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Encyclopedia > Bern
Berne coat of arms
Canton Bern
District Bern (district)
Coordinates  46°57′ N 7°27′ E
Population 127000   (2004)
Area 52 km²
Elevation 542 m
Postal code 3000
Mayor Alexander Tschäppät (since 2005 SPS)
Website www.bern.ch
Location within Switzerland
Location within Switzerland

The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne [ˈbɝːn] (Bernese German Bärn [ˈpæːrn], German Bern [ˈb̥ɛrn], French Berne [ˈbɛʀn], Italian Berna [ˈbɛrna], Romansh Berna [ˈbɛrnə]), is the "Bundesstadt" (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... The Swiss canton of Bern is bilingual (German: Kanton Bern; French Canton de Berne) and has a population of about 947,000 (8,2% French-speaking and 84% German-speaking). ... In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each Canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. ... This article is about longitude and latitude; see also UTM coordinate system Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (vertically) and longitude (horizontally); large version (pdf) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Elevation has several related meanings: Geography The elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or possibly some other fixed point). ... The metre, or meter, is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units (SI: Système International dUnités). ... Here are postal codes of Switzerland and Liechtenstein: Zone 1 1000s are found in Lausanne, Lavaux and parts of Morges, 1100s in parts of Morges, 1200s are in Geneva and parts of La Côte, Vaud, 1300s in La Vallée, 1500s are found in Clavaleyres, the 1700s are found... A mayor (from the Latin maÄ«or, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland, in German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SPS), French Parti socialiste suisse (PSS), Italian Partito Socialista Svizzero, Romansh Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1803x1473, 115 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1803x1473, 115 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bernese German is the High Alemannic dialect spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland) part of the canton of Bern and in some neighbouring regions. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland Zürich (in English often Zurich, IPA ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Geneva (French: Genève) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman, but the Genevois are fond of calling it Lac de Genève) empties into the Rhône River. ... Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French Bâle , Italian Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel...


Language: German, or more specifically, Bernese German, which is a high-Alemannic dialect. The Canton of Bern has a French-speaking part. Very few people still speak the Matteänglisch, a secret language used in the former workers' quarter Matte, but several words have found their way in the Bernese German. Bernese German is the High Alemannic dialect spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland) part of the canton of Bern and in some neighbouring regions. ... Alemannic (Alemannisch) belongs to the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... The Swiss canton of Bern is bilingual (German: Kanton Bern; French Canton de Berne) and has a population of about 947,000 (8,2% French-speaking and 84% German-speaking). ...


Bern also functions as the capital of the Canton of Bern, the second most populous of Switzerland's cantons. The Swiss canton of Bern is bilingual (German: Kanton Bern; French Canton de Berne) and has a population of about 947,000 (8,2% French-speaking and 84% German-speaking). ...


Illustrious Bernese include the scientist Albrecht von Haller, the poet Albert Bitzius and the painters Ferdinand Hodler and Paul Klee. The German-born physicist Albert Einstein worked out his theory of relativity while employed as a clerk at the Bern patent office. A culturally important person was Mani Matter, a songwriter performing in Bernese German. This article is about the profession. ... Albrecht von Haller. ... Albert Bitzius (October 4, 1797 - October 22, 1854) was a popular Swiss novelist who used the pseudonym Jeremias Gotthelf. ... Ferdinand Hodler (March 14, 1853 in Berne – May 19, 1918 in Geneva) was one of the best-known Swiss painters of the 19th century. ... Paul Klee (December 18, 1879 – June 29, 1940) was a German painter. ... Albert Einstein, by Yousuf Karsh Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist of Swiss and American citizenship, who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Albert Einsteins theory of relativity is a set of two scientific theories in physics: special relativity and general relativity. ... A patent clerk or patent examiner is an employee, usually a civil servant, working within a patent office and whose work is to examine patent applications as to whether they deserve a patent. ... Mani Matter (1936–1972, officially Hans-Peter Matter) was a popular Swiss songwriter. ... Bernese German is the High Alemannic dialect spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland) part of the canton of Bern and in some neighbouring regions. ...

Contents


History

Panorama of the old town of Bern
Panorama of the old town of Bern
The Zytglogge tower in Berne
The Zytglogge tower in Berne

Duke Berthold V of Zähringen founded the city on the River Aare in 1191 and allegedly named it after a bear (Bär in German) he had killed. It was made a Imperial Free City by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in 1218 after Berthold died without an heir. In 1353 Bern joined the young Swiss Confederation, becoming a leading member of the new state. It invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps. It was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and was stripped of most of its territories. In 1831 the city became the capital of the canton Bern and in 1848 it additionally became the Swiss capital. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5325x801, 757 KB) Description: Panorama der Berner Altstad, Aufgenommen vom Turm des Berner Münsters Source: photo taken by Camillo Bruni Date: - Author: CeCe Permission: Camillo Bruni put it under the CC-BY-SA Other versions of this file: - File links... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5325x801, 757 KB) Description: Panorama der Berner Altstad, Aufgenommen vom Turm des Berner Münsters Source: photo taken by Camillo Bruni Date: - Author: CeCe Permission: Camillo Bruni put it under the CC-BY-SA Other versions of this file: - File links... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The position in late summer, 7:30 a. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy... Zähringen is the name of an old and influential German noble family, taken from the castle and village of that name. ... Aar (disambiguation). ... Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an Imperial Free City (in German: Freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the Emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes and dukes of... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). ... Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, which borders Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. ... Aargau (German Aargau, French Argovie, Italian Argovia, Romansh Argovia, in English sometimes Argovia) is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... // Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Alps is the collective name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east, through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The city grew out of the peninsula on the river Aare towards the west. The Zytglogge tower was on the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, then the Käfigturm took this role until 1345 and was then succeeded by the Christoffelturm (close to today's train station) until 1622. During the time of the Thirty Years' War two new fortifications, the so-called big and small Schanze (entrenchment), were built that protected the whole area of the peninsula. The area protected by these edifices was sufficient for the growth of Bern up to the 19th century. The position in late summer, 7:30 a. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

Bern lies in the Swiss plateau part of the Canton of Bern, somewhat to the west of the center of Switzerland. The landscape around Bern was formed by glaciers in the last ice age. The two mountains closest to Bern are the Gurten with a height of 858 meters and the Bantiger with a height of 947 meters. The site of the old observatory in Bern is the origin (600 000/200 000) of the CH1903 coordinate system, its international coordinates are 46°57′08.66″ N 7°26′22.50″ E. The Swiss plateau (plateau suisse in French, Schweizer Mittelland in German) constitutes one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura mountains and the Alps. ... The Swiss canton of Bern is bilingual (German: Kanton Bern; French Canton de Berne) and has a population of about 947,000 (8,2% French-speaking and 84% German-speaking). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Swiss coordinate system (or Swiss grid) is a geographic coordinate system used in Switzerland for maps and surveying by the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo). ...


The city was originally built on a peninsula of the river Aare but outgrew the natural boundaries of the river in the 19th century. The following bridges were built to allow the city to grow outside of the boundaries imposed by the river: For other possible meanings, see AAR, a disambiguation page The Aar (in German Aare) is the greatest river which both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. ...

  • 1844 Nydeggbrücke
  • 1883 Kirchenfeldbrücke
  • 1898 Kornhausbrücke

The city is built on very uneven ground. There are several dozens of meters in height difference from the quarters down at the Aare (e.g. Matte, Marzili) to the higher ones (e.g. Kirchenfeld, Längasse).


Politics

Bern is governed by a 80-member legislative council (Stadtrat) and a 5-member executive council (Gemeinderat).


As of 2005, the representatives of the Social Democratic Party and of the three Green factions hold a majority in both councils (3 to 2 and 43 to 37, respectively). For this reason, it is they, collectively referred to as "Red-Green-Center" (Rot-Grün-Mitte), who mostly determine City policy, although no formal coalition agreement exists and, under the system of direct democracy that prevails in Switzerland, most important issues are settled by general referendum. The other major political parties of Bern are the Free Democratic Party (FDP, free-market liberal) and the Swiss People's Party (SVP, conservative). 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland, in German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SPS), French Parti socialiste suisse (PSS), Italian Partito Socialista Svizzero, Romansh Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra. ... The Green Party of Switzerland (Grüne Partei der Schweiz / Les verts - Parti écologiste suisse) is the fifth-largest party in the National Council of Switzerland and the biggest party besides the governing parties. ... Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein all citizens can directly participate in the political decision-making process. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Political parties in Switzerland lists political parties in Switzerland. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Swiss political parties ... The Swiss Peoples Party (SVP) also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre German: Schweizerische Volkspartei, French: Union Démocratique du Centre, Italian: Unione Democratica del Centro, Romansh: Uniun Democratica dal Center) is a political party in Switzerland. ...


The office of mayor (Stadtpräsident), as a primus inter pares in the executive council, is mostly representative. As of 2005, the mayor of Bern is Alexander Tschäppät of the Social Democrats. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... A mayor (from the Latin maÄ«or, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Socialist Party of Switzerland, in German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (SPS), French Parti socialiste suisse (PSS), Italian Partito Socialista Svizzero, Romansh Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra. ...


Sights

Bundeshaus
Bundeshaus
Bears in the bear pit
Bears in the bear pit

Bern's city centre is largely medieval and has been recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Perhaps its most famous sight is the Zytglogge, an elaborate medieval clock tower with moving puppets. It also has an impressive 15th century Gothic cathedral, the Münster, and a 15th century town hall. the bundeshaus in bern from http://de. ... the bundeshaus in bern from http://de. ... Image File history File links Bears in the Barengraben (bear pits) in Bern, Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Bears in the Barengraben (bear pits) in Bern, Switzerland. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Notre-Dame Cathedral seen from the River Seine. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Since the 16th century, the city has had a bear pit (the Barengraben), which can be visited off the Nydeggbrücke. The federal parliament building and administration building or Bundeshaus, dating from the beginning of the 20th century (1902), can also be visited. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Rosengarten (German for: garden of roses) is a former cemetery which was converted into a park in 1913. Probably the newest attraction of Bern is the fountain in front of the Bundeshaus. It was inaugurated on August 1, 2004, the Swiss national holiday. Species About 100, see text A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa and the flower of this shrub. ... An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ... Link title1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Bundeshaus is the name of the building in which the Swiss Federal Assembly (federal parliament) is housed. ... August 1st is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Culture

Bern is rich of cultural offerings for every taste.


Theatres

  • city-theatre [1]
  • Schlachthaus-theatre [2]
  • tojo-theatre [3]
  • The Theatre on the Effinger-Street [4]
  • Narrenpack Theatre Bern [5]

Movie theaters

Bern has several dozens of movie theaters. As is customary in Switzerland, movies are generally shown in their original language (e.g., English) with subtitling in German and French. Only a small number of screenings are dubbed in German. Program information is available through e.g. the Cineman website. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Nightlife

  • Reithalle [6] - the old riding school of Bern, now a meeting place for the alternative scene, with concerts, parties, flea market and much more
  • Wasserwerk [7] - a night-club close to the river Aare with lots of concerts and parties
  • Bierhübeli[8] - a concert and party club
  • ISC [9] - the International Students Club, open for everybody
  • dead-end [10] - a club for the late ones, opens at midnight
  • Gaskessel [11]
  • Mahogany Hall[12]
  • Dampfzentrale [13]
  • The Bernese Symphony Orchestra [14]

Museums

  • Museum of Arts [15]
  • Art-Hall [16]
  • Museum of communications [17]
  • Psychiatry Museum [18]
  • Historic Museum [19]
  • Natural-Historic Museum [20]
  • Collection of Antiques [21]
  • Alpine Museum [22]
  • Einstein House [23]
  • Marksmen Museum [24]

Festivals

  • Gurtenfestival
  • Berner Tanztage
  • Internationales Jazzfestival Bern
  • Taktlos-Festival
  • National Reach Around Festival

fairs

  • Zibelemärit - The Zibelemärit (market of onions) is an annual fair held on the fourth monday in november.

Education and Science

Bern has a University, a technical college and several vocational schools. University of Berne The University of Berne is a university in the Swiss capital of Berne. ...


University

The University is spread over several buildings which are mainly located in the Längasse quarter. Currently ([2005]) there are around 13'000 students registered. It consists of the following faculties:

  • Christian Theology
  • Law
  • Medicine
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • Teacher Education
  • philosophical-historical
  • philosophical-scientific

Technical College

Currently (2005) there are around 5000 students registered to the technical college of bern. It consists of the follwoing units:

  • Technique and Computer Science
  • Architecture, Construction and Wood
  • Economics, Administration and Social Work
  • Arts
  • Agriculture
  • Sports

Vocation Schools

Many vocation schools are present in Bern. Some of them are the following:

  • Gewerblich-Industrielle Berufsschule Bern [25]
  • Schule für Gestaltung Bern [26]
  • Wirtschafts- und Kaderschule KV Bern [27]
  • Berufsschule für Verwaltung Bern [28]
  • BFF BERN, Berufs,- Fach- und Fortbildungsschule [29]
  • Lehrwerkstätten der Stadt Bern [30]
  • Berufsschule für Pflege Am Altenberg [31]
  • Hotel Handelsschulen [32]
  • Wirtschaftsmittelschule Bern [33]

Other Schools

  • Academy of Music [34]

Transportation

Streets

Bern is well connected to other cities over several highways (A1, A12, A6).


Public Transport

The public transport works well in Bern, there are at the moment 3 tram lines and several Bus lines which connect the different parts of the City. Bern Rail Station connects the City to the national and international train network. Notable is a cable railway which leads from the marzili quarter to the Bundeshaus. This railway is, with a length of 106 m the shortest public cable railway in Europe. Several bridges connect the old parts of the city with the newer quarters outside of the peninsula. Street cars in New Orleans A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland For modern innovations aimed at increasing the capacity and speed of tramway systems, see light rail. ... TheBus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... Bern Rail Station is a Swiss Federal Railways station in Bern, Switzerland. ...

  • Bern Public Transportation Website (BernMobil)

Airtraffic

A little outside of Bern is Bern Airport. Berne Airport, which serves Berne, Switzerland, is actually closer to the village of Belp. ...


Natives

A number of celebrities are natives of the city or canton of Bern: Category:Natives of Bern


Miscellaneous

The Universal Postal Union is situated in Bern. The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ...


External links

Travel guide to Bern from Wikitravel Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

  • City of Bern
  • Canton of Bern
  • University
  • Berner Fachhochschule
  • Kunsthalle Bern
  • Gurtenfestival


Flag of Canton Bern Municipalities of Bern administrative district

Bern | Bolligen | Bremgarten | Ittigen | Kirchlindach | Köniz | Muri | Oberbalm | Ostermundigen | Stettlen | Vechigen | Wohlen | Zollikofen Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bremgarten bei Bern is a commune in Switzerland (Schlafgemeinde) that is a suburb of the capital of Berne, approximately 4 km north of the city. ...

Canton of Bern | Districts of Canton Bern | Municipalities of the canton of Berne

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