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Encyclopedia > Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein
Bernard Law Montgomery
17 November 1887-24 March 1976

Montgomery wearing his famous beret with two cap badges.
Nickname: Monty
Place of birth: Kennington, London
Place of death: Alton, Hampshire
Allegiance: United Kingdom
Years of service: 1908-1958
Rank: Field Marshal
Commands: British Eighth Army 1942-1943
Allied 21st Army Group 1943-1945
Chief of the Imperial General Staff 1946-1948
Deputy Supreme Commander Europe of NATO 1951-1958
Battles/wars: World War I 1914-18
Anglo-Irish War 1920-23
Battle of France 1940
Battle of El Alamein 1942
Battle of Normandy 1944
Battle of Arnhem 1944
Battle of the Bulge 1945
Awards: Knight of the Garter
Knight Grand Cross of the Bath
Distinguished Service Order

Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 188724 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as "Monty". He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and troops under his command were largely responsible for the expulsion of the Axis forces from North Africa. He was later a prominent commander in Italy and North-West Europe, where he was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord and then until after the Battle of Normandy. Download high resolution version (549x700, 68 KB)http://www. ... Kennington is a place in the south of London in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation). ... Alton is the name of several places: United Kingdom Alton, Derbyshire, England Alton, Hampshire, England Alton, Staffordshire, England Alton, Wiltshire, England Canada Alton, Ontario Altona, Ontario Alton, Nova Scotia North Alton, Nova Scotia South Alton, Nova Scotia Altona, British Columbia Altona, Manitoba Old Altona, Manitoba Alton, Quebec United States Alton... Hampshire (abbr. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Combatants Allies (France, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Poland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) Germany, Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia (Army... Combatants British Commonwealth Poland Free French Greece Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 200,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 100,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 23,500 dead or wounded 710 tanks 12,000 dead or wounded 25,000 captured... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split... Combatants XXX Corps First Allied Airborne Army II SS Panzer Corps Army Group B First Parachute Army Commanders Montgomery von Rundstedt Strength 35,000 airborne, XXX Corps 20,000 (start of the battle) Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... The Garter is the most recognizable insignia of the Order of the Garter. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and other formerly Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... The Garter is the most recognizable insignia of the Order of the Garter. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and other formerly Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Combatants British Commonwealth Poland Free French Greece Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 200,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 100,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 23,500 dead or wounded 710 tanks 12,000 dead or wounded 25,000 captured... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, Canada, China, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split...

Contents


Early life

Montgomery was born in Kennington, London in 1887, the fourth child of nine to an Anglo-Irish Anglican priest, Revd. Henry Montgomery. The Montgomery family came from the Moville, County Donegal, near Londonderry, and maintained their home, New Park, there. Montgomery considered himself Irish and a County Donegal man. In 1889, the family moved with his father when he was made Bishop of Tasmania. His father was kind, but ineffectual in the house, and often away on missionary work. His mother was a martinet, who allowed her husband 10 shillings a week from his salary and gave out beatings to her children. Montgomery said that he had an unhappy childhood, often clashing with his mother and becoming the black sheep of the family. Kennington is a place in the south of London in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation). ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe middle and upper class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist... The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which... Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ... Moville, County Donegal. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: coord}}}_N_{{{west coord}}}_W_{{{region:IE_type:city}}} {{{north coord}}}° N {{{west coord}}}° W Irish Grid Reference grid}}} {{{irish grid}}} Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Elevation: Population: Website: www. ... Derry or Londonderry (in Irish , Doire Cholm Chille or Doire), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Emblems: Flora - Tasmanian Blue Gum; Fauna - none Motto: Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Const. ...


In 1901, Bishop Montgomery became secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the family returned to London. Bernard went to St Paul's School and then the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, from which he was almost expelled for setting fire to a fellow cadet during a fight with pokers. He joined the 1st Battalion, The Royal Warwickshire Regiment in 1908, first seeing service in India until 1913. Seal of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), formed in 1701, was a missionary organization of the Church of England. ... St Pauls School St Pauls School is one of Britains oldest and most pre-eminent public schools. ... New College, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (commonly known as Sandhurst) is the British Army officer initial training centre. ... Cap badge of the regiment The Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers, for most of its history known as The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...


First World War

The First World War began in August 1914 and he moved to France with his regiment that month. He saw service during the retreat from Mons during which half the men in his battalion became casualties or prisoners. At Meteren, near the Belgian border at Bailleul on 13 October 1914, during an allied counter-offensive, he was shot through the right lung by a sniper and was injured seriously enough for his grave to be dug in preparation for his death. He was awarded the DSO for gallant leadership. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Combatants Britain Germany Commanders Sir John French Alexander von Kluck Strength 4 divisions 8 divisions Casualties 1,600 5,000 (estimate) The Battle of Mons (Flemish name for Mons is Bergen) was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force in World War I. Following the surrender of the... Meteren () is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. ... Bailleul is a small commune of the département of North near Lille, it has 17,191 inhabitants including its nearby hamlets. ... Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and other formerly Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ...


After recovering in early 1915, he was promoted to a brigade-major training Kitchener's New Army and returned to the Western Front in early 1916 as an operations staff officer during the battles of the Somme, Arras, and Passchendaele. During this time he came under the command of General Sir Herbert Plumer, in charge of training for the 9th Corps. Through his training, rehearsal, and integration of the infantry with artillery and engineers, Plumer's troops were able to achieve their objectives with a minimum of casualties. WWI recruitment poster for Kitcheners Army. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Canada India Newfoundland New Zealand South Africa Australia German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Ferdinand Foch Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 6 French divisions (initial) 51 British divisions (final) 10. ... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Canada Australia New Zealand German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Francois Anthoine Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of... Herbert Onslow Plumer (1857-1932) was a British colonial official and soldier. ...


Montgomery served at the battles of the Lys and Chemin-des-Dames before finishing the war as General Staff Officer 1 and a temporary lieutenant-colonel, in the 47th (2nd London) Division. British and Portuguese captured by German forces in the Flanders region (1918) British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the battle, 10 April 1918. ... The Third Battle of the Aisne was a German offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive in France. ... Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant-Colonel in British English from the French grades spelling) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine corps and air forces of the world, typically ranking above a Major and below a Colonel. ... The British 47th (1/2nd London) Division was a first_line Territorial Force division. ...


Between the Wars

After the war, Montgomery served in the British Army of the Rhine and wrote up his experiences in a series of training pamphlets and manuals. He then attended the army's Staff College at Camberley, before being appointed as a brigade-major of the 17th infantry brigade at the end of 1920. The brigade was stationed in County Cork during the Anglo-Irish War. A cousin of Montgomery's had been assassinated by the IRA in 1920 and he was a half-Irish protestant. However, though he was effective, he did not employ methods as brutal as those of his contemporary in Cork, Arthur Percival. On his arrival he urged units of his brigade that their "behaviour must be beyond reproach" although later he stated that it "never bothered me a bit how many houses were burnt" (a reference to the government policy of burning the homes of suspected republicans and sympathisers). IRA officer Tom Barry said that he "behaved with great correctness". Montgomery increasingly came to see the conflict as one that could not be won, and withdrawal of British forces as the only feasible solution. In 1923, after the establishment of the Irish Free State and during the Irish Civil War, Montgomery wrote to Percival that (in order) "to win a war of that sort you must be ruthless" and 20th century democratic Britain would not do that, and so "the only way therefore was to give them [the Irish] some form of self-government and let them squash the rebellion themselves". There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine (BAOR). ... Camberley is a town in Surrey, England, situated less than twenty miles south-west of London, in the corridor between the M3 and M4 motorways. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2002) 447,829 Website: www. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... The West Cork Flying Column during the War of Independence. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ... Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival December 26, 1887 – January 31, 1966. ... Irish Republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... Thomas (Tom) Barry (July 1, 1897-July 2, 1980) was an Irish guerrilla leader and revolutionary. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) (1922–1937) was the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties that were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and... Combatants Irish Republican Army (1922-1969) Irish Army of the Irish Free State Commanders Liam Lynch Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Strength c. ...


In 1923 Montgomery was posted to the territorial 49th division, eschewing the usual amounts of drill for tactical training. He returned to the 1st Royal Warwickshires in 1925 as a company commander and captain, before becoming an instructor at the Camberley Staff College and a major (brevet Lieutenant-Colonel). He met and married a widow, Elizabeth Carver in 1927 and a son was born in August 1928. He became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 1st battalion of The Royal Warwickshire Regiment in 1931, and saw service in Palestine, Egypt, and India. He was promoted to Colonel and became an instructor at the Indian Army Staff College in Quetta, India. Montgomery did, as was usual, maintain links with the Royal Warwickshires, taking up the honorary position of Colonel-of-the-Regiment in 1947. As throughout his career, Montgomery stirred up the resentment of his superiors for his arrogance and dictatorial ways, and also for his disregard of convention when it obstructed military effectiveness. For example, he set up a battalion brothel, regularly inspected by the medical officer, for the 'horizontal refreshment' of his soldiers rather than forcing them to take chances in unregulated establishments. His father died at Molville in 1932. In the United Kingdom the Territorial Army is a part of the British Army composed of reserve units, or part-time soldiers. ... This military division was formed on April 1, 1908 as the West Riding Division in the Territorial Force of the British Army. ... Captain is both a nautical term and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ... The Royal Warwickshire Regiment was formed in Birmingham, England in light of the Great War (First World War). ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Indian Army in the time of the British Raj (1857–1947) // Administrative Name The Indian Army is the name for the Indian Armed forces of that country; the meaning of that name changed over time: History The Indian Army was formed after the Indian Mutiny in 1857 by the... Quetta (کویتہ) is the capital of the province Balochistan in Pakistan. ... 1. ...


He became commanding officer of the 9th Infantry Brigade in 1937, but the year also saw tragedy for him. His marriage had been a very happy and loving one, but his wife was bitten by an insect while on holiday in Burnham-on-Sea. The bite became infected, and his wife died in his arms from septicaemia following an amputation. The loss devastated Montgomery, but he insisted on throwing himself back into his work immediately after the funeral. Burnham-on-Sea is a town in Somerset, England, at the mouth of the River Parrett. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ...


In 1938, he organised an amphibious combined operations landing exercise that impressed the new commander-in-chief, southern command, General Wavell. He was promoted to major-general and took command of the 8th Division in Palestine. There he quashed an Arab revolt before returning in July 1939 to Britain, suffering a serious illness on the way, to command of the 3rd (Iron) infantry division. Field Marshal The Right Honourable Sir Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC was a British Field Marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory... See: British 8th Division (World War I) British 8th Infantry Division This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The British 3rd Infantry Division was part of the ill-fated British Expeditionary Force evacuated from Dunkirk early in World War II. It was the first British division to land at Sword beach on D-Day. ...


Second World War

Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939. The 3rd division was deployed to Belgium as part of the British Expeditionary Force. Montgomery predicted a disaster similar to that in 1914, and so spent the phony war training his troops for tactical retreat rather than offensive operations. During this time, Montgomery faced serious trouble from his superiors after again taking a very pragmatic attitude towards the sexual health of his soldiers. His training paid off when the Germans began their invasion of the Low Countries on 10 May 1940 and the 3rd division advanced to the Dyle and then withdrew to Dunkirk with great professionalism, returning to Britain intact with only nominal casualties. During Operation Dynamo -- the evacuation of 330,000 BEF and French troops to Britain -- Montgomery assumed command of the II Corps The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939 - 1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Evacuation at Dunkirk, June 1940. ... The British II Corps was formed in both World War I and World War II. During WWII its first assignment was to the British Expeditionary Force where it was commanded by Alan Brooke (from whose name it took its insignia of a red leaping salmon upon three wavy blue bands...


On his return Montgomery antagonised the War Office with trenchant criticisms of the command of the BEF and was briefly relegated to divisional command and only made CB. In July 1940 he was promoted to Lieutenant-General, placed in command of V Corps and started a long-running feud with the new commander-in-chief, southern command, Claude Auchinleck. In April 1941 he became commander of the 12th Corps and in December 1941 renamed the South-Eastern Command the South-Eastern Army to promote offensive spirit. During this time he developed and rehearsed his ideas and trained his soldiers, culminating in Exercise Tiger in May 1942, a combined forces operation involving 100,000 troops. Old War Office Building, Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in almost every country in the world. ... Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Early life and career Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through...


North Africa and Italy

Montgomery in North Africa, November 1942. His aide (shown behind him looking through binoculars) was killed in action in 1945.
Montgomery in North Africa, November 1942. His aide (shown behind him looking through binoculars) was killed in action in 1945.

In 1942 a new field commander was required in the Middle East, where Auchinleck was commander-in-chief. He had stabilised the allied position at Alamein, but after a visit in August 1942, the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill replaced him with Alexander, and was persuaded by Alan Brooke to appoint Montgomery commander of the British Eighth Army in the North African campaign after Churchill's own preferred candidate, William Gott, was killed flying back to Cairo. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1422x1078, 264 KB) Description: General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks move up. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1422x1078, 264 KB) Description: General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks move up. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis KG GCB, MC, DSO (December 10, 1891 - June 16, 1969) was a British military commander and Field Marshal, notably during World War II as the commander of the 15th Army Group. ... Statue of Field Marshal The Viscount Alanbrooke, MoD Building, Whitehall, London Field Marshal Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, KG, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO (July 23, 1883 - June 17, 1963) was a British Field Marshal during World War II. He also served as Lord High Constable during the coronation of... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... William Strafer Gott, during World War II, was a Lieutenant General in the British Eighth Army. ... Cairo Minarets Cairo (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: , transl. ...


Montgomery's peremptory assumption of command of Eighth Army was deeply resented by Auchinleck and his departing staff, but transformed the Eighth Army. Taking command two days earlier than authorised on 13 August 1942, Montgomery ordered immediate reinforcement of the vital heights of Alam Halfa, joined the army and air headquarters together in a single operating unit, and ordered all contingency plans for retreat to be destroyed. Both Brooke and Alexander were astonished by the transformation in atmosphere when they visited on the 19 August. August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ...


Montgomery also managed to transform the morale of the Eighth Army quickly, though at the expense of denigrating Auchinleck. Montgomery made a concerted effort to appear before troops as often as possible, frequently visiting various units and making himself known to the men. A criticism of the 8th Army up until this point had been that the constituent units tended to fight their own separate battles. Montgomery was determined that the Army should fight its battles in a unified, focused manner according to a detailed plan.


German commander Erwin Rommel attempted to encircle the Eighth Army at the Battle of Alam Halfa from 31 August 1942. ULTRA decryption had confirmed Montgomery's initial decision to defend the area, and Rommel was halted with very little gain. After this engagement, Montgomery was criticized for not attacking the retreating German forces; however, in Montgomery's judgement, the 8th Army could not defeat the Germans in mobile, fluid mechanized battles and choosing to engage in such a battle, therefore, would play to German strength. Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (November 15, 1891 – October 14, 1944) was one of the most distinguished German Field Marshals of World War II and one of the greatest military leaders of his time. ... Battle of Alam Halfa Conflict World War II Date August 30–September 6, 1942 Place El Alamein, Egypt Result Allied strategic victory Axis tactical victory The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between August 30 and September 6, 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. The... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ...


The reconquest of North Africa was essential for airfields to support Malta and for Operation Torch. Ignoring Churchill's demands for quick action Montgomery prepared meticulously for the new offensive. He was determined not to fight until he thought there had been sufficient preparation for a decisive victory, and put into action his beliefs with the gathering of resources, detailed planning, the training of troops, especially in night fighting and in the use of over 800 of the latest American-built tanks, and visiting every single unit involved in the offensive. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower François Darlan Strength 73,500 ? Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started November...

Infantry advance during the Battle of El Alamein. In fact, this image was staged by the photographer Len Chetwyn, and shows Australians storming their own cookhouse.
Enlarge
Infantry advance during the Battle of El Alamein. In fact, this image was staged by the photographer Len Chetwyn, and shows Australians storming their own cookhouse.

The Battle of El Alamein began on 23 October, and ended 12 days later with the first large-scale, decisive allied land victory of the war. Montgomery correctly predicted both the length of the battle and the number of casualties (13,500). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (699x655, 56 KB) Description: El Alamein 1942: British infantry advances through the dust and smoke of the battle Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (699x655, 56 KB) Description: El Alamein 1942: British infantry advances through the dust and smoke of the battle Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Combatants British Commonwealth Poland Free French Greece Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 200,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 100,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 23,500 dead or wounded 710 tanks 12,000 dead or wounded 25,000 captured... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ...


Montgomery was knighted and promoted to full general. The Eighth Army's subsequent slow and steady advance as the Germans retreated hundreds of miles towards their bases in Tunisia used the logistical and firepower advantages of the British Army while avoiding manoeuvre battles. It also gave the Allies an indication that the tide of war had genuinely turned in North Africa. Montgomery kept the initiative, applying superior strength when it suited him, forcing Rommel out of each successive defensive position. On 6 March 1943 Rommel's attack on the over-extended 8th Army at Medenine with the largest concentration of German armour in north Africa was successfully repulsed. At the Mareth Line, 20-27 March, when Montgomery encountered fiercer frontal opposition than he had anticipated, he switched his major effort into an outflanking inland pincer, backed by low-flying RAF fighter-bomber support. Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by the French near the coastal town of Medenine in southern Tunisia prior to World War II. It was designed to defend against attacks from the Italians in Libya, but following the fall of France it fell into Axis hands. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


This campaign demonstrated the battle-winning ingredients of morale (sickness and absenteeism was virtually eliminated in the Eighth Army), co-operation of all arms including the air forces, first-class logistical back-up and clear-cut orders.


The next major Allied attack was Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. It was in Sicily that Montgomery's famous tensions with US commanders really began. Montgomery managed to recast plans for the Allied invasion, in general making the plan more cautious. Inter-allied tensions grew as the American commanders Patton and Bradley, took umbrage at what they perceived as Montgomery's attitudes and boastfulness. They resented him, while accepting his skills as a general. Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... Sicilian redirects here. ... George Smith Patton, Jr. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during the World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ...


Montgomery continued to command Eighth Army during the landings on the mainland of Italy itself. Montgomery abhorred the lack of coordination, the dispersion of effort, and the strategic muddle and opportunism and was glad to leave the "dog's breakfast" on December 23. December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ...


Normandy

Montgomery returned to Britain to take command of the 21st Army Group which consisted of all Allied ground forces that would take part in Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy. Preliminary planning for the invasion had been taking place for two years, most recently by COSSAC staff (Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander). Montgomery quickly concluded that the COSSAC plan was too limited, and strongly advocated expanding the plan from a three-division to a five-division assault. As with his takeover of the Eighth Army, Montgomery travelled frequently to his units, raising morale and ensuring training was progressing. On April 7 and May 15 he presented his strategy for the invasion at St Paul's School. He envisaged a ninety day battle, ending when all the forces reached the Seine, pivoting on an Allied-held Caen, with British and Canadian armies forming a shoulder and the U.S. armies wheeling on the right. During the hard fought two and a half month Battle of Normandy that followed, Montgomery was not able to follow the original campaign plan, but in a series of improvised offensives the Allied armies under his command inflicted one of the biggest defeats of the war on the German army in the west. The British 21st Army Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. // Normandy Commanded by General (later Field Marshal) Sir Bernard Montgomery, it initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Mont Saint Michel, one of the famous symbols of Normandy. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... Location within France Hôtel dEscoville, 16th century, Caen Anonymous pen-and-ink birds-eye view of the fortifications of Caen (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris) South Wall of the Castle, a huge fortress in the center of the city Town Hall of Caen Caen train station. ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split...


Advance to the Rhine

The increasing preponderance of American troops in the European theatre (from 2 out of 5 divisions at D-day to 72 out of 85 in 1945) made it a political impossibility for the Ground Forces Commander to be British. General Eisenhower himself took over Ground Forces Command while continuing as Supreme Commander, with Montgomery continuing to command the 21st Army Group, now consisting mainly of British and Canadian units. Montgomery bitterly resented this change, even though it had been agreed before the D-Day invasion. Winston Churchill had Montgomery promoted to Field Marshal by way of compensation. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ...


Montgomery was able to persuade Eisenhower to adopt his strategy of a single thrust to the Ruhr with Operation Market Garden in September 1944. It was the most uncharacteristic of Montgomery's battles: the offensive was bold and poorly planned. It ended in failure with the destruction of the 1st Airborne Division at Arnhem. Montgomery's preoccupation with the push to the Ruhr had also distracted him from the essential task of clearing the Scheldt during the capture of Antwerp, and so after Arnhem, Montgomery's group were instructed to concentrate on doing this so that the port of Antwerp could be opened. Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquially Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott or simply Pott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large (former) industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to... Combatants XXX Corps First Allied Airborne Army II SS Panzer Corps Army Group B First Parachute Army Commanders Montgomery von Rundstedt Strength 35,000 airborne, XXX Corps 20,000 (start of the battle) Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an... The British 1st Airborne Division was a military unit that fought in World War II. It suffered terrible casualties, especially in Operation Market Garden. ... Arnhem is a municipality and a city in the east of the Netherlands, located on the Lower Rhine, and the capital of the Gelderland province. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river that finds its origin in the north of France, enters Belgium and near Antwerp flows west into the Netherlands towards the North Sea. ... Combatants Canada, Britain, Poland Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength ? ? Casualties 12,873 total; 6,367 Canadian ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a military operation which took place in northern Belgium and south-western Netherlands during the Second World...


When the surprise attack on the Ardennes took place on December 16 1944, starting the Battle of the Bulge, the front of the U.S. 12th Army Group was split, with the bulk of the U.S. First Army on the northern shoulder of the German 'bulge'. The Army Group commander, General Omar Bradley, was located south of the penetration at Luxembourg and command of the U.S. First Army became problematic. Montgomery was the nearest commander on the ground and on 20 December, Eisenhower (who was in Versailles) transferred Courtney Hodges' U.S. First Army and the U.S. Ninth Army to his 21st Army Group, despite Bradley's vehement objections. Montgomery grasped the situation quickly, visiting all divisional, corps, and army field commanders himself and instituting his 'Phantom' network of liaison officers. He grouped the British XXX Corps as a strategic reserve and reorganized the U.S. defence of the northern shoulder, ordering the evacuation of St. Vith. The German commander of the 5th Panzer Army, Hasso von Manteuffel said "The operations of the American 1st Army had developed into a series of individual holding actions. Montgomery's contribution to restoring the situation was that he turned a series of isolated actions into a coherent battle fought according to a clear and definite plan. It was his refusal to engage in premature and piecemeal counter-attacks which enabled the Americans to gather their reserves and frustrate the German attempts to extend their breakthrough."[1] December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... The 12th Army Group was the largest and most powerful American formation ever to take to the field. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during the World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Versailles (pronounced , roughly vair-sye’, in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Courtney Hicks Hodges (January 5, 1887 – January 16, 1966) was an American military officer, most prominent for his role in World War II, in which he commanded the U.S. First Army in Northwest Europe. ... Shoulder sleeve insignia of the U.S. Ninth Army. ... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... Sankt Vith (French: Saint-Vith) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ...

Montgomery and Soviet generals Zhukov, Sokolovsky and Rokossovsky at the Brandenburg Gate July 12, 1945.

Eisenhower had then wanted Montgomery to go on the offensive on January 1 to meet Patton's army that had started advancing from the south on December 19 and in doing so, trap the Germans. However, Montgomery refused to commit infantry he considered underprepared into a snowstorm and for a strategically unimportant piece of land. He did not launch the attack until 3 January, by which point the German forces had been able to escape. A large part of American military opinion thought that he should not have held back, though it was characteristic of him not to want to throw troops away owing to inadequate preparation. After the battle the U.S. First Army was restored to the 12th Army Group; the U.S. Ninth Army remained under 21st Army Group until it crossed the Rhine. Image File history File links Allies_at_the_Brandenburg_Gate,_1945. ... Image File history File links Allies_at_the_Brandenburg_Gate,_1945. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1 [O.S. November 19] 1896–June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, is considered by many to be one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. // Prewar career Born into a peasant... Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Sokolovsky Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Василий Данилович Соколовский) (July 21, 1897 - May 10, 1968), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno, near Bialystok in Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a triumphal arch and the symbol of Berlin, Germany. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Montgomery's 21st Army Group advanced to the Rhine with operations Veritable and Grenade in February 1945. After a meticulously-planned Rhine crossing on 24 March and the subsequent encirclement of the German Army Group B in the Ruhr, Montgomery's role was initially to guard the flank of the American advance. This was altered, however, to forestall any chance of a Red Army advance into Denmark, and the 21st Army Group occupied Hamburg and Rostock and sealed off the Danish peninsula. Operation Veritable was the northern part of the Second World War pincer movement by General Bernard Montgomerys 21st Army Group to clear the land between the Rhine and Roer rivers. ... Operation Grenade was the plan for The US Ninth Army to cross the Roer (Rur) river in February 1945. ... During World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Wesel and south of the Lippe Canal by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles C Dempsey, and the US Ninth Army, under Lieutenant-General William H Simpson. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... The Ruhr Pocket was a battle that took place at the end of World War II in the Ruhr Area, Germany. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The smaller Alster lake at dusk Hamburg (German pronounciation: []; Low German: Hamborg, [haˑmbɔːχ]) is the second largest city in Germany and with Hamburg Harbour, its principal port, Hamburg is also the second largest port city in the European Union. ... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ...


On May 4 1945, on Lüneburg Heath, Montgomery accepted the surrender of German forces in northern Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands. May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Map of Germany showing Lüneburg Coat of arms Old crane and old store at the medieval Lüneburg harbour Lüneburg is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ...


Later life

Montgomery as CIGS with Wavell and Auchinleck

After the war, Montgomery was created 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein in 1946. He was Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1946 until 1948, but was largely a failure as it required the strategic and political skills he did not possess. He was then supreme commander or chairman of the western union's commanders-in-chief committee. He was an effective inspector-general and mounted good exercises, but out of his depth politically, and was pleased to become Eisenhower's deputy in creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) forces from 1951 until his retirement in 1958. His mother died in 1949; Montgomery did not attend the funeral, claiming he was "too busy". Image File history File links Monty,_wavvel,_auk. ... Image File history File links Monty,_wavvel,_auk. ... Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) was the title of the professional head of the British Army from 1908 to 1964. ... Field Marshal The Right Honourable Sir Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC was a British Field Marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory... Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Early life and career Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through... Viscount Montgomery of Alamein is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) was the title of the professional head of the British Army from 1908 to 1964. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


Montgomery was chairman of the governing body of St John's School, Leatherhead, Surrey from 1951 to 1966 and a generous supporter. St Johns School, is a Private Boarding and Day School in the Town of Leatherhead, Surrey, England History of St Johns School St Johns School was founded in 1851. ... Leatherhead is a medium-sized town in Surrey, England, on the River Mole, Surrey. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ...


Before retirement, Montgomery's outspoken views on some subjects, such as race, were often officially suppressed. After retirement these outspoken views became public and his reputation suffered. His memoirs were broadly judged to be self-serving and arrogant. He criticised many of his wartime comrades in harsh terms, including Eisenhower (whom he accused, among other things, of prolonging the war by a year through poor leadership - allegations which ended their friendship). He applauded apartheid and Chinese communism under Mao Zedong, and argued against the legalisation of homosexuality in the United Kingdom, arguing that the Sexual Offences Act 1967 was a "charter for buggery" and that "this sort of thing may be tolerated by the French, but we're British - thank God." Despite these stated views, in a 2001 book, The Full Monty, Montgomery's official biographer and long-time friend, Nigel Hamilton, alleged that the general was a "repressed homosexual" who had "quasi love affairs" with numerous young men and boys, although there was no actual evidence of any kind of sexual intimacy or sexual relationships with these men[2]. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ... The Sexual Offences Act 1967 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom (citation 1967 c. ...


Montgomery died in 1976 at his home in Alton, Hampshire, and was interred in the nearby Holy Cross Churchyard, Binsted after a state funeral at St George's Chapel, Windsor. His portrait (by Frank O. Salisbury, 1945) hangs in the National Portrait Gallery [3] Alton is the name of several places: United Kingdom Alton, Derbyshire, England Alton, Hampshire, England Alton, Staffordshire, England Alton, Wiltshire, England Canada Alton, Ontario Altona, Ontario Alton, Nova Scotia North Alton, Nova Scotia South Alton, Nova Scotia Altona, British Columbia Altona, Manitoba Old Altona, Manitoba Alton, Quebec United States Alton... Hampshire (abbr. ... Binsted is a village and civil parish in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England. ... A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honour heads of state or other important people of national significance. ... St. ... Frank O. Salisbury (1874-1962) was an English artist and portrait painter. ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in central London which was opened in 1856. ...


Character and controversy

Montgomery was a complex person. On the one hand, though far from flawless, he was a great and successful general through hard work, a refusal to conform to dead tradition, and an open, clear and sensitive mind. He was a humane man and was capable of inspiring great loyalty among his staff and his troops. Montgomery believed that in the 20th century it was essential to explain to troops why they were fighting and that orders and plans must be clear. He therefore tended to appeal more to the common soldiers under his command than to many of the officers who had more direct dealings with him. These men defended him with great passion even after the war, as the British historian Richard Holmes discovered when he was critical of Montgomery. Professor Edward Richard Holmes CBE (born March 29, 1946) is a noted military historian, particularly well-known through his many television appearances. ...


On the other hand, he was personally a difficult man. Montgomery did not get on with his contemporaries and mostly associated with junior officers. He was insensitive, conceited, and boastful. He was not an easy man to know socially and not loyal to the staff officers serving immediately under him. His dismissive and occasionally insulting attitude to others often soured opinions about his abilities and personality. It can be argued that his failures happened when he allowed his desire for personal glory to taint his planning, causing him to abandon his usual caution.


Often it was Montgomery's statements about battles, as much as his actual conduct of it, that have formed the basis of the controversy. In his career, Montgomery's orders to his subordinates were clear and complete, yet with his superiors his communications would be opaque and incomplete [4]. So, in Normandy he gave the impression to Eisenhower and others that he was attempting a breakout, while playing down this possibility in his actual orders to his subordinates. For example, shortly before Operation Goodwood he removed Falaise as an objective, but did not forward these new orders to SHAEF. Throughout his career he enraged his superiors and colleagues, partly because he would not allow convention to disrupt military effectiveness, partly because of a contempt for authority and an unwillingness to be in a situation where he was not in control, and partly because he could be quite a strange person. Bedell-Smith once said to him "You may be great to serve under, difficult to serve alongside, but you sure are hell to serve over!"[5]. He also found it difficult to publicly admit his operations had not gone to plan, irrespective of whether they were ultimately successful (Normandy) or unsuccessful (Market Garden, where he claimed that it had been a 90% success). Operation Goodwood was an Allied military operation of World War II from July 18 to 20 July 1944 taking place in Normandy some weeks following D-Day. ... Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF), was the command headquarters of the commander of Allied forces in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. ...


In the United Kingdom, Montgomery is remembered particularly for his victorious campaign in North Africa, which, with the Battle of Stalingrad, was very much seen as the turning point of World War II. The different nature of the war for the United States means that his reputation there is very much coloured by the controversies in the later stages of the war in Europe, especially around the Battle of the Bulge. These brought into relief both his virtues and failings. Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Friedrich Paulus Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, Canada, China, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ...


Immediately after the Battle of the Bulge, on January 7, 1945 Montgomery held a press conference in which he downplayed the role of the American generals, especially Patton, in the Allied victory at the Battle of the Bulge and focused on his own generalship. Many of his comments were ill-judged, particularly his statement that when the situation "began to deteriorate", Eisenhower had placed him in command in the north, and they were inflammatory to Patton, implying that he needed to be rescued by Montgomery "with a bang". In the press conference Montgomery said that he thought the counter-offensive had gone very well and did not explain his delayed attack on 3 January. According to Churchill, the attack from the south under Patton was steady but slow and involved heavy losses, and Montgomery claimed to be trying to avoid this situation. A slanted version broadcast by German radio added to American resentment. January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In a memo to Eisenhower, Montgomery proposed that he should again be made Commander Ground Forces and implicitly criticised recent conduct of the war. At a time when American confidence had been shaken and nerves were raw, this was unwise. Eisenhower, encouraged by the Deputy Supreme Commander, Air Marshal Tedder (another person with a long running feud with Montgomery), was on the point of dismissing Montgomery, when Bedell Smith and Montgomery's chief-of-staff, Major-General Freddie de Guingand, pointed that this would be both politically unwise and difficult to justify. De Guingand was able to convince Montgomery of the impact of his words (of which he was apparently unaware) and Montgomery wrote an apology to Eisenhower. The moment passed. Eisenhower commented in his memoirs: "I doubt if Montgomery ever came to realise how resentful some American commanders were. They believed he had belittled them - and they were not slow to voice reciprocal scorn and contempt". Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder (July 11, 1890–June 3, 1967) was a significant British Marshal of the Royal Air Force. ... Major General Freddie De Guingand, 1900-1979, served with Montgomery from Alemain to the surrender of the Wermacht in the West. ...


On the other hand, during the same press conference Montgomery showed his respect for ordinary troops and eulogised the American soldier:

"I first saw him in battle in Sicily and I formed a very high opinion of him. I saw him again in Italy. He is a very brave fighting man, steady under fire and with that tenacity in battle which marks the first-class fighting soldier. I have a great affection and admiration for the American soldier. I salute the brave fighting men of America. I never want to fight alongside better soldiers. I have tried to feel that I am almost an American soldier myself so that I might take no unsuitable action or offend them in any way ... Rundstedt was really beaten by the good fighting qualities of the American soldier and by the team work of the Allies."

On Eisenhower, he said: Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Field Marshal of the German Army during World War II. He was one of Germanys more competent generals, and is remembered for remaining apolitical throughout his career. ...

"The captain of our team is Eisenhower. I am absolutely devoted to Ike; we are the greatest of friends. It grieves me when I see uncomplimentary articles about him in the British press; he bears a great burden, he needs our fullest support, he has the right to expect it and it is up to all of us to see that he gets it.".

Montgomery later wrote: "I think now that I should never have held that press conference. So great were the feelings against me on the part of the American generals that whatever I said was bound to be wrong. I should therefore have said nothing."


Brooke was perhaps near the truth when he said of Montgomery, "He is probably the finest tactical general we have had since Wellington. But on some of his strategy, and especially on his relations with the Americans, he is almost a disaster."


Assessment of Montgomery as a military commander

Any assessment of Montgomery is immediately entangled in his sometimes difficult, boastful personality, harshness towards those he felt did not measure up, and issues of Anglo-American national pride. Nevertheless this section attempts a balanced summing up of his general leadership from a military perspective. Was he primarily a ponderous set-piece general or was he indeed one of the most brilliant commanders of recent history, a true heir to Marlborough, at least from the British perspective? The truth lies somewhere in between. It is helpful to analyze Montgomery's generalship by looking at some central aspects of his successes and failures. John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, KG, PC (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) was an English military officer during the War of the Spanish Succession. ...


Positive aspects

As a trainer of men and mentor of subordinates


Montgomery deserves his due as an outstanding trainer of men. His record in Palestine, North Africa, Sicily and Northern Europe shows this. His meticulous preparation of his troops, ranging from the usual physical necessities, to painstaking explanation of his vision and plans down to relatively low levels, to well articulated exercises and drills, to his insistence that formations like divisions "should fight as divisions" (i.e. gain proficiency in "big picture" coordination and integration) show the mind and skill of a keen organizer. None of this is earth-shattering for any competent military commander, but Montgomery demonstrated a great level of proficiency and made it one his special trademarks.


Montgomery was a keen advocate of physical fitness and hard training: in the desert he had all ranks from brigadier down doing daily physical training; any man, no matter what rank, was expected to be fit to fight, and if any officer could not keep up on daily runs, he was sent home[6]. Montgomery was also a critic of Battle Drill Training, which he felt was a crutch used by unit commanders. His personal view, put into action during the Phony War and afterwards, was that company and battalion training in the phases of war - relief in place, passage of obstacles, hasty attack, etc. - was ignored in favour of simple drilling at the section and platoon level. Brigadier is a rank which is used in different ways by different countries. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ...


Montgomery had a deep technical understanding of how the Army operated, at all levels from the infantry company to the Army Group. He helped to shape the Canadian army through assisting the formation of the fledgling First Canadian Army while they were under his command in South-Eastern Army. Montgomery personally visited most Canadian units, down to the battalion level, and assisted Canadian Army commander Harry Crerar in weeding out poor officers, giving direct criticism of battalion commanders, company commanders, and even regimental sergeants major[7]. Montgomery indirectly shaped the Canadian Army that saw action in Italy and NW Europe. The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. ... General The Honourable Henry Duncan Graham (Harry) Crerar, PC , CH , CB , DSO , KStJ , CD (April 28, 1888 - April 1, 1965) was a Canadian general and the countrys leading field commander in World War II. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, he died at Ottawa, Ontario. ...


As a strategist and tactician


Montgomery's hallmark as a strategist was a detailed analysis of his enemy and development of a clear vision as to how that enemy was to be fought and defeated. Two words sum up the approach of the British commander: clarity and organization. These were put into practice through careful preparation of what he termed a "master plan", to which all subsequent effort was to be subordinated. The "master plan" embodied the vision, and the strategic and tactical approaches that would be used. Far from being rigid, Montgomery held that the flexibility or "balance" was one of the keys to his overarching structure. He regarded the German Army as one of hard core professionalism, and held that wishful thinking and foggy concepts against such an opponent was a recipe for dismal failure.


Montgomery sought changes along these lines in the plan for the Allied invasion of Sicily. His influence however was more limited and his own less than spectacular gains in the difficult terrain, were unfavorably compared by some to the thrusting mobility of US General George Patton - a foreshadowing of controversies to come. Operation Husky was a success, but the Germans were able to extract tens of thousands of troops from Sicily to fight elsewhere, indicating that Montgomery's concerns about concepts, planning and execution were not totally off the mark. Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ...


His approach can be seen in his insistence on recasting or adjusting the invasion plans of Normandy, generally strengthening initial shock forces and insisting on a clear vision and method of how subsequent battles were to be fought. The success of the D-Day landings owed a great debt to Montgomery's planning. After the war, Eisenhower and his chief of staff, Lieutenant-General Bedell Smith told the American military correspondent, Drew Middleton that "No one else could have got us across the Channel and into Normandy... Whatever they say about him, he got us there". Walter Bedell Smith as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. ...


Montgomery felt his approach vindicated at the Second Battle of El Alamein. His strategic vision ushered in much needed clarity, and his defensive preparations (drawing in part on the prior work of his predecessor Auchinleck) also envisioned a decisive counterattack. During the most critical point of the battle his concept of "balance" or flexibility within the confines of a master plan held, and the British were able to shift forces to see off Rommel's thrust, and mount their own riposte that shattered the back of the Axis formations.


The Battle of Normandy saw similar success. He insisted on more forces for the initial landing and a clear vision for the further campaign against some planners who were primarily concerned with just getting on the beach. Despite the failure of all but the Canadians to gain the ambitious targets on D-Day, and the subsequent improvisation, his stategy of attritional battle on the left drawing in German forces and allowing a breakthrough on the right was successful. This approach could not be broadcast on the nightly news and the public perception of the struggle was typically one that saw both Allies equally attempting to break out of the beachhead, with progress being "slow." Montgomery however persisted, and deflecting pressure from his superiors (who remained in England) for quicker results, retained mastery of the developing battle, and achieved victory well within the originally planned ninety days. These two battles cement Montgomery's place as one of the greatest of the modern British generals in the view of some historians, and vindicate his concept of "balance" within the overall structure of a dominant "master plan" [8].


As a builder of morale


Montgomery also deserves credit as a builder of morale, both that of his soldiers and that of the general public. A large part of his reputation has been sustained by the people who served under him. After his experiences in the First World War he had determined not to waste soldiers' lives: as Haig persisted in attritional battles, Montgomery wrote to his brother Donald, on seeing Canadians sent to assault Passchendaele ridge that they were 'magnificent', but 'they forget that the whole art of war is to gain your objective with as little loss as possible', which was a doctrine that Montgomery subsequently lived by. Field Marshal Lord Haig Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, KT, GCB, OM, GCVO, KCIE, ADC (June 19, 1861 – January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander during World War I. He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme and...


Further to this, he also displayed a genuine concern for the welfare of the men serving under him: for example, at one time he jeopardised his career by illegally hiring out land to a fair to raise welfare funds [9]; he arranged for female nurses at forward casualty clearing centres in the desert war in 1943 [10]; he took a very pragmatic view towards sexual health[11]; directly after the Battle of Medenine he was lobbying Brooke to allow long-serving soldiers to return to England[12]. Coupled with this was his belief that soldiers must actually understand why they were fighting, and that they deserve to have things properly explained to them. Montgomery thought that one of the most important roles for a military commander was to motivate his men to fight, that military command is "a great human problem". In addition, Montgomery's experiences in the First World War led him to despise generals who led from the rear, well away from any fighting,[13] and so was visible in his campaigns.


The early years of World War II saw a series of humiliating defeats and military reverses for Britain. Montgomery was not the first to unequivocally reverse. His experiences in Ireland had shown him the importance of public support in a war. Montgomery was sometimes ungracious, but he was able to painstakingly articulate a vision for victory and couple with it a good sense for publicity (the use of his distinctive black beret with two badges, for example). He continued these same methods in England prior to the invasion, insisting on a clear concept of battle beyond the beaches, all united under a powerful master plan. Later on, Montgomery was not the only leader that struck a distinctive chord for morale prior to the great invasion, but he was certainly one of the most influential, ensuring not only the troops that stepped ashore on June 6, were thus men confident in their leaders, their plans, their equipment and their cause, but so were the public. His speaking tour of British munitions factories before D-Day had made Chuchill worry that he would be "filling The Mall" with adoring crowds if he was allowed to receive his Field marshal's baton at Buckingham Palace[14]. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


Criticisms of Montgomery's Generalship

Montgomery's record also has been extensively criticised. The criticism of his actions tends to be bound up with his difficult personality and relationships with superiors (see the Character and Controversy Section above) but generally two areas in particular can be separated out, which are summarised here. The reader is referred to detailed coverage of individual battles in other articles.


Montgomery was often accused of being slow and overcautious. Examples cited include before El Alamein, afterwards in the pursuit of Rommel, the Battle of Normandy, and in the counter-offensive in the Ardennes. Much of this criticism came from people based well away from the fighting who wished for speed for their own puposes, and who were ignored by Montgomery. Montgomery was not a dashing general, and deliberately methodical, usually not willing to sacrifice military effectiveness for other people's agendas. The realities of the conflict Britain was fighting must also be remembered, which had seen severe early defeats, an economy almost crippled by German U-boat attacks, and dwindling supplies of manpower to fight on fronts ranging from the Far East to the Mediterranean. Furthermore, much of his apparent caution sprang from his regard for human life and a desire not to throw the lives of his troops away in the manner of the generals of the First World War. Therefore, for El Alamein and the Ardennes, he was not prepared to go into an offensive if he felt his troops were not sufficiently prepared. In North Africa, prior to Montgomery taking command, the history of the campaign in North Africa had see-sawed as each offensive outran its supply lines: both sides won battles but neither gained a decisive advantage[15]. It can be argued that Rommel was still dangerous, requiring careful movement, and that in any event, the campaign achieved its objective, effectively shattering the Axis effort and reducing it to impotence in North Africa. Similarly, during the Battle of Normandy, the fear of stalemate made the supreme command in Britain pressurise Montgomery (at one point in July 1944, it was thought that Churchill was flying to France to sack Montgomery at Eisenhower's request [12]), with extra pressure being applied by air commanders wanting French airfields to operate from. However, in the end Montgomery's basic strategy was vindicated and success was achieved in less time than planned. Much is made of the fact that many of Montgomery's intermediate targets were not met, especially the capture of Caen (criticism that was compounded after the war when Montgomery insisted that all elements had gone "according to plan", which clearly was not the case). However his predictions, the so called "phase lines" on the maps, were never intended to be a rigid guarantee but a guide, as would be clear from previous opposed landings at Salerno and Anzio. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... Location within France Hôtel dEscoville, 16th century, Caen Anonymous pen-and-ink birds-eye view of the fortifications of Caen (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris) South Wall of the Castle, a huge fortress in the center of the city Town Hall of Caen Caen train station. ... Operation Avalanche was the codename for the landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy. ... Operation Shingle (January 22, 1944), during the Italian Campaign of World War II, was an Allied amphibious landing against Axis forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. ...


The criticism of slowness has been taken further with Montgomery being called primarily a "general of material" [16]: one who emerged at the right time and place to take advantage of the massive outpouring of American and British war production, ensuring the Allies local material superiority against their opponents. But this charge is hard to maintain in a war during which material weight counted above almost all factors. It was a mass production war in every theatre, and the same "material" criticism of Montgomery must then need to apply to the great Russian commanders of the Eastern Front like Zhukov or Konev, as well as to the American effort. Equally, it ignores the successful improvised actions in North Africa, Normandy, and the Ardennes. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1 [O.S. November 19] 1896–June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, is considered by many to be one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. // Prewar career Born into a peasant... Marshal Ivan Konev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 – May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ...


The second great area of criticism centres around Montgomery's only defeat of the Second World War, the failure of Operation Market Garden at Arnhem. It may be significant that this operation was unlike any of Montogomery's successful battles being bold, but poorly planned and supported. R.W.Thompson writes

The conception of such a plan was impossible for a man of Montgomery's innate caution...In fact, Montgomery's decision to mount the operation aimed at the Zuider Zee was as startling as it would have been for an elderly and saintly Bishop suddenly to take up safe-cracking and begin on the Bank of England.[17] Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (pronounced , Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ) was a shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a coastline of about 300... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom, sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or The Old Lady. The nearest London Underground station is Bank station. ...

It has been suggested that the ambition of the plan may have been a result of interpersonal friction and competition with the American generals, as well as other personality traits[18]


A bad result of the distraction of Market Garden was the failure to clear the Scheldt estuary, allowing the escape of the German 15th Army. Thompson calls it "Montgomery's most agonizing failure"[19], while Montgomery himself later noted that this was "a bad mistake - I underestimated the difficulty of opening up the approaches to Antwerp ... I reckoned that the Canadian Army could do it while we were going for the Ruhr. I was wrong."


See also

See also: Military History Antiquity Cyrus the Great (King of Persia who conquered Babylon) Artaphernes (Persian general) Sun Tzu (Legendary chinese general) Themistocles (Athenian admiral during the Persian Wars) Miltiades (Athenian general during the Persian Wars) Callimachus (Athenian general during the Persian Wars) Leonidas (Spartan king and general during the... M. E. Clifton James, Montys double The genuine Monty Meyrick Edward Clifton James (1898 - 8 May 1963) was an actor and soldier, notable for his resemblance to Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery. ...

Quotation

"The U.S. has broken the second rule of war. That is, don't go fighting with your land army on the mainland of Asia. Rule One is don't march on Moscow. I developed these two rules myself."

(spoken of the US approach to the Vietnam War) Quoted in Chalfont's Montgomery of Alamein.
  • Wikiquote

Motto: (historic) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized From... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead... The Right Honourable Alun Arthur Gwynne-Jones, Baron Chalfont, OBE, MC, PC (born 5 December 1919) is most notable for being the first life peer created under the Life Peerages Act 1958. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Patrick Delaforce, The Battle of the Bulge - Hitler's Final Gamble (2004)
  2. ^ *Article in The Guardian newspaper.
  3. ^ *Portrait of Montgomery NPG L165
  4. ^ On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon, Pimlico (1976), p.361
  5. ^ N.Hamilton, Monty. vol. 2.xxv (1981-6)
  6. ^ For a humorous account of the effect of Montgomery on the soldiers of the south-east army, see Spike Milligan, Adolf Hitler- my part in his downfall, Penguin (1972)
  7. ^ Some of his notes are reproduced in Terry Copp's book The Brigade.
  8. ^ See Alexander McKee, "Caen: Anvil of Victory", Souvenir Press (1984) for a detailed description of the east flank struggle.
  9. ^ On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon, Pimlico (1976), p.358
  10. ^ On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon, Pimlico (1976), p.359
  11. ^ On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon, Pimlico (1976), p.277
  12. ^ a b Montgomery, Bernard Law, Nigel Hamilton, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, OUP (2004)
  13. ^ On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon, Pimlico (1976), p.374. In this context Montgomery used to tell the tale of the British Chief-of-Staff who, before returning to England, decided he would like to see the front at Paschandaele for the first time. This attitude was one of the things that caused friction between himself and other generals.
  14. ^ A.Bryant, Triumph in the West, 1943-1946(1959)
  15. ^ von Thoma commented that "I thought he was very cautious considering his immensely superior strength", though added that "the decisive factor is the organisation of one's resources to maintain the momentum" (B.Liddell-Hart, The other side of the hill (1962))
  16. ^ Arthur Gwynne Jones Chalfont, Montgomery of Alamein (1976)
  17. ^ Montgomery the Field-Marshal R.W.Thompson, Allen & Unwin (1969), p.201
  18. ^ On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon, Pimlico (1976), p.360-361
  19. ^ Montgomery the Field-Marshal R.W.Thompson, Allen & Unwin (1969)

Terence Alan Milligan, KBE (16 April 1918–27 February 2002), known as Spike Milligan, was a writer, artist, musician, humanitarian and comedian. ... The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ... General Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma Wilhelm Josef Ritter von Thoma (November 11, 1891, Dachau – April 30, 1948, Dachau) was a German General der Panzertruppe during World War II. // Promotions Fahnenjunker: September 23, 1912 Fahnenjunker-Unteroffizier: January 25, 1913 Fähnrich: May 20, 1913 Leutnant: August 1, 1914 Oberleutnant: December 14...

Bibliography

  • Alamein, Stephen Bungay, Auram (2002)
  • Armageddon, Max Hastings (2004)
  • The Battle for the Rhine 1944, Robin Neillands (2005)
  • On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Norman Dixon, Pimlico (1976)
  • Montgomery: Master of the Battefield by Nigel Hamilton (1984). Part 2 of Hamilton's massive 3 volume biography of Montgomery which does not shirk from discussing both the good and the bad. Detailed coverage of El Alamein and Normandy battles.
  • Caen: Anvil of Victory by Alexander McKee (1984). An excellent account of the great British shield on the eastern flank, and masterful descriptions of the fighting.
  • And We Shall Shock Them: The British Army in World War II by David Fraser (1988). Gives a "big picture" look at the British Army in WWII and the restoration of its fortunes after early years of humiliation.
  • Defeat Into Victory by General William Slim (2000). Provides a good contrast of leadership styles, the quieter, more honest Slim versus the more flambuoyant Montgomery. It should be noted that Slim too used some of the same methods to rebuild shattered British morale, including painstaking explanation of concepts to all ranks, reorganized training and confidence building battles that guaranteed victory before tackling bigger operations.
  • The Path to Leadership by General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery (1957).
  • Montgomery of Alamein by Arthur Gwynne Jones Chalfont, (1976). Generally a critical biography of Montgomery, contesting several of his claims and giving voice to many alienated by his methods, including the oft forgotten Desert Generals of 1941-42.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bernard Montgomery
Military Offices
Preceded by:
The Lord Alanbrooke
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
1946–1948
Succeeded by:
Sir William Slim
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by:
New Creation
Viscount Montgomery of Alamein
1946–1976
Succeeded by:
David Bernard Montgomery

</ref> Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Lord Alanbrooke Field Marshal Sir Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, Baron Alanbrooke, KG, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO (July 23, 1883 - June 17, 1963) was a British Field Marshal during World War II. He also served as Lord High Constable during the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. ... Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) was the title of the professional head of the British Army from 1908 to 1964. ... Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, DSO, MC (6 August 1897 – 14 December 1970), British military commander and 13th Governor-General of Australia. ... The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801. ... Viscount Montgomery of Alamein is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... David Bernard Montgomery, 2nd Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, CMG, CBE, (b. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6777 words)
Montgomery was born in Kennington, London in 1887, the fourth child of nine to an Anglo-Irish Anglican priest, Revd.
Montgomery abhorred the lack of coordination, the dispersion of effort, and the strategic muddle and opportunism and was glad to leave the "dog's breakfast" on December 23.
Montgomery's preoccupation with the push to the Ruhr had also distracted him from the essential task of clearing the Scheldt during the capture of Antwerp, and so after Arnhem, Montgomery's group were instructed to concentrate on doing this so that the port of Antwerp could be opened.
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