegg near Munich); actually Valentin Ludwig Fey, was a Bavarian comedian, author and film producer, who had great influence on German culture. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... A medieval era lute. ... Arthur Kutscher (July 17, 1878, Hannover - August 29, 1960, Munich) was a German historian of literature and researcher in dramatics. ... The Beggar is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... A Respectable Wedding is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Driving Out a Devil is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... Lux in Tenebris is a short one-act farce, written in prose, by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... The Catch is a short play by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. ... “Charles Chaplin” redirects here. ... Drums in the Night (German Trommeln in der Nacht) is a play by Bertolt Brecht. ... Edward I creating his son, the later Edward II, prince of Wales, 1301. ... Carl Zuckmayer (December 27, 1896 – January 18, 1977) was a German writer and playwright. ... The Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Germany is a well known theater, which was built in 1850 (then as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Friedrich Wilhelm). ... Carl Zuckmayer (December 27, 1896 – January 18, 1977) was a German writer and playwright. ... Man Equals Man or A Mans a Man is a classic play about war and personality by one of the giants of twentieth century drama, Bertolt Brecht. ... Slatan Theodor Dudow was a Bulgarian born film director and screenwriter who made a number of films in the Weimar Republic and East Germany. ... Caspar Neher (born Rudolf Ludwig Caspar Neher, 11th April, 1897 in Augsburg; died 30th June, 1962 in Wien) was a Austrian-German scenographer known principally for his career-long working relationship with Bertolt Brecht. ... Elisabeth Hauptmann (born June 20, 1897 in Peckelsheim, Westphalia; died April 20, 1973 in East Berlin) was a German writer, who worked together with Bertolt Brecht. ... Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator, (December 17, 1893 – March 30, 1966), German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. ... Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator, (December 17, 1893 – March 30, 1966), German theatrical director and producer who, with Bertolt Brecht, was the foremost exponent of epic theater, a genre that emphasizes the sociopolitical context rather than the emotional content or aesthetics of the play. ... George Grosz (July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group, known especially for his savagely caricatural drawings of Berlin life in the 1920s. ... Schweik in the Second World War (org. ... The principle of historicizaton is a fundamental part of the aesthetic developed by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Marxist aesthetics refers to a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. ... The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre is a theoretical work by the twentieth-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht. ... Man Equals Man or A Mans a Man is a classic play about war and personality by one of the giants of twentieth century drama, Bertolt Brecht. ... Georg Kaiser (1878-1945) was a highly prolific German dramatist who wrote in a variety of styles, but is best known as an expressionist, most notably for The Citizens of Calais (1914), From Morn to Midnight (1916), and a trilogy, comprised of The Coral (1917), Gas (1918), Gas II(1920). ... On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Lotte Lenya (October 18, 1898 – November 27, 1981), singer and actor, born Karoline Wilhelmine Blamauer, in Vienna, Austria. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... In The Jungle of Cities (Im Dickicht der Städte) is a play by the German modernist playwright Bertolt Brecht. ... Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny) is a political-satirical opera composed by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht. ... Die Dreigroschenoper, original German poster from Berlin, 1928. ...

External links

  • Brecht's works in English: A bibliography: The bibliography of Bertolt Brecht's works in English translation aims to present a comprehensive listing of Brecht's works published in English translation.
  • The International Brecht Society
  • Recordings of Bertolt Brecht singing and reading from his poetry and plays
  • Bertolt Brecht's Photo & Gravesite
  • Poem of Brecht on the street in Portland
  • Essay on Brecht, Okigbo, Derrida and Foucault
  • Brechts Werke, Bibliography

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bertolt Brecht - MSN Encarta (893 words)
Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), the most influential German dramatist and theoretician of the theater in the 20th century.
Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht was born in Augsburg, Bavaria.
Brecht's greatest achievement is, without doubt, his contribution to the repertory of the international theater.
Bertolt Brecht - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2343 words)
Bertolt Brecht (born Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht February 10, 1898 – August 14, 1956) was an influential German communist dramatist, stage director, and poet of the 20th century.
Brecht died in 1956 of a heart attack at the age of 58.
Brecht left the Berliner Ensemble to his wife, the actress Helene Weigel, which she ran until her death in 1971.
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