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Encyclopedia > Bertha of Savoy

Bertha of Savoy, also called Bertha of Turin (21 September 105127 December 1087 in Mainz) was the first wife of Emperor Henry IV, and was German Queen and Holy Roman Empress. She is buried in the cathedral of Speyer. September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... -1... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ...


She was a daughter of Otto of Savoy and Adelaide of Susa. Her maternal grandparents were Ulric Manfred II of Turin and Bertha of the Obertenghi Otto or Oddone in Italian, (1010 – 1060) ascended the throne after the death of his elder brother, Amedeo. ... Adelaide of Susa (also Adelheid, Adelais, or Adeline; 1016 – 19 December 1091[1]) was the Marchioness of Turin from 1034 to her death. ...


As children, during the lifetime of Emperor Henry III, Bertha and Henry IV were betrothed on 25 December 1055 in Zürich. The wedding took place on 13 July 1066 in Trebur. While Bertha was apparently in love with Henry from the outset, Heinrich initially viewed his wife with aversion. Although she was apparently a pretty young woman, the Saxon chronicler Bruno, an avowed opponent of Henry IV, reported on the Emperor's continual unfaithfulness: "He had two or three Kebsweiber (concubines) at the same time, in addition [to his wife], yet he was not content. If he heard that someone had a young and pretty daughter or wife, he instructed that she be supplied to him by force. (...) His beautiful and noble wife Bertha (...) was in such a manner hated by him that he never saw her after the wedding any more than necessary, since he had not celebrated the wedding out of free will." Henry III, from a miniature of 1040. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... View of the inner city with the four main churches visible, and the Albis in the backdrop Zürich (German: , Zürich German: Züri , French: , in English generally Zurich, Italian: ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Trebur is a community in Groß-Gerau district in Hesse, Germany. ... It has been suggested that Pilegesh be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1069, Henry began procedures for a divorce, supplying what was for the time an unusually honest reason for the divorce: "The king explained publicly (before the princes), that his relationship with his wife was not good; for a long time he had deceived others, but now he did not want to do so any longer. He could not accuse her of anything that justified a divorce, but he was not capable of carrying out conjugal relations with her any longer. He asked them for the sake of God to remove him from the bonds of a marriage closed under bad signs ... so that the way to a luckier marriage might be opened. And nobody knowing any objection to raise, and his wife being an obstacle to a second marriage ceremony, he then swore that she was as he received her, unstained and her virginity intact." (Bruno of Merseburg) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


The German episcopacy dared not submit to the King's demands, and called on Pope Alexander II for assistance. He sent Peter Damian as his Legate to the Synod in Frankfurt, and rejected the divorce. Henry then apparently submitted to his fate, his first daughter by Bertha being born in the year after the divorce attempt. Alexander II (died April 21, 1073), born Anselmo da Baggio , Pope from 1061 to 1073, was a native of Milan. ...


Bertha also accompanied her husband on his dangerous journey to Canossa, carrying her three-year-old son Conrad. She remained with her husband between 25-28 January 1077 in freezing cold weather before the walls of the castle, in order to reach the solution to Henry's dispute with the Pope. Together with Henry, Bertha later also journeyed to Rome, and on 31 March 1084 was crowned Empress. Canossa is a former castle of Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, situated in the foothills of the Apennines, in the province of Reggio Emilia and about eighteen miles from Parma. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ...


On 27 December 1087, Bertha died in Mainz.


Children

From her marriage with Henry there were evetually five children:

Agnes of Germany (1072 – September 24, 1143), was the daughter of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha, daughter of Otto, Count of Maurienne and Adelaide. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Manuel I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, (1081 – May 23, 1125) was the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ...

Sources

Bruno von Merseburg: Brunonis Saxonicum bellum. Brunos Sachsenkrieg. - Übersetzt v. Franz-Josef Schmale. - In: Quellen zur Geschichte Kaiser Heinrichs IV. - Darmstadt, 1968. - (= Ausgewählte Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters. Freiherr vom Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe ; 12). - S. 191-405.

Preceded by:
Agnes de Poitou
Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
1084–1087
Succeeded by:
Eupraxia of Kiev
German Queen
1066–1087
Succeeded by:
Constanze of Sicily
Preceded by:
Queen of the Romans
1066–1084

 
 

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