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Encyclopedia > Bernicia

Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now the South-East of Scotland, and the North-East of England. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the country. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The Anglian territory of Bernicia was approximately equivalent to the modern British counties of Northumberland, Durham, Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth to the Tees. In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira, to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably. Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Berwickshire (Siorrachd Bhearaig in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Scottish Borders Council and a Lieutenancy area of Scotland, on the border with England. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... The Tees is a river in Northern England. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Deira (which later absorbed the Brythonic kingdom of Ebrauc) was a kingdom in Northern England during the 6th century AD. It extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and...

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British Bryneich

Bernicia is mentioned in Old Welsh poetry, in the writings of Nennius and elsewhere under the name of Bryneich or Brynaich. It is not quite clear whether this is simply supposed to represent a Welsh version of Bernicia, or was the name of a preceding Brythonic kingdom. However, the name seems to derive from the Brythonic word Berniccā meaning ‘land of mountain passes’, so the latter hypothesis would appear to be correct. Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language, generally thought to be in the period between the middle of the 6th century and the middle of the 7th century, until the early 12th century when it developed... Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ...

Y Hen Gogledd or "The Old North". A map of the area before the Anglo-Saxon-Scottish conquest
Y Hen Gogledd or "The Old North". A map of the area before the Anglo-Saxon-Scottish conquest

This Brythonic kingdom was formed from what had once been the southern lands of the Votadini, possibly as part of the division of a supposed ‘great northern realm’ of Coel Hen in c. AD 420. This northern realm is referred to by Welsh scholars as Yr Hen Ogledd or, literally, "The Old North". The kingdom may have been ruled from Bamburgh, which certainly features in Welsh sources as Din Guardi. Near this high-status residence lay the island of Lindisfarne (formerly known, in Welsh, as Ynys Metcaut), which became the seat of the Bernician bishops. It is unknown when the Angles finally conquered the whole region, but around 604 is likely. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x751, 94 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x751, 94 KB) Summary http://www. ... The Votadini (the WotādÄ«nÄ«, or VotādÄ«nÄ«) were a people of the Iron Age in Great Britain, and their territory was briefly part of the Roman province Britannia. ... Old King Cole, according to William Wallace Denslow For other uses of King Cole, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 420 (disambiguation). ... Yr Hen Ogledd or The Old North. Part of northern Britain before the Anglo-Gaelic conquest The Hen Ogledd, or Yr Hen Ogledd, is an Old Welsh term meaning The Old North which refers to the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms of what is now northern England and southern Scotland. ... Bamburgh is a large village on the coast of Northumberland, England. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... The episcopal see of Lindisfarne was founded in 635 by Saint Aidan. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ...


Kings of Bryneich

There are several Old Welsh pedigrees of princely Men of the North which may represent the Kings of Bryneich. The late John Morris surmised that the line of a certain Morcant Bulc referred to these monarchs, chiefly because he identified this man as the murderer of Urien Rheged who was, at the time, besieging Lindisfarne. Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language, generally thought to be in the period between the middle of the 6th century and the middle of the 7th century, until the early 12th century when it developed... Dr. John Morris was the late 20th century Senior Lecturer in Ancient History at University College, London. ... Morcant Bulc was a Brythonic prince, probably a king, from Northern Britain, during the period between the end of the Roman Empire and the establishment of an English state during the early Middle Ages. ... Urien, father of Owain mab Urien (later known as Ywain), was an historical king of Rheged in northern England and southern Scotland during the 6th century. ... Entrance to the Rheged Discovery Centre Rheged was a Brythonic nation of Sub-Roman Britain, where the natives spoke Cumbric. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ...


Anglo-Saxon Bernicia

Some of the Angles of Bernicia may have been employed as mercenaries along Hadrian's Wall during the late Roman period. Others are thought to have migrated north (by sea) from Deira in the early 6th century. The first Anglian king of whom we have any record is Ida, who is said to have obtained the throne and the kingdom about 547. His sons spent many years fighting a united force from the surrounding Brythonic kingdoms until their alliance collapsed into civil war. White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... // Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Deira (which later absorbed the Brythonic kingdom of Ebrauc) was a kingdom in Northern England during the 6th century AD. It extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Ida or Ida the Flamebearer (died 559) was a ruler (probably the founder) of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Bernicia between 547 and 559. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ...


A Forcibly United Northumbria

Ida’s grandson, Æthelfrith, united Deira with his own kingdom by force around the year 604. He ruled the two kingdoms (united as Northumbria) until he was defeated and killed by Rædwald of East Anglia (who had given refuge to Edwin, son of Ælle, king of Deira) around the year 616. Edwin then became king. The early part of Edwin's reign was possibly spent finishing off the remaining resistance coming from Bryneich exiles operating out of Gododdin. After he had completed the pacification of the Brythonic population in Bernicia he was then drawn towards similar subjugation of Elmet (a Cumbric speaking territory which once existed in the modern-day West Riding of Yorkshire, near Leeds) which drew him into direct conflict with Wales proper. Æthelfrith (d. ... Deira (which later absorbed the Brythonic kingdom of Ebrauc) was a kingdom in Northern England during the 6th century AD. It extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... Rædwald (d. ... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... Ælla (Ella, Ille) (d. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... Elmet is an area close to Leeds in West Yorkshire, England. ... Evolution and Extinction Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in much of Cumbria, Northern Northumbria, and parts of lowland Scotland until about the 11th century. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ...


Following the disastrous Battle of Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633, in which Edwin was defeated and killed by Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, Northumbria again was divided into Bernicia and Deira. Bernicia was then briefly ruled by Eanfrith, son of Aethelfrith, but after about a year he went to Cadwallon to sue for peace and was killed. Eanfrith's brother Oswald then raised an army and finally defeated Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634. After this victory, Oswald appears to have been recognised by both Bernicians and Deirans as king of a properly united Northumbria. The kings of Bernicia were thereafter supreme in that kingdom, although Deira had its own sub-kings at times during the reigns of Oswiu and his son Ecgfrith. The Battle of Hatfield Chase was fought in Anglo-Saxon England between the Northumbrians under Edwin and the allied Welsh of Gwynedd under Cadwallon ap Cadfan and Mercians under Penda. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c. ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... Stained glass window from the cloister of Worcester Cathedral showing the death of Penda of Mercia. ... Eanfrith of Bernicia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Oswald (c. ... The Battle of Heavenfield was fought in 633 or 634 between a Northumbrian army under Oswald of Bernicia and a Welsh army under Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Ecgfrith (645–May 20, 685) was the King of Northumbria from 670 until his death. ...


Kings of Bernicia

(see also List of monarchs of Northumbria) Northumbria, an kingdom of Angles in northern England, was initially divided into two kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira. ...

  • Ida son of Eoppa (547 - 559)
  • Glappa son of Ida (559 - 560)
  • Adda son of Ida (560 - 568)
  • Æthelric son of Ida (568 - 572)
  • Theodric son of Ida (572 - 579)
  • Pǣnts son of Ida (579)
  • Inse son of Ida (579)
  • Wheltur son of Ida (579)
  • Frithuwald (579 - 585)
  • Hæren (585)
  • Hussa (585 - 593)
  • Æthelfrith (593 - 616)

Under Deiran rule 616 - 633) Ida or Ida the Flamebearer (died 559) was a ruler (probably the founder) of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Bernicia between 547 and 559. ... Glappa of Bernicia ruled from 559 to 560. ... Adda was the third known ruler of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Bernicia which he ruled from 560 to 568. ... Aethelric was the fourth known king of the Kingdom of Bernicia which he ruled from 568 to 572. ... Theodric ruled from 572-79 fourth known ruler of the kingdom of Bernicia. ... Frithuwald ruled 579-85 fifth known ruler of the kingdom of Bernicia. ... Fussa (福生市; -shi) is a city located in Tokyo, Japan. ... Æthelfrith (d. ... Deira (perhaps corresponding with the Brythonic kingdom of Ebrauc) was a kingdom in England during the 6th century AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Bernicia (Brythonic, Brynaich) to the north to form the kingdom of Northumbria. ...

Under Oswald son of Æthelfrith, Bernicia was united with Deira to form Northumbria from 634 onward. Eanfrith of Bernicia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Deira (which later absorbed the Brythonic kingdom of Ebrauc) was a kingdom in Northern England during the 6th century AD. It extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ...


Further reading

  • Alcock, Leslie, Kings and Warriors, Craftsmen and Priests in Northern Britain AD 550–850. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-903903-24-5
  • Alcock, Leslie, Arthur's Britain: History and Archaeology, AD 367–634. Penguin, London, 1989. ISBN 0-14-139069-7
  • Higham, N.J., The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–1100. Sutton, Stroud, 1993. ISBN 0-86299-730-5
  • Lowe, Chris, The Making of Scotland: Angels, Fools and Tyrants: Britons and Angles in Southern Scotland. Canongate, Edinburgh, 1999. ISBN-13: 978-0862418755
  • Morris, John, The Age of Arthur. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1973. ISBN 0-297-17601-3

On line maps.

David Ford Nash, "Early British Kingdoms" E.B.K.-


[1] [2] [3] [4]


References

  • David Ford Nash, "Early British Kingdoms"-

[5] [6] [7]

  • Bede wrote about Bernicia in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bernicia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (315 words)
Bernicia (Brythonic, "Brynaich" or "Bryneich") was a kingdom of the Angles in northern England during the 6th and 7th centuries AD.
Aethelfrith, king of Bernicia, united Deira with his own kingdom around the year 604 and ruled the two kingdoms (united as the kingdom of Northumbria) until he was defeated and killed by Raedwald of East Anglia (who had given refuge to Edwin, son of Aella, king of Deira) around the year 616.
Bernicia was then briefly ruled by Eanfrith, son of Aethelfrith, but after about a year he went to Cadwallon to sue for peace and was killed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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