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Encyclopedia > Berlin Wall
View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the wall's infamous "death strip"
View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the wall's infamous "death strip"
Wall's poster in memory of the fall. (Designer: Istvan Orosz)

The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier separating West Berlin from East Berlin and the rest of East Germany. The longer 'inner German border' demarked the remainder of the East-West German border between the two states. Both borders were part of the Iron Curtain. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Separation barriers (separation walls, security fences) are constructed to limit the movement of people across a certain line or border or to separate two populations. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The sectors of occupation in 1949. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


The wall divided East Berlin and West Berlin for 28 years, from the day construction began on August 13, 1961 until it was dismantled in 1989. During this period at least 133 people were confirmed killed trying to cross the Wall into West Berlin, according to official figures.[1] However, a prominent victims' group claims that more than 200 people had been killed trying to flee from East to West Berlin.[2] The Soviet government gave explicit orders to shoot and kill attempted defectors. The East German government had always denied having such a policy.[3] Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The German term Schießbefehl (which may also be transliterated as Schiessbefehl and which means firing order) was the common term to refer to Befehl 101 (Order 101), a standing order that instructed border patrols of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) to prevent border penetration by...


When the East German government announced on November 9, 1989, after several weeks of civil unrest, that visits in West Germany and West Berlin would be permitted, crowds of East Germans climbed onto and crossed the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, parts of the wall were chipped away by a euphoric public and by souvenir hunters; industrial equipment was later used to remove almost all of the rest of it. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The fall of the Berlin wall paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on October 3, 1990. This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Background

Occupied Germany in 1945
Occupied Germany in 1945

After the end of World War II in Europe, what territorially remained of Nazi Germany was divided into four occupation zones (per the Potsdam Agreement), each one controlled by one of the four occupying Allied powers: the Americans, British, French and Soviets. The old capital of Berlin, as the seat of the Allied Control Council, was similarly subdivided into four sectors despite the city lying deep inside the zone of the Soviet Union. Although the intent was for the occupying powers to govern Germany together inside the 1947 borders, the advent of Cold War tension caused the French, British and American zones to be formed into the Federal Republic of Germany (and West Berlin) in 1949, excluding the Soviet zone which then formed the German Democratic Republic (including East Berlin). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Divergence of German states

West Germany developed into a western capitalist country with a social market economy ("Soziale Marktwirtschaft" in German) and a democratic parliamentary government. Continual economic growth starting in the 1950s fuelled a 30-year "economic miracle" ("Wirtschaftswunder"). Across the inner-German border, East Germany established an authoritarian government with a Soviet-style planned economy. While East Germany became rich, many West Germans wanted to move to East Germany. And some East Germans wanted to move to West Germany. The East Germans constructed the Berlin Wall to stop East Germans from fleeing. However, East German soldiers allowed West Berliners to cross into East Germany. The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ...


Barrier between East and West Germany

On 1 April, 1952, East German leaders met the Soviet leader Stalin in Moscow; during the discussions Stalin's foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov proposed that the East Germans should "introduce a system of passes for visits of West Berlin residents to the territory of East Berlin [so as to stop] free movement of Western agents" in the GDR. Stalin agreed, calling the situation "intolerable". He advised the East Germans to build up their border defences, telling them that "The demarcation line between East and West Germany should be considered a border – and not just any border, but a dangerous one ... The Germans will guard the line of defence with their lives." [4] is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ...


Consequently, the border between East and West Germany was closed, and a barbed-wire fence erected. The border between East and West Berlin, however, remained open, although traffic between the Eastern and the Western sectors was somewhat restricted. The sectors of occupation in 1949. ...


Construction begins, 1961

East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961.
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961.

On June 15, 1961, two months before the construction of the Berlin Wall started, First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, Walter Ulbricht, stated in an international press conference, "Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten!" (No one has the intention to erect a wall). It was the first time the colloquial term Mauer (wall) had been used in this context. Image File history File links Berlin_Wall_1961-11-20. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Wall_1961-11-20. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893 – August 1, 1973) was a German communist statesman. ...


August 12, 1961, the leaders of East Germany attended a garden party at Döllnsee. Construction of 156 km (97 miles) around the three western sectors began early on Sunday, August 13, 1961 in East Berlin, of which 43 km (27 mi.) actually divided West Berlin and East Berlin. The zonal boundary had been sealed that morning by East German troops. The barrier was built by East German troops and workers, not directly involving the Soviets. It was built slightly inside East German territory to ensure that it did not encroach on West Berlin at any point. Some streets running alongside the barrier were torn up to make them impassable to most vehicles, and a barbed-wire fence was erected, which was later built up into the full-scale Wall. It physically divided the city and completely surrounded West Berlin. During the construction of the Wall, NVA and KdA soldiers stood in front of it with orders to shoot anyone who attempted to defect. Additionally, the whole length of the border between East and West Germany was closed with chain fences, walls, minefields, and other installations. is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National People’s Army (German: Nationale Volksarmee) served as the military of the German Democratic Republic. ... Emblem of the Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse The Combat Groups of the Working Class (German: Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse, KdA) was a paramilitary organisation in East Germany, founded in 1953 and abolished in 1990. ... The sectors of occupation in 1949. ...


Immediate effects

The last readily accessible option for travel or emigration to West Germany had been closed for the vast majority of East Germans, many families were split and East Berliners were cut off from their jobs and from chances for financial improvement; West Berlin became an isolated enclave in a hostile land. West Berliners demonstrated against the wall, led by their mayor Willy Brandt, who strongly criticised the United States for failing to respond. Allied intelligence agencies had hypothesized about a wall to stop the flood of refugees, but the main candidate for its location was around the perimeter of the city. Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ...

US President John F. Kennedy visiting the Berlin Wall on June 26, 1963
US President John F. Kennedy visiting the Berlin Wall on June 26, 1963
From the East-Side 1968 the "Baby Wall" with flowers was the nearest point for visitors.
From the East-Side 1968 the "Baby Wall" with flowers was the nearest point for visitors.

John F. Kennedy had acknowledged in a speech on July 25, 1961, that the United States could hope to defend only West Berliners and West Germans; to attempt to stand up for East Germans would result only in an embarrassing downfall. Accordingly, the administration made polite protests at length via the usual channels, but without fervour, even though it was a violation of the postwar Potsdam Agreements, which gave the United Kingdom, France and the United States a say over the administration of the whole of Berlin. Indeed, a few months after the barbed wire was erected, the U.S. government informed the Soviet government that it accepted the Wall as "a fact of international life" and would not challenge it by force. Image File history File links Kennedy_in_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Kennedy_in_Berlin. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The East German government claimed that the Wall was an "anti-Fascist protective rampart" ("antifaschistischer Schutzwall")[2] intended to dissuade aggression from the West. Another official justification were the activities of western agents in Eastern Europe[5]. A yet different explanation was that West Berliners were buying out state-subsidized goods in East Berlin. Most of these positions were, however, viewed with skepticism even in East Germany, even more so since the border basically was only closed for citizens of East Germany travelling to the West, but not for residents of West Berlin travelling to the East[6]. The construction of the Wall had caused considerable hardship to families divided by it, and the view that the Wall was mainly a means of preventing the citizens of East Germany from entering West Berlin or fleeing was widely accepted.


An East German propaganda booklet published in 1955 outlined the seriousness of 'flight from the republic' to SED party agitators: Republikflucht is the German term given to the process by which people left the German Democratic Republic (GDR) for a life in West Germany or indeed any other Western country. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ...

Both from the moral standpoint as well as in terms of the interests of the whole German nation, leaving the GDR is an act of political and moral backwardness and depravity.

Those who let themselves be recruited objectively serve West German Reaction and militarism, whether they know it or not. Is it not despicable when for the sake of a few alluring job offers or other false promises about a "guaranteed future" one leaves a country in which the seed for a new and more beautiful life is sprouting, and is already showing the first fruits, for the place that favors a new war and destruction?


Is it not an act of political depravity when citizens, whether young people, workers, or members of the intelligentsia, leave and betray what our people have created through common labor in our republic to offer themselves to the American or British secret services or work for the West German factory owners, Junkers, or militarists? Does not leaving the land of progress for the morass of an historically outdated social order demonstrate political backwardness and blindness? ...


[W]orkers throughout Germany will demand punishment for those who today leave the German Democratic Republic, the strong bastion of the fight for peace, to serve the deadly enemy of the German people, the imperialists and militarists.[7]

Secondary response

It was clear both that West German morale needed lifting and that there was a serious potential threat to the viability of West Berlin. If West Berlin fell after all the efforts of the Berlin Airlift, how could any of America's other allies rely on it? On the other hand, in the face of any serious Soviet threat, an enclave like West Berlin could not be defended except with nuclear weapons.[8] As such, it was vitally important for the Americans to show the Soviets that they could push their luck no further. Occupation zones after 1945. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Accordingly, General Lucius D. Clay, an anti-communist who was known to have a firm attitude towards the Soviets, was sent to Berlin with ambassadorial rank as Kennedy's special advisor. He and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson arrived at Tempelhof Airport on the afternoon of Saturday August 19. Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Exterior of Tempelhof Airport. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


They arrived in a city defended by what would soon be known as the "Berlin Brigade", which then consisted of the 2nd and 3rd Battle Groups of the 6th Infantry, with Company F, 40th Armor. The battle groups were "pentatomic" (A flatter command structure with five battle groups instead of the old three regiments with three battalions and were also equipped with tactical nuclear weapons), with 1,362 officers and men each. On August 16, Kennedy had given the order for them to be reinforced. Early on August 19, the 1st Battle Group, 18th Infantry (commanded by Col. Glover S. Johns Jr.) was alerted. After the end of World War II, under the conditions of the Yalta and Potsdam agreements, Allied forces occupied West Berlin. ... American scientists examine a mockup of a W48 155-millimeter nuclear shell, a very small tactical nuclear weapon. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On Sunday morning, lead elements arranged in a column of 491 vehicles and trailers carrying 1,500 men divided into five march units and left the Helmstedt-Marienborn checkpoint at 06:34. At Marienborn, the Soviet checkpoint next to Helmstedt on the West German/East German border, U.S. personnel were counted by guards. The column was 160 km (~100 miles) long, and covered 177 km (~110 miles) from Marienborn to Berlin in full battle gear, with VoPos (East German police) watching from beside trees next to the autobahn all the way along. The front of the convoy arrived at the outskirts of Berlin just before noon, to be met by Clay and Johnson, before parading through the streets of Berlin to an adoring crowd. At 04:00 on August 21, Lyndon Johnson left a visibly reassured West Berlin in the hands of Gen. Frederick O. Hartel and his brigade of 4,224 officers and men. Every three months for the next three and a half years, a new American battalion was rotated into West Berlin by autobahn to demonstrate Allied rights. Helmstedt is a city located at the eastern edge of the German state of Lower Saxony. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The creation of the Wall had important implications for both German states. By stemming the exodus of people from East Germany, the East German government was able to reassert its control over the country: in spite of discontent with the wall, economic problems caused by dual currency and the black market were largely eliminated, and the economy in the east grew. However, the Wall proved a propaganda disaster for the communist bloc as a whole. Western powers used it as a symbol of communist tyranny, particularly after the shootings of would-be defectors (which were later treated as acts of murder by the reunified Germany). In 1987, Ronald Reagan gave a famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate, at which he challenged Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall". In West Germany, dismay that the Western powers had done nothing to prevent the Wall's creation led directly to the policy of Ostpolitik or rapprochement with the east, in an effort to stabilize the relationship of the two German states. Reagan redirects here. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ...


Layout and modifications

Position and course of the Berlin Wall and its border control checkpoints (1989)
Position and course of the Berlin Wall and its border control checkpoints (1989)
Satellite image of Berlin, with the wall's location marked in yellow.
Satellite image of Berlin, with the wall's location marked in yellow.

The Wall was over 155 kilometers (96 mi) long. In June 1962, work started on a second parallel fence up to 91 meters (100 yd) further into East German territory, with houses in between the fences torn down and their inhabitants relocated. A no man's land was created between the two barriers, which became widely known as the "death strip". It was paved with raked gravel, making it easy to spot footprints; it offered no cover; it was booby-trapped with tripwires; and, most importantly, it offered a clear field of fire to the watching guards. Over the years, the Wall went through four distinct phases: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x1100, 243 KB) Map Shows the Berlin Wall and the border control checkpoints until 1989. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x1100, 243 KB) Map Shows the Berlin Wall and the border control checkpoints until 1989. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1506x1347, 700 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin Wall ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1506x1347, 700 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin Wall ... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ...

  1. Basic wire fence (1961)
  2. Improved wire fence (1962–1965)
  3. Concrete wall (1965–1975)
  4. Grenzmauer 75 (Border Wall 75) (1975–1989)

The "fourth-generation wall", known officially as "Stützwandelement UL 12.11" (retaining wall element UL 12.11), was the final and most sophisticated version of the Wall. Begun in 1975[9] and completed about 1980,[10] it was constructed from 45,000 separate sections of reinforced concrete, each 3.6 meters (12 ft) high and 1.2 meters (4 ft) wide, and cost 16,155,000 East German Marks or about 3,638,000 United States Dollars.[11] The top of the wall was lined with a smooth pipe, intended to make it more difficult to scale. It was reinforced by mesh fencing, signal fencing, anti-vehicle trenches, barbed wire, dogs on long lines, "fakir beds" under balconies hanging over the "death strip", over 116 watchtowers,[12] and 20 bunkers. This version of the Wall is the one most commonly seen in photographs, and surviving fragments of the Wall in Berlin and elsewhere around the world are generally pieces of the fourth-generation Wall. The layout came to resemble the Inner German border in most technical aspects, except the Berlin Wall had no landmines and no Spring-guns. ISO 4217 Code DDM User(s) German Democratic Republic Pegged with Deutsche Mark = M11 Subunit 1/100 pfennig Symbol M Plural Mark pfennig Pfennig Coins Freq. ... USD redirects here. ... A fence in Westtown Township, Pennsylvania. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... A bed of nails is typically an oblong piece of wood, the size of a bed, with nails pointing upwards out of it. ... A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Many portions of the Berlin Wall have been given to institutions since its fall on November 9, 1989. ... The sectors of occupation in 1949. ... A spring-gun is a gun, often a shotgun, rigged to fire when a string or other triggering device is tripped by contact of sufficient force to spring the trigger so that anyone stumbling over or treading on them would discharge it and wound himself. ...


Official crossings and usage

There were eight border crossings between East and West Berlin, allowing visits by West Berliners, West Germans, western foreigners and Allied personnel into East Berlin, as well as visits of East German citizens into West Berlin, provided they held the necessary permit. Those crossings were restricted according to which nationality was allowed to use it (East Germans, West Germans, West Berliners, other countries). The most famous was Friedrichstraße (Checkpoint Charlie), which was restricted to Allied personnel and non-German citizens. Friedrichstraße - view to north The Friedrichstraße (pronounced in IPA) (Frederick Street) is a major shopping street in (east) central Berlin. ... Allied Checkpoint Charlie. ...


Several other border crossings existed between West Berlin and surrounding East Germany. These could be used for transit between West Germany and West Berlin, for visits by West Berliners into East Germany, for transit into countries neighbouring East Germany (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Denmark), and for visits by East Germans into West Berlin carrying a permit. After the 1972 agreements, new crossings were opened to allow West Berlin waste to be transported into East German dumps, as well as some crossings for access to West Berlin's exclaves (see Steinstücken). D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Steinstücken, a small settlement with approximately 200 inhabitants, is the southernmost territory of the Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf. ...

The famous you are leaving sign
The famous you are leaving sign

During most of the history of the Wall, Allied military personnel, officials, and diplomats were able to pass into East Berlin without passport check; likewise Soviet patrols could pass into West Berlin. This was a requirement of the post-war Four Powers Agreements. West Berliners were initially subject to very severe restrictions; all crossing points were closed to West Berliners between August 26, 1961 and December 17, 1963, and it was not until September 1971 that travel restrictions were eased following a Four Powers Agreement on transit issues. Passage in and out of West Berlin was limited to twelve crossing points on the Wall, though all but two of these were reserved for Germans. Image File history File links Berlin_leaving. ... Image File history File links Berlin_leaving. ... The term Four Powers usually refers to the four countries that occupied a defeated Germany after the end of the Second World War in 1945 - France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


Four motorways usable by West Germans connected West Berlin to West Germany, the most famous being Berlin-Helmstedt autobahn, which entered East German territory at the town of Helmstedt (Checkpoint Alpha) and connected to Berlin at Dreilinden (Checkpoint Bravo) in south-western Berlin. Access to West Berlin was also possible by railway (four routes) and by boat using canals and rivers. Map of the A 2 in Germany Bundesautobahn 2 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 2, short form Autobahn 2, abbreviated as BAB 2 or A 2) is an autobahn in Germany that connects the Ruhr area in the west to Berlin in the east. ... Helmstedt is a city located at the eastern edge of the German state of Lower Saxony. ...


Foreigners frequently and legally crossed the Wall, and the East Germans welcomed their hard currency[citation needed]. They were, of course, always subject to careful checks both entering and leaving. When exiting, the police would typically run a mirror under each vehicle to look for persons clinging to the undercarriage. East Germans were occasionally given permission to cross, and all pensioners were able to travel to the west freely. The border section in Potsdam was where the captured U-2 pilot Gary Powers was traded for Russian spy Rudolf Abel. Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Francis Gary Powers with a model of the U-2. ... Col. ...


Westerners could cross the border at Friedrichstraße station in East Berlin and at Checkpoint Charlie. When the Wall was erected, Berlin's complex public transit networks, the S-Bahn and U-Bahn, were divided with it.[13] Some lines were cut in half; many stations were shut down. Three Western lines traveled through brief sections of East Berlin territory, passing through eastern stations (called Geisterbahnhöfe, or ghost stations) without stopping. Both the eastern and western networks converged at Friedrichstraße, which became a major crossing point for those (mostly Westerners) with permission to cross. Berlins S-Bahn network The Berlin S-Bahn is a metro system operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn. ... Train leaving Nollendorfplatz, one of the original stations of the Berlin U-Bahn The Berlin (, English: ) is a major part of the public transport system of the German capital, Berlin. ... For the 2007 Thai film, see Ghost Station (film). ...


Escape attempts

NVA officer Conrad Schumann defecting to West Berlin during the wall early days in 1961.
NVA officer Conrad Schumann defecting to West Berlin during the wall early days in 1961.

During the Wall's existence there were around 5,000 successful escapes into West Berlin. The number of people who died trying to cross the wall or as a result of the wall's existence has been controversial. The most vocal claims by Alexandra Hildebrandt, Director of the Checkpoint Charlie Museum and widow of the Museum's founder estimated the death toll to be well above 200 people [2] while an ongoing historic research group at the Center for Contemporary Historical Research (ZZF) in Potsdam has confirmed 133 deaths.[14] Guards were told by East German authorities that people attempting to cross the wall were criminals and needed to be shot: "Do not hesitate to use your firearm, not even when the border is breached in the company of women and children, which is a tactic the traitors have often used," they said. [3] East German border guard, Conrad Schumann leaps to freedom over barbed wire in Berlin on 15 August, 1961; picture in the public domain. ... East German border guard, Conrad Schumann leaps to freedom over barbed wire in Berlin on 15 August, 1961; picture in the public domain. ... The National People’s Army (German: Nationale Volksarmee) served as the military of the German Democratic Republic. ... Conrad Schumann leaps into the French Sector of West Berlin over barbed wire on August 15, 1961 Hans Conrad Schumann(* March 28, 1942 in Leutewitz near Riesa; † June 20, 1998 in Oberemmendorf near Kipfenberg) was the first and one of the most famous escapees from East Germany. ... In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... The Checkpoint Charlie Museum exhibition opened just outside the Berlin Wall on 19 October 1962 in an apartment with only two and a half rooms in famous Bernauer Straße. ...

Peter Fechter lies dying after being shot by East German border guards. This photo achieved international notoriety, 1962.

Early successful escapes involved people jumping the initial barbed wire or leaping out of apartment windows along the line but these ended as the wall was fortified. On August 15, 1961, Conrad Schumann was the first East German border guard to escape by jumping the barbed wire to West Berlin. Later successful escape attempts included long tunnels, waiting for favorable winds and taking a hot air balloon, sliding along aerial wires, flying ultralights, and in one instance, simply driving a sports car at full speed through the basic, initial fortifications. When a metal beam was placed at checkpoints to prevent this kind of escape, up to four people (two in the front seats and possibly two in the boot) drove under the bar in a sports car that had been modified to allow the roof and wind screen to come away when it made contact with the beam. They simply lay flat and kept driving forward. This issue was rectified with zig-zagging roads at checkpoints. Peter Fechter dying As with Image:Peterfechter1. ... Peter Fechter dying As with Image:Peterfechter1. ... Portrait photograph of Peter Fechter Peter Fechter (14 January 1944 – 17 August 1962) was a bricklayer from East Berlin, who at the age of eighteen became one of the first victims of the Berlin Walls border guards. ... Bavarian Grepo badge Grepo is the short form of the German word for border police Grenzpolizei It is usually found in English referring to border guards in East Berlin, but can be used to refer to other border police, such as the Bavarian Border Police. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Conrad Schumann leaps into the French Sector of West Berlin over barbed wire on August 15, 1961 Hans Conrad Schumann(* March 28, 1942 in Leutewitz near Riesa; † June 20, 1998 in Oberemmendorf near Kipfenberg) was the first and one of the most famous escapees from East Germany. ... Huntair Pathfinder Mark 1 ultralight During the late 1970s and early 1980s, many people sought to be able to fly affordably. ...


Another airborne escape was by Thomas Krüger, who landed a Zlin Z-42M light aircraft of the Gesellschaft für Sport und Technik, an East German youth military training organization, at RAF Gatow. His aircraft, registration DDR-WOH, was dismantled and returned to the East Germans by road, complete with humorous slogans painted on by RAF Airmen such as "Wish you were here" and "Come back soon". DDR-WOH is still flying today, but under the registration D-EWOH. Zlín (during 1948-90 named Gottwaldov) is a city in Zlínský kraj (region), in southeastern Moravia, Czech Republic, on the Drevnice River, at 49. ... Known for most of its operational life as RAF Gatow, this former airfield is in the district of Gatow in south-western Berlin, west of the Havel river, in the borough of Spandau. ... RAF redirects here. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ...


If an escaper was wounded in a crossing attempt and lay on the death strip, no matter how close they were to the Western wall, they could not be rescued for fear of triggering engaging fire from the 'Grepos', the East Berlin border guards. The guards often let fugitives bleed to death in the middle of this ground, like in the most notorious failed attempt, that of Peter Fechter (aged 18). He was shot and bled to death in full view of the western media, on August 17, 1962. The last person to be killed while trying to cross the border was Chris Gueffroy on February 6, 1989. Portrait photograph of Peter Fechter Peter Fechter (14 January 1944 – 17 August 1962) was a bricklayer from East Berlin, who at the age of eighteen became one of the first victims of the Berlin Walls border guards. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chris Gueffroy (June 21, 1968 – February 6, 1989) was the last person to die trying to escape across the Berlin Wall. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Fall, 1989

United States President Ronald Reagan delivers his famed speech at the Berlin Wall in June of 1987, in which he called for Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "Tear Down This Wall!"
United States President Ronald Reagan delivers his famed speech at the Berlin Wall in June of 1987, in which he called for Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "Tear Down This Wall!"
The wall being dismantled at the Brandenburg Gate, February 17, 1990
The wall being dismantled at the Brandenburg Gate, February 17, 1990

On August 23, 1989, communist Hungary removed its border restrictions with Austria, and in September more than 13,000 East German tourists in Hungary escaped to Austria. Mass demonstrations against the government in East Germany began in October 1989. The long-time leader of East Germany, Erich Honecker, resigned on October 18, 1989, and was replaced by Egon Krenz a few days later. Honecker had predicted in January of that year that the wall would stand for a "hundred more years" if the conditions which had caused its construction did not change. Speaking in front of the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987 Ronald Reagan challenged reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down this wall. ... Speaking in front of the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987 Ronald Reagan challenged reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down this wall. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... Image File history File links Dismantling_the_berlin_wall. ... Image File history File links Dismantling_the_berlin_wall. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Monday demonstration in Leipzig The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 and 1990 (German: Montagsdemonstrationen) were a series of peaceful political protests against the government of the German Democratic Republic of East Germany. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ...


Protest demonstrations broke out all over East Germany in September 1989. Initially, they were of people wanting to leave to the West, chanting "Wir wollen raus!" ("We want out!"). Then protestors began to chant "Wir bleiben hier", ("We're staying here!"). This was the start of what East Germans generally call the "Peaceful Revolution" of late 1989. The protestors wanted to create "socialism with a human face," and by November 4, 1989, the protests had swelled significantly, with a million people gathered that day in Alexanderplatz in East Berlin[citation needed]. Socialism with a human face (in Czech: socialismus s lidskou tváří, in Slovak: socializmus s luďskou tvárou) was a political programme announced by Alexander Dubček and his colleagues when he became the chairman of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in January 1968. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Alexanderplatz from the Fernsehturm   is a large open square and public transport hub in Berlin city centre, near the river Spree and the Berliner Dom, at . Berliners often call it simply Alex. ...


Meanwhile the wave of refugees leaving East Germany for the West had increased and had found its way through Czechoslovakia, tolerated by the new Krenz government and in agreement with the communist Czechoslovak government. In order to ease the complications, the politburo led by Krenz decided on November 9, 1989, to allow refugees to exit directly through crossing points between East Germany and West Germany, including West Berlin. On the same day, the ministerial administration modified the proposal to include private travel. The new regulations were to take effect on November 10. Günter Schabowski, the East German Minister of Propaganda, had the task of announcing this; however he had been on vacation prior to this decision and had not been fully updated. Shortly before a press conference on November 9, 1989, he was handed a note that said that East Berliners would be allowed to cross the border with proper permission but given no further instructions on how to handle the information. These regulations had only been completed a few hours earlier and were to take effect the following day, so as to allow time to inform the border guards. However, nobody had informed Schabowski. He read the note out loud at the end of the conference and when asked when the regulations would come into effect, he assumed it would be the same day based on the wording of the note and replied "As far as I know effective immediately, without delay". After further questions from journalists he confirmed that the regulations included the border crossings towards West Berlin, which he had not mentioned until then. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Günter Schabowski (born January 4, 1929) was an official of the SED party in East Germany, famous for accidentally beginning the destruction of the GDR border system. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Tens of thousands of East Berliners heard Schabowski's statement live on East German television and flooded the checkpoints in the Wall demanding entry into West Berlin. The surprised and overwhelmed border guards made many hectic telephone calls to their superiors, but it became clear that there was no one among the East German authorities who would dare to take personal responsibility for issuing orders to use lethal force, so there was no way for the vastly outnumbered soldiers to hold back the huge crowd of East German citizens. In face of the growing crowd, the guards finally yielded, opening the checkpoints and allowing people through with little or no identity checking. Ecstatic East Berliners were soon greeted by West Berliners on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. November 9 is thus considered the date the Wall fell. In the days and weeks that followed, people came to the wall with sledgehammers in order to chip off souvenirs, demolishing lengthy parts of it in the process. These people were nicknamed "Mauerspechte" (wall woodpeckers). is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

A crane removing a section of the Berlin Wall near Brandenburg Gate on December 21, 1989
A crane removing a section of the Berlin Wall near Brandenburg Gate on December 21, 1989

The East German regime announced the opening of ten new border crossings the following weekend, including some in symbolic locations (Potsdamer Platz, Glienicker Brücke, Bernauer Straße). Crowds on both sides waited there for hours, cheering at the bulldozers who took parts of the Wall away to reinstate old roads. Photos and television footage of these events is sometimes mislabelled "dismantling of the Wall", even though it was merely the construction of new crossings. New border crossings continued to be opened through summer 1990, including the Brandenburg Gate on December 22, 1989. The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... The Berlin border crossings were created as a result of the postwar division of Germany. ... Roof of Sony Center. Potsdamer Platz is an important square and traffic intersection in the center of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the south east corner of the Tiergarten park. ... The famous Glienicke bridge in Berlin, used for exchange of spies during the Cold War The Glienicke bridge is a bridge in Berlin which spans the Havel River to connect the cities of Berlin and Potsdam. ... The Bernauer StraBe is one of the only three remaining locations of the Berlin wall. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


West Germans and West Berliners were allowed visa-free travel starting December 23, 1989. Until then they could only visit East Germany and East Berlin under restrictive conditions that involved application for a visa several days or weeks in advance, and obligatory exchange of at least 25 DM per day of their planned stay, all of which hindered spontaneous visits. Thus, in the weeks between November 9 and December 23, East Germans could travel "more freely" than Westerners. is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Former United States President Ronald Reagan is presented the famous but now obsolete 'you are leaving sign' at Tempelhof Airport on September 14, 1990.
Former United States President Ronald Reagan is presented the famous but now obsolete 'you are leaving sign' at Tempelhof Airport on September 14, 1990.

Technically the Wall remained guarded for some time after November 9, though at a decreasing intensity. In the first months, the East German military even tried to repair some of the damages done by the "wall peckers". Gradually these attempts ceased, and guards became more lax, tolerating the increasing demolitions and "unauthorised" border crossing through the holes. On June 13, 1990, the official dismantling of the Wall by the East German military began in Bernauer Straße. On July 1, the day East Germany adopted the West German currency, all border controls ceased, although the inter-German border had become meaningless for some time before that. The dismantling continued to be carried out by military units (after unification under the Bundeswehr) and lasted until November 1991. Only a few short sections and watchtowers were left standing as memorials. For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Tempelhof Central Airport, a. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Bernauer StraBe is one of the only three remaining locations of the Berlin wall. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ...


The fall of the Wall was the first step toward German reunification, which was formally concluded on October 3, 1990. This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Celebrations

Further information: Schicksalstag
Mstislav Rostropovich's impromptu concert during the fall of the Berlin Wall.

On December 25, 1989, Leonard Bernstein gave a concert in Berlin celebrating the end of the Wall, including Beethoven's 9th symphony (Ode to Joy) with the word "Joy" (Freude) changed to "Freedom" (Freiheit) in the text sung. The orchestra and chorus were drawn from both East and West Germany, as well as the United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States.[15] Schicksalstag (literally day of fate) is a label often used for 9 November due to the special importance of this day in German history. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... This article is about the composition. ... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement...


Roger Waters performed the Pink Floyd album The Wall in Potsdamer Platz on 21 July 1990, with guests including Scorpions, Bryan Adams, Sinead O'Connor, Thomas Dolby, Joni Mitchell, Marianne Faithfull and Van Morrison. David Hasselhoff performed his song "Looking for Freedom", which was very popular in Germany at that time, standing on the Berlin wall. George Roger Waters (born 6 September 1943) is an English rock musician; singer, guitarist, bassist, songwriter, and composer. ... The Wall: Live in Berlin (1990) On 21 July 1990, Roger Waters produced a massive concert staging of The Wall in Berlin. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... For other Pink Floyd works based around this album, see The Wall (Pink Floyd). ... Roof of Sony Center. Potsdamer Platz is an important square and traffic intersection in the center of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the south east corner of the Tiergarten park. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... For other bands named The Scorpions or other meanings of scorpion, see scorpion. ... For other persons of the same name, see Brian Adams. ... Sinéad OConnor (born December 8, 1966) is an Irish pop singer and songwriter. ... Thomas Dolby (born Thomas Morgan Robertson, on 14 October 1958) is an English musician, producer, and inventor. ... Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943) is a Canadian musician, songwriter, and painter. ... Marianne Faithfull (born 29 December 1946) is an English singer and actress whose career spans over four decades. ... George Ivan Morrison OBE (generally known as Van Morrison) (born August 31, 1945) is a Grammy Award-winning Irish singer, songwriter, author, poet and multi-instrumentalist, who has been a professional musician since the late 1950s. ... David Michael Hasselhoff (born July 17, 1952 in Baltimore, Maryland), nicknamed The Hoff, is an American actor who was best known for his lead roles on Knight Rider and Baywatch. ...


Some believe November 9 would have made a suitable German National Holiday, since it both marks the emotional apogee of East Germany's peaceful revolution and is also the date of the declaration of the first German republic, the Weimar Republic, in 1918. However, November 9 is also the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch and the infamous Kristallnacht pogroms of 1938 and, therefore, October 3 was chosen instead. Part of this decision was that the East German government wanted to conclude reunification before East Germany could celebrate a 41st anniversary on October 7, 1990[citation needed]. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Legacy

Almost all of the remaining sections of Berlin Wall were rapidly chipped away. Photo December 1990.
Almost all of the remaining sections of Berlin Wall were rapidly chipped away. Photo December 1990.
Remaining stretch of the Wall near Ostbahnhof in Friedrichshain, August 2006
Remaining stretch of the Wall near Ostbahnhof in Friedrichshain, August 2006
A memorial of over 1,000 crosses and a segment of the wall for those who died attempting to cross. The memorial stood for ten months in 2004 and 2005 before being demolished.

Little is left of the Wall at its original site, which was destroyed almost everywhere. Three long sections are still standing: an 80-meter (263 ft) piece of the "first (westernmost) wall" at the site of the former Gestapo headquarter half way between Checkpoint Charlie and Potsdamer Platz; a longer section of the "second (easternmost) wall" along the Spree River near the Oberbaumbrücke nicknamed East Side Gallery; and a third section with hints of the full installation, but partly reconstructed, in the north at Bernauer Straße, which was turned into a memorial in 1999. Some other isolated fragments and a few watchtowers also remain in various parts of the city. None still accurately represent the Wall's original appearance. They are badly damaged by souvenir seekers, and fragments of the Wall both with and without certificates of authenticity are a staple on the online auction service eBay as well as German souvenir shops. Moreover, the eastern side is covered in graffiti that did not exist while the Wall was guarded by the armed soldiers of East Germany. Previously, graffiti appeared only on the western side. Along the tourist areas of the city centre, the city government has marked the location of the former wall by a row of cobblestones in the street. In most places only the "first" wall is marked, except near Potsdamer Platz where the stretch of both walls is marked, giving visitors an impression of the dimension of the barrier system. Pieces of the wall were taken and sold around the world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x730, 190 KB) A view of the East side of the en:Berlin Wall, taken in 1990 (after the border was opened). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x730, 190 KB) A view of the East side of the en:Berlin Wall, taken in 1990 (after the border was opened). ... Image File history File links The Berlin Wall near Potsdamer Platz Photo taken 7 June 2003 by djmutex yozah!!!!!!!!!!!!! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The Berlin Wall near Potsdamer Platz Photo taken 7 June 2003 by djmutex yozah!!!!!!!!!!!!! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 673 KB) Summary Self Made Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 673 KB) Summary Self Made Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Allied Checkpoint Charlie. ... Roof of Sony Center. Potsdamer Platz is an important square and traffic intersection in the center of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the south east corner of the Tiergarten park. ... This article is about the river in Germany. ... An U-Bahn train crosses the Oberbaumbrücke Oberbaumbrücke is a bridge crossing Berlins Rive Spree. ... East Side Gallery The East Side Gallery is an international memorial for freedom. ... The Bernauer StraBe is one of the only three remaining locations of the Berlin wall. ... A Certificate of Authenticity with a Coin Set A Certificate of Authenticity (COA) is a seal or small sticker on a proprietary computer program, t-shirt, jersey, or any other memorabilia item, especially in the world of computers and sports, which is designed to demonstrate that the item is authentic. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ...


Museum

Fifteen years after the fall, a private museum rebuilt a 200-metre (656 ft) section close to Checkpoint Charlie, although not in the location of the original wall. They also raised more than 1,000 crosses in memory of those who died attempting to flee to the West. The memorial was installed in October 2004 and demolished in July 2005.[16] Allied Checkpoint Charlie. ...


Cultural differences

Even now, some years after reunification, there is still talk in Germany of cultural differences between East and West Germans (colloquially Ossis and Wessis), sometimes described as "Mauer im Kopf" ("The wall in the head"). A September 2004 poll found that 25% of West Germans and 12% of East Germans wished that East Germany and West Germany were again cut off by the Berlin Wall.[17] Ossi is an informal name for citizens of the (former) German Democratic Republic (East Germany), especially since reunification. ... Wessi is the informal name that people in Germany call citizens of West Germany before re-unification. ...


See also

tubgirl. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... Der Tunnel is a 2001 film by German director Roland Suso Richter that is loosely based on a true story about an expanding group of people who dug a tunnel in Berlin in the early 1960s to get friends and family from the East Germany to West Germany. ... Allied Checkpoint Charlie. ... Operation Gold (also known as Operation Stopwatch by the British) was a joint operation conducted by the American CIA and the British Secret Intelligence Service to tap into landline communication of the Soviet Army headquarters in Berlin using a tunnel into the Soviet-occupied zone. ... Ostalgie is a German term (the English equivalent would be eastalgia) referring to nostalgia for life in the former East Germany. ... The German term Schießbefehl (which may also be transliterated as Schiessbefehl and which means firing order) was the common term to refer to Befehl 101 (Order 101), a standing order that instructed border patrols of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) to prevent border penetration by... U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... Many portions of the Berlin Wall have been given to institutions since its fall on November 9, 1989. ... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech Wałęsa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Panmunjeom in Gyeonggi province is a village on the de facto border between North and South Korea, where the 1953 armistice that halted the Korean War was signed. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Researchers Confirm 125 Berlin Wall Deaths | Germany | Deutsche Welle | 09.08.2006
  2. ^ a b c Goethe-Institut - Topics - German-German History
  3. ^ a b E German 'licence to kill' found. BBC (2007-08-12). Retrieved on 2007-08-12. “A newly discovered order is the firmest evidence yet that the communist regime gave explicit shoot-to-kill orders, says Germany's director of Stasi files.”
  4. ^ Hope Millard Harrison, Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953–1961, footnote p. 240. Princeton University Press, 2003
  5. ^ "Die Regierungen der Warschauer Vertragsstaaten wenden sich an die Volkskammer und an die Regierung der DDR mit dem Vorschlag, an der Westberliner Grenze eine solche Ordnung einzuführen, durch die der Wühltätigkeit gegen die Länder des sozialistischen Lagers zuverlässig der Weg verlegt und ringsum das ganze Gebiet West-Berlins eine verlässliche Bewachung gewährleistet wird." Die Welt: Berlin wird geteilt
  6. ^ Neues Deutschland: Normales Leben in Berlin, Aug. 14th, 1961
  7. ^ English translation of "Wer die Deutsche Demokratische Republik verläßt, stellt sich auf die Seite der Kriegstreiber" ("He Who Leaves the German Democratic Republic Joins the Warmongers", Notizbuch des Agitators ("Agitator's Notebook"), published by the Socialist Unity Party's Agitation Department, Berlin District, November 1955.
  8. ^ First Strike Options and the Berlin Crisis, September 1961
  9. ^ Facts of Berlin Wall - History of Berlin Wall
  10. ^ http://www.wall-berlin.org/gb/mur.htm
  11. ^ Fourth Generation of Berlin Wall - History of Berlin Wall
  12. ^ " The Berlin wall : History of Berlin Wall : Facts "
  13. ^ http://www.wall-berlin.org/gb/mur.htm
  14. ^ http://www.chronik-der-mauer.de/index.php/de/Start/Index/id/593792 Center for Contemporary Historical Research (Zentrum für Zeithistorische Forschung Potsdam e.V) in German
  15. ^ Naxos (2006). Ode To Freedom - Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (NTSC). Naxos.com Classical Music Catalogue. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. This is the publisher's catalogue entry for a DVD of Bernstein's Christmas 1989 "Ode to Freedom" concert. David Hasslehoff Sang during the fall of the Berlin wall
  16. ^ Furlong, Ray (July 5, 2005). Berlin Wall memorial is torn down. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-02-23.
  17. ^ Reuters (September 8, 2004). One in 5 Germans wants Berlin Wall rebuilt. MSNBC. Retrieved on 2006-02-23.

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

This article is about the conservative journalist and commentator. ... Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rory MacLean is a Canadian travel writer living in the UK whose best known works are Stalin’s Nose, a black and surreal travelogue through eastern Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall, and Magic Bus, a history of the Asia Overland hippie trail. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Peter Schneider (born 1940) is a German novelist. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Information Berlin Wall and East-Berlin (in German)
  • Retracing the Berlin Wall
  • Bernauer Straße Memorial website
  • Information on the East German border system (in German)
  • Allied Forces in Berlin (FR, UK & US Berlin Brigade)
  • Photographs of time of the Fall as well as updates on the current situation in Germany
  • Reports on reinforcements to Berlin Brigade
  • JFK speech clarifying limits of American protection
  • "Berlin 1969" includes sections on Helmstedt-Berlin rail operations.
  • Includes articles on rail transport for Berlin during the Cold War. (large files)
  • Berlin 1983: Berlin and the Wall in the early 1980s
  • Berlin Life: A concise but thorough history of the wall
  • Berlin Wall: Past and Present
  • The Lives of Others official website
  • Important Berlin Wall Dates
  • The Lost Border: Photographs of the Iron Curtain

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Images and personal accounts

  • Gallery of annotated photographs of the Berlin Wall
  • Virtual e-Tours "The Wall" Shockwave Player required
  • Photos of the Berlin Wall by Georges Rosset
  • Photos of the Berlin Wall 1989 to 1999
  • (Italian) [Borders: spotting the past along Berlin death strip. 2007 BW photo gallery.
  • Berlin Wall Pieces for Sale
  • Berlin Wall Panorama of the East Side Gallery
  • images of the Berlin wall
  • One Day In Berlin: Tracing The Wall
  • Berlin Wall Online, Chronicle of the Berlin Wall history includes an archive of photographs and texts
  • Personal Account of the Fall of the Berlin Wall
  • Berlin Wall, Past and Present, Descriptions, Videos, Images of Berlin Wall
  • Berlin Wall - Personal Stories
  • Photos of the Berlin Wall 1962-1990 (German text)
  • A large number of collected images in the Flickr Berlin Wall group

For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Peoples Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45,000 (in 1983) 150... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Berlin Wall Maps (211 words)
After World War II the city of Berlin was divided in four sectors.
Until the erection of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961 Berlin citizen were allowed to cross the border sectors from West to East or East to West Berlin.
The after 1976 white painted Wall became also reality on city maps in East Berlin: West Berlin was a white area on city maps published in the East.
Facts of Berlin Wall - History of Berlin Wall (257 words)
The Berlin Wall was erected in the night of August 13, 1961.
The first Wall was improved during the next years and it's difficult to distinguish between the first and the second generation of the Wall.
The third generation of Wall consisted of concrete slabs between steel girder and concrete posts with a concrete sewage pipe on top of the Wall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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