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Encyclopedia > Berlin Blockade
Occupation zones after 1945. Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone

The Berlin Blockade (June 24, 1948 to May 11, 1949) was one of the first major crises of the new Cold War. It began when the Soviets blocked railroad and street access by the three Western powers (the Americans, British, and French) to the Western-occupied sectors of Berlin. The crisis abated after the Western powers bypassed the blockade by establishing the Berlin Airlift, demonstrating both their dedication to the cause of supplying their zones, as well as the industrial might of the West and its air force's capabilities. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An international crisis is a crisis between nations. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...

Contents

Postwar division of Germany

When World War II ended in Europe on May 8, 1945, Soviet and Western (U.S., British) troops were stretched across Germany on a line running roughly along the Elbe, although branching off in several locations. Units of the reforming French army were also present in southwest Germany. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


From July 17 to August 2, 1945, the victorious Allied Powers reached the Potsdam Agreement on the fate of postwar Europe, calling for the division of the defeated Germany into four occupation zones (thus reaffirming principles laid out earlier by the Yalta Conference), roughly located around their army's current locations. Additionally, Berlin would be divided into four pieces, but because of the city's location, the French, American, and British sectors of Berlin were surrounded by the Soviet occupation zone. Administration of occupied Germany was coordinated by the Four Power Allied Control Council (ACC). is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... The ACA headquarters The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, was the name of a military occupation governing body of Germany at the end of World War II in Europe; the members were the United States, United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ...


Part of the overall agreement was encoded in the Morgenthau plan, which was based on the basic concept that Germany's economy would be re-constructed at 50% of its 1938 capacity so that a militarized Germany could not arise in the future. The Soviets were very much in favor of the plans, a response to the repeated German assaults on Russia. As Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov told United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes in 1946, they wanted to see a united Germany that could be neutralized after the Soviet Union received industrial reparations. The U.S.'s JCS 1067 reflected these goals, stating that the U.S. occupation would "…take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany [or] designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy." As a part of these plans, factories in the U.S. Zone of control were disassembled and sent eastward, thereby fulfilling both the reduction in German industrial capacity and the provision of Soviet reparations. The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ...


Differing views

The effects of the Morgenthau plan were far more wide-reaching than originally predicted. The role of a strong German industrial economy in the economy of Europe as a whole was not appreciated, and its suppression was having widespread effects on Europe as a whole. Conditions became so bad that William L. Clayton, an economic adviser to President Harry S. Truman at the Potsdam Conference, reported to Washington that "millions of people are slowly starving." William L. Clayton on the cover of Time Magazine, August 17, 1936 William Lockhart Clayton February 7, 1880 - February 8, 1966 was an American business leader and government official. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ...


At first this had no effect on U.S. policy, which continued to follow the Morgenthau plan as encoded in JCS 1067. But in view of increased concerns by General Lucius D. Clay and the Joint Chief of Staff over growing communist influence in Germany, as well as of the failure of the rest of the European economy to recover, in the summer of 1947 Secretary of State General George Marshall, citing "national security grounds" was finally able to convince Truman to rescind directive JCS 1067, and replace it with JCS 1779. JCS 1779 was completely opposed to JCS 1067, stating among other things that "An orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany.” Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a panel comprising the highest-ranking members of each major branch of the armed services in any particular country. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ...


As part of the developing Marshall Plan, large sums of U.S. capital were freed up for use by any European nation that requested it. Stalin was highly suspect of the U.S. plans, both as it interfered with his wishes to keep Germany as a non-military "buffer", as well as feeling that the U.S. aid would "buy" Europe's re-alignment in a new sort of imperial expansion. He stated "This is a ploy by Truman. It is nothing like Lend-Lease - a different situation. They don't want to help us. What they want is to infiltrate European countries."[1] Molotov was initially interested in the program and attended early meetings, but later described it as "dollar imperialism". Stalin eventually forbade any countries of the newly-formed Cominform from accepting the aid, which required some strong-arm tactics in the case of Czechoslovakia.[2] Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Vyacheslav Molotov Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov (Russian: Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов) (vyah-cheh-SLAHF mih-KHY-lo-vihch MOL-uh-tawf) (February 25, 1890 (O.S.) (March 9, 1890 (N.S.))–November 8, 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat. ... Dollar imperialism was a term coined by Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, the Soveit Foreign Minister at the start of the Cold War. ... The Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties. It was the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, and confirmed the new realities after World...


As the U.S. and USSR policies toward post-war Germany changed in light of the terrible economic conditions, the former Allies grew apart. To Joseph Stalin it remained essential to destroy Germany's capacity for another war, which conflicted with the U.S. desire to rebuild Germany as the economic center of a stable Europe. Little common ground could be found, and attempts to further clarify post-war planning for a unified Germany became moribund. In 1946 the Soviets stopped delivering agricultural goods from their zone in the east, and Clay responded by stopping the shipment of dismantled industries from the west. As a result of this, the Soviets started a public relations campaign against American policy and began to obstruct the administrative work of all four sectors. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


The U.S. stance was that if it could not reunify Germany with Soviet cooperation, the West should develop the western, industrial portions of postwar Germany controlled by Britain and the United States, and integrate these areas into a new western European sphere known as the "Bizone", or when France was added, the Trizone. Led by the United States, the three major Western Allied Powers reached an agreement on this approach during a series of meetings in London from February to June 1948. As outlined in an announcement on March 7, 1948, the London Conference declared support for fusing the three Western zones of Germany into an independent, federal form of government, and bringing Western zones into the U.S.-led economic reconstruction efforts. Occupation zones of Germany after 1945 The Bizone was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones during the occupation of Germany after World War II. With the addition of the French occupation zone, the entity became the Trizone. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Focus on Berlin

Berlin quickly became the focal point of both sides' efforts to re-align Europe in their respective visions. As Molotov noted, "What happens to Berlin, happens to Germany; what happens to Germany, happens to Europe."[3] A key event took place earlier in 1946 when the Berlin public overwhelmingly elected democratic members to the city council with an 86% majority, rejecting the communist delegates in the process. It appeared that any future effort to reunite Germany would lead to the expulsion of the Soviet elements, and recent western moves demonstrated that they would be more than willing to support such an outcome.


The ACC met for the last time on March 20, 1948. After asking for details of the London meetings and failing to get them immediately, Vasily Sokolovsky stated "I see no sense in continuing this meeting, and I declare it adjourned." The entire Soviet delegation arose and walked out. Sokolovsky was the chair of the council during March and therefore in charge of calling future meetings. He simply didn't call any, and the ACC effectively ended. Truman later noted "For most of Germany, this act merely formalized what had been an obvious fact for some time, namely, that the four-power control machinery had become unworkable. For the city of Berlin, however, this was the curtain-raiser for a major crisis."[2] is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Василий Данилович Соколовский) (July 21, 1897 - May 10, 1968), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno, near Białystok in Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). ...


On March 31 the Soviets increased the pressure on the west by demanding that every train entering Berlin from the western zones be examined. Several U.S. and British trains "forced the issue" with varied results, so General Lucius D. Clay, commander of the U.S. occupation zone in Germany, ordered all military trains to stop making the trip. Instead, he started an airlift, later to be known as the Little Lift, in order to supply the U.S. garrison with food and ammunition. The Little Lift lasted only about ten days, during which the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) flew in about 300 tons of supplies. The Soviets eased their restrictions on Allied military trains on April 10, 1948 but continued to periodically interrupt rail and road traffic during the next 75 days. Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces in Europe. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Currency Crisis

In February 1948, the United States and British had proposed to the ACC that a new German currency be created, replacing the over-circulated and devalued Reichsmark. The Soviets refused to accept this proposal, hoping to continue the German recession in keeping with their policy of a weak Germany. The three Western powers continued to work on their new currency in secret, and introduced Deutsche Mark in their occupation zones on June 21, 1948. The Soviets refused to honor the currency, even in Berlin, but Allies had already smuggled two hundred and fifty million Deutschmarks into the city, and it quickly became the standard currency in the western zones. A 100 Reichsmark banknote from Germany of 1935 (http://www. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The new currency, along with the Marshall Plan that backed it, appeared to be able to revitalize Germany against the wishes of the Soviets. Worse, by introducing the currency into western Berlin, it threatened to create a bastion of economic resurgence deep within the Soviet zone. This provocation demanded a Soviet response; Stalin wanted the West out of Berlin.


Berlin Airlift

Blockade

On June 12, 1948 the Soviet Union declared that the Autobahn leading into Berlin from West Germany was "closed for repairs." Three days later road traffic between the sectors was halted, and on June 21 all barge traffic into the city was stopped. Finally, on June 24 the Soviets announced that due to "technical difficulties" there would be no more rail traffic to and from Berlin. The following day they announced that the Soviet sector would not supply food to the sectors of the city that were under Western administration. The Western powers had never negotiated a pact with the Soviets guaranteeing these passage rights. The Soviets rejected arguments that occupation rights in Berlin and the use of the routes during the previous three years had given the West legal claim to unimpeded use of the highways, tunnels, and railroads. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time, Berlin had thirty-five days' worth of food and forty-five days' worth of coal. Militarily the U.S. and British were greatly outnumbered due to the demobilization of their armies with the end of the war, something the Soviets had not matched due to a variety of factors. If a war started, the city would be lost. General Lucius D. Clay, in charge of the U.S. occupation zone in Germany, summed up the reasons for staying in a cable to Washington on June 13, 1948, "There is no practicability in maintaining our position in Berlin and it must not be evaluated on that basis... We are convinced that our remaining in Berlin is essential to our prestige in Germany and in Europe. Whether for good or bad, it has become a symbol of the American intent."[4] Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Clay felt that the Soviets were bluffing, and would not start a war over Berlin. He proposed sending a large armored column driving peacefully, as a moral right, down the Autobahn from West Germany to West Berlin, but with instructions to fire if it were stopped or attacked. President Truman, however, following the consensus in Congress, stated, "It is too risky to engage in this due to the consequence of war." This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Deciding on an airlift

Air corridors to Berlin.

Although the ground routes had never been negotiated, the same was not true of the air. On November 30, 1945, it was agreed, in writing, that there would be three twenty-mile wide air corridors providing free access to the city. Additionally, unlike a force of tanks, the Soviets could not claim that cargo aircraft were some sort of military threat. In the face of an unarmed aircraft refusing to turn around, the only way to enforce the blockade would be to shoot them down. An airlift would force the Soviet Union into the position of either taking military action in a morally reprehensible fashion that would break their own agreements, or backing down. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 572 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (977 × 1024 pixel, file size: 355 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 572 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (977 × 1024 pixel, file size: 355 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Forcing this decision would require the airlift to actually work, however. If the supplies could not be flown in fast enough, Soviet help would eventually be needed in order to prevent starvation. Clay was told to take advice from General Curtis LeMay, commander of United States Air Forces in Europe, to see if an airlift was possible. LeMay replied "We can haul anything."[5] Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906–October 3, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. ... Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces in Europe. ...


When the American forces consulted the British Royal Air Force about a possible joint airlift, they learned that the RAF was already running an airlift in support of their own troops in Berlin. Clay's counterpart, Commander Sir Brian Robertson, was ready with some concrete numbers. During the Little Lift earlier that year, British Air Commodore Reginald Waite had calculated the resources required to support the entire city. His calculations indicated they would need to supply seventeen hundred calories per person per day, consisting of 646 tons of flour and wheat, 125 tons of cereal, 64 tons of fat, 109 tons of meat and fish, 180 tons of dehydrated potatoes, 180 tons of sugar, 11 tons of coffee, 19 tons of powdered milk, 5 tons of whole milk for children, 3 tons of fresh yeast for baking, 144 tons of dehydrated vegetables, 38 tons of salt and 10 tons of cheese. In total, 1,534 tons were needed daily to keep the over 2 million people alive.[5] Additionally, the city needed to be kept heated and powered, which would require another 3,475 tons of coal and gasoline.[6] RAF redirects here. ... Brian Hubert Robertson, 1st Baron Robertson of Oakridge, GCB, GBE KCMG, KCVO, DSO, MC (22 July 1896–29 April 1974) was a British Army General. ...

C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport during Berlin Airlift.

Carrying this out would not be easy. The post-war demobilization had left the U.S. forces in Europe with only two squadrons of C-47 Skytrains, which carried around 3.5 tons of cargo. Clay estimated they would be able to haul about 300 tons of supplies a day. The RAF was somewhat better prepared as they had already moved some aircraft into the area, and they expected to be able to supply about 400 tons a day. This was not nearly enough to move the 5,000 tons a day that would be needed, but these numbers could be increased as new aircraft arrived from England and the U.S. The RAF would be relied on to increase their numbers quickly; they could fly additional aircraft in from England in a single hop, bringing their fleet to about 150 C-47s and 40 of the larger Avro Yorks with 10 ton payload. With this fleet the British contribution was expected to rise to 750 tons a day in the short term. For a longer-term operation the U.S. would have to add additional aircraft as soon as possible, and they would have to be as large as possible while still able to fly into the Berlin airports. Only one such aircraft was suitable, the C-54 Skymaster. The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... The Avro York was a passenger and freight transport of the 1940s, in both military and civilian applications. ... The Douglas C-54 Skymaster was a four-engined transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Force in World War II. Like the C-47 Skytrain, the C-54 Skymaster was derived from a civilian airliner (the DC-4). ...


Given the feasibility assessment made by the British, the airlift concept appeared to be the best course of action. A remaining concern was the population of Berlin. Clay called in Ernst Reuter, the Mayor-elect of Berlin, who was accompanied by his aide, Willy Brandt. Clay told Reuter, "Look, I am ready to try an airlift. I can't guarantee it will work. I am sure that even at its best, people are going to be cold and people are going to be hungry. And if the people of Berlin won't stand that, it will fail. And I don't want to go into this unless I have your assurance that the people will be heavily in approval." Reuter, although skeptical, assured Clay that Berlin would make all the necessary sacrifices and that the Berliners would support his actions.[4] Ernst Reuter, 1950 Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter (born July 29, 1889 in Apenrade (today Aabenraa, Denmark); died September 29, 1953 in Berlin) was the mayor of West Berlin from 1948 to 1953, during the time of the Cold War. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ...


General Albert Wedemeyer, the U.S. Army Chief of Plans and Operations, was in Europe on an inspection tour when the crisis occurred. He had been commander of the U.S. China Theater in 1944–45 and had an intimate knowledge of the World War II Allied airlift from India over The Hump of the Himalayas. He was in favor of the airlift option, giving it a major boost.[4] The British and Americans agreed to start a joint operation without delay; the U.S. action retained the name "Operation Vittles," while the British one was called "Operation Plainfare." This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the name used by the United States Army for its forces in China, Burma, India during World War II. Well-known US units in this theater included the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the engineers who built Ledo Road, and... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew from India to China to resupply the Flying Tigers and the Chinese Government of Chiang Kai-shek. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...


The Airlift begins

Loading milk on a West Berlin-bound plane

On June 24, 1948, LeMay appointed Brigadier General Joseph Smith, commander of the Wiesbaden Military Post, as the Task Force Commander of the airlift. On June 25, 1948, Clay gave the order to launch Operation Vittles. The next day thirty-two C-47 cargo planes lifted off for Berlin hauling 80 tons of cargo including milk, flour, and medicine. The first British aircraft flew on June 28. At that time, the airlift was expected to last three weeks. Image File history File links Berlin_Blockade_Milk. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Blockade_Milk. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the 27th, Clay cabled William Draper with an estimate of the current situation: William Henry Draper born in 1801 who served as Premier of the Province of Canada between 1841 and 1842. ...

I have already arranged for our maximum airlift to start on Monday [June 28]. For a sustained effort, we can use seventy Dakotas [C-47s]. The number which the British can make available is not yet known, although General Robertson is somewhat doubtful of their ability to make this number available. Our two Berlin airports can handle in the neighborhood of fifty additional airplanes per day. These would have to be C-47s, C-54s or planes with similar landing characteristics, as our airports cannot take larger planes. LeMay is urging two C-54 groups. With this airlift, we should be able to bring in 600 or 700 tons a day. While 2,000 tons a day is required in normal foods, 600 tons a day (utilizing dried foods to the maximum extent) will substantially increase the morale of the German people and will unquestionably seriously disturb the Soviet blockade. To accomplish this, it is urgent that we be given approximately 50 additional transport planes to arrive in Germany at the earliest practicable date, and each day's delay will of course decrease our ability to sustain our position in Berlin. Crews would be needed to permit maximum operation of these planes.
 
Lucius D. Clay, June 1948, [4]

By July 1 the system was starting to come into action. C-54s were starting to arrive in quantity, and the Rhein-Main Air Base was made exclusive C-54 depot, while Wiesbaden retained a mix of C-54s and C-47s. Aircraft flew east-northeast into Tempelhof Airport on one of the three air corridors, then returned due west flying out on a second. After reaching the British Zone, they turned south to return to their bases. Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... Rhein-Main Air Base (located at ) was a U.S. Air Force / NATO military airbase near the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Tempelhof Central Airport, a. ...


The British ran a similar system, flying roughly south-southeast from a variety of airports in the Hamburg area into Gatow Airport in the British Sector, and then returning out on the same air corridor as the U.S., turning for home or landing at Hanover. On July 5, the Yorks and Dakotas were joined by ten Short Sunderlands and, later, by Short Hythe flying boats. Flying from Finkenwerder on the Elbe near Hamburg to the Havel river next to Gatow, their corrosion-resistant hulls lent them to the particular task of delivering table salt into the city. Alongside the British and U.S. personnel were aircrews from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Known for most of its operational life as RAF Gatow, this former airfield is in the district of Gatow in south-western Berlin, west of the Havel river, in the borough of Spandau. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Short S.25 Sunderland was a British flying boat patrol bomber developed for the Royal Air Force by Short Brothers, first flown on 16 October 1937 by Shorts Chief Test Pilot, John Lankester Parker. ... First Touch Down of A380 in Finkenwerder Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (IATA: XFW, ICAO: EDHI) is an airport in the southwest part of Hamburg, Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Havel (disambiguation). ...


In order to accommodate the large number of flights, required maintenance schedules, and cargo loading times, Smith developed a complex schedule and pattern for arranging flights. Aircraft were scheduled to take off every three minutes, flying 500 feet higher than the previous flight. This pattern began at 5,000 feet and was repeated five times.[7]


During the first week the airlift averaged only ninety tons a day, but by the second week it reached 1000 tons. This likely would have sufficed had the effort lasted only a few weeks, as originally believed. The Communist press in East Berlin, for its part, ridiculed the efforts. It derisively referred to "the futile attempts of the Americans to save face and to maintain their untenable position in Berlin."[8]


Black Friday

As it became clear the Soviets were not going to relent any time soon, more drastic measures were called for. On July 27, 1948 Lt. General William H. Tunner of the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) took over the operation. Tunner had significant experience in commanding and organizing the airlift over The Hump.[4] He took over command of the entire airlift operation, creating the Combined Airlift Task Force at Tempelhof. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... William H. Tunner Lt. ...


Shortly after arriving to take command, on July 28, 1948 Tunner decided to fly into Berlin to grant an award to Lt. Paul O. Lykins, an airlift pilot who had made the most flights into Berlin up until that time. Cloud cover over Berlin descended to the height of the buildings, and heavy rain showers made radar visibility poor. A C-54 crashed and burned at the end of the runway, and a second that landed behind him blew its tires trying to stop to avoid hitting it. A third ground looped on the auxiliary runway, closing the entire airport. Tunner got on the radio and ordered all aircraft to return home immediately. This became known as "Black Friday".


As a result of this experience, Tunner instituted a number of new rules; instrument flight rules would be in effect at all times, regardless of actual visibility, and each sortie would have only one chance to land in Berlin, returning to its base if it missed its chance. Accident rates and delays dropped immediately. Another decision came about due to the realization that it took just as long to unload a 3.5 ton C-47 as it did to unload a 10 ton C-54. One of the reasons for this was the C-47's slanted floor made truck loading difficult, whereas the C-54 was level and a truck could back up to it and cargo could be unloaded quickly. Tunner decided to remove the C-47 from the Airlift. It has been suggested that Air traffic control#Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) be merged into this article or section. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ...


Another change was aimed at improving efficiency. Having noticed there were long delays as the flight crews returned to their aircraft from the terminal when getting refreshments, Tunner ordered that the aircrew could not leave their aircraft for any reason while in Berlin. Instead, he equipped trucks as mobile snack bars and staffed by some of the prettiest Berlin girls, handing out refreshments to the pilots while they remained in the cockpit. As Gail Halvorsen later noted, "he put some beautiful German Frauleins in that snackbar. They knew we couldn't date them, we had no time. So they were very friendly."[6] Gail Halvorsen (born October 10, 1922 in Salt Lake City, Utah) was an American pilot of C-47s and C-54s during the Berlin airlift (Operation Vittles) 1948–1949. ...


The Berliners themselves solved the other problem of a lack of manpower. Crews unloading and making repairs at the Berlin airports were replaced almost entirely by locals, who were given additional rations in return. As the crews improved, the times for unloading continued to fall, with a record being set by unloading an entire 10 ton load of coal from a C-54 in ten minutes. This was later beaten when a twelve-man crew unloaded the same load in five minutes and 45 seconds.


By the end of July, after only one month, the Airlift was succeeding; daily operations flew more than fifteen hundred flights a day and delivered more than 4,500 tons of cargo, enough to keep the city supplied. All of the C-47s were withdrawn by the end of September, and 225 C-54s were devoted to the lift. Supplies improved to 5,000 tons a day.


Operation Little Vittles

U.S. Air Force pilot Gail Halvorsen, who pioneered the idea of dropping candy bars and bubble gum with little handmade miniature parachutes, which later became known as "Operation Little Vittles".

Gail Halvorsen, one of the many Airlift pilots, decided to use his offtime to fly into Berlin and make movies with his handheld camera. He arrived at Tempelhof on July 17 after hitching a ride on one of the C-54s, and walked over to a crowd of children who had gathered at the end of the runway to watch the planes coming in. He introduced himself and they started to ask him questions about the aircraft and their flights. As a goodwill gesture, he handed out his only two sticks of Wrigley's Doublemint Gum, and promised that if they did not fight over them, the next time he returned he would drop off more. The children quickly divided up the pieces as best they could. Before he left them, a child asked him how they would know it was him flying over, and he replied, "I'll wiggle my wings."[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2646x3348, 1218 KB) 1940s -- 1st Lt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2646x3348, 1218 KB) 1940s -- 1st Lt. ... Gail Halvorsen (born October 10, 1922 in Salt Lake City, Utah) was an American pilot of C-47s and C-54s during the Berlin airlift (Operation Vittles) 1948–1949. ... A modern packet of Wrigleys Doublemint Doublemint is a flavour of chewing gum made by the Wrigley Company. ...


The very next day, on approach to Berlin, he rocked the airplane and dropped some chocolate bars attached to a handkerchief parachute to the children waiting below. Every day after that the number of children would increase and he made several more drops. Soon there was a stack of mail in Base Ops addressed to "Uncle Wiggly Wings", "The Chocolate Uncle" and "The Chocolate Flier". His commanding officer was upset when the story appeared in the news, but when Tunner heard about it he thought it was great and immediately christened it "Operation Little Vittles". Other pilots joined the fun, and when news reached the U.S., children all over the country sent in their own candy to help out. Soon the major candy companies joined in as well. In the end, over three tons of candy was dropped over Berlin,[5] and the "operation" became a major propaganda success.


Soviet responses

This turn of events was decidedly against the Soviets. As the tempo of the Airlift grew it became apparent that the western powers might be able to pull off the impossible, and supply an entire city by air. In response, starting August 1st, they offered free food to anyone that would cross into eastern Berlin, and sign over their ration cards. Few took them up on the offer, thinking it was a trick.


On September 6, 1948, East German communists occupied the city's civilian council house to block new elections. Three days later RIAS Radio urged west Berliners to protest the East German actions. A crowd of half a million people gathered at the Brandenburg Gate, next to the Reichstag, the ruined German Parliament. The Airlift was working so far, but many West Berliners feared the Allies would eventually abandon them to the Soviets, and needed reassuring that their sacrifice wasn't for nothing. Ernst Reuter took to the microphone and pled for his city, "You peoples of the world. You people of America, of England, of France, look on this city, and recognize that this city, this people must not be abandoned - cannot be abandoned!" The crowd surged towards the east and someone ripped down the Red Flag from the Gate. Soviet military police responded, killing one.[6] is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio in the American Sector (RIAS) was a radio station in the American Sector of Berlin during the Cold War. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... Ernst Reuter, 1950 Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter (born July 29, 1889 in Apenrade (today Aabenraa, Denmark); died September 29, 1953 in Berlin) was the mayor of West Berlin from 1948 to 1953, during the time of the Cold War. ...


The elections went ahead for December 5, and once again the east Berliners attempted to disrupt them. When it became clear their efforts were not working, they boycotted them and elected an entire government of their own, under Friedrich Ebert. Reuter once again won the elections, dividing Berlin into east and west in the process. In the east, a communist system with house, street and block wardens was quickly implemented. Friedrich Fritz Ebert (September 12, 1894 – December 4, 1979) was the son of Germanys first President Friedrich Ebert. ...


Political interference was not the only action on the part of the Soviets. Starting on August 10 they started harassing aircraft in the Airlift, and after one year 733 incidents had been reported. One of their favorite acts was for Soviet fighters to buzz the cargo aircraft, or to shoot into the air near them. After a Soviet fighter buzzed a British passenger plane too closely, both planes crashed with a loss of 35 lives. Balloons were released in the corridors, flak was fired randomly and searchlights were shone on the aircraft. Additionally they set up a fake radio beacon on the same frequency as Tempelhof, in an effort to draw aircraft out of the airways. None of these proved very effective. However, it must also be mentioned that it was Soviet personnel running the air traffic control towers on Tempelhof 24 hours per day.[citation needed]


Preparing for winter

Although the early estimates required about 4,000 to 5,000 tons would be needed to supply the city, this was made in the context of summer weather, and at the time it was not expected to last more than a few weeks. As the Airlift dragged on into the fall, the situation changed considerably. Although the food requirements would remain the same, around 1,500 tons, the need for additional coal to heat the city grew dramatically, an additional 6,000 tons a day.


In order to maintain the Airlift given these requirements, the current system would have to be greatly expanded. Aircraft were available, and the British started adding their larger Handley Page Hastings in November, but maintaining the fleet proved to be a serious problem. Tunney looked to the Germans once again, hiring ex-Luftwaffe ground crews, who were available in large numbers. The Handley Page HP 67 Hastings was a troop-carrier and freight transport of the Royal Air Force. ...


Another problem was the lack of runways in Berlin to land on, two at Tempelhof and one at Gatow, both of which were never intended to support the sorts of loads the C-54s were putting on them. All of the existing runways required hundreds of laborers who ran onto them and dumped sand into the Pierced Steel Planking in order to soften the surface and help the planking survive. As this system could not be expected to survive through the winter, between July and September 1948 a 6,000 ft long asphalt runway was created. Far from ideal, with the approach over Berlin apartment blocks, the runway was nevertheless a major upgrade to the airport's capabilities. With it in place, the auxiliary runway was upgraded from PSP to asphalt between September and October 1948. A similar upgrade program was carried out by the British at Gatow during the same period, also adding a second runway.


By this time the French, initially refusing to support the effort considering it a lost cause, also became interested in supporting the airlift. The French Air Force, meanwhile, was involved in the First Indochina War, so it could only bring up some old Junkers Ju 52s to support its own troops. However, France agreed to build a new and larger airport in its sector, on the shores of Lake Tegel. French military engineers were able to complete the construction in less than 90 days. The airport was for the most part built by hand by thousands of female laborers who worked day and night. The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... The Junkers Ju 52 (nicknamed Tante Ju - Auntie Ju - and Iron Annie) was a transport aircraft and bomber manufactured 1932 – 1945 by Junkers. ... Lake Tegel, in German Tegeler See, is the second largest lake in Berlin. ...


Heavy equipment was also needed to level the ground, equipment that was too large and heavy to fly in on any existing aircraft. A solution was found in the form of a Brazilian engineer who had perfected the technique of cutting up large machines for transport and then re-assembling them. He was flown in to advise the effort, and using five larger C-82 Packet transports they were able to move the machinery in, serving the double duty of helping build the airfield as well as demonstrating that the blockade could not keep anything out of the city. The C-82 Packet was a twin-engine, twin-boom aircraft that was used briefly by the United States Army Air Forces following World War II. Developed by Fairchild, the aircraft was first flown in 1944. ...


There was an obstacle in the way on the approach to Tegel, however. A Soviet controlled radio tower caused problems with its proximity to the airfield. Pleas to remove it went unheard, so on November 20, French General Jean Ganeval made the decision to simply blow it up. The mission was carried out on December 16, much to the delight of the Berliners, and to the complaints of the Soviets. The airfield evolved after the crisis into the Berlin-Tegel International Airport. Berlin-Tegel Otto Lilienthal (IATA: TXL, ICAO: EDDT) (often shortened to Tegel) is the main international airport in Berlin, Germany. ...


In order to improve the air traffic control, which would be critical as the number of flights grew, the newly developed Ground Controlled Approach Radar system (GCA) was shipped to Europe for installation at Tempelhof, with a second set installed at Fassberg in the British Zone in western Germany. With the installation of GCA, all-weather airlift operations were insured. For the Canadian musical group, see Air Traffic Control (band). ... In aviation a ground-controlled approach (GCA), is a type of precision instrument approach, used to guide aircraft to a safe landing in adverse weather conditions. ...


None of these efforts could fix the weather, which proved to be the largest problem. November and December 1948 proved to be the worst months of the airlift operation. One of the longest-lasting fogs ever experienced blanketed the entire Continent for weeks. All too often aircraft would make the entire flight and then be unable to land in Berlin. On November 20, 42 planes departed for Berlin but only one landed there. At one point, the whole city had only a week's supply of coal.


Weather improved, however. More than 171,000 tons were delivered in January, but the figure fell to 152,000 tons in February. In March, the tonnage rose to 196,223.[8]


The Easter Parade

By April 1949, airlift operations were running smoothly, and Tunner wanted to break up the monotony. He liked the idea of a big event that would give everyone a morale boost. He decided that on Easter Sunday the airlift would break all records. To do this, maximum efficiency was needed. To simplify handling, the only cargo would be coal, and stockpiles were built up for the effort. Maintenance schedules were altered so that the maximum number of planes was available.


From 12:00PM April 15, to 12:00PM April 16, 1949, crews worked around the clock. When it was over, 12,941 tons of coal had been delivered as a result of 1,383 flights without a single accident. A welcome side effect of the effort was that operations in general improved, and daily tonnage increased from 6,729 tons a day before the Easter Parade, to 8,893 tons per day after. In total, the airlift delivered 234,476 tons in April.[8] is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 21st a critical point is passed: the amount of supplies being flow into the city is now equal to what was previously shipped in by rail. The Airlift had succeeded, and appeared to be able to operate indefinitely.


The Blockade ends

Berlin Airlift Monument in Berlin-Tempelhof, displaying the names of the 39 British and 31 U.S.-American pilots who lost their lives during the operation. Similar monuments can be found at the military airfield Wietzenbruch near the former RAF Celle and at Rhein-Main Air Base.
Berlin Airlift Monument in Berlin-Tempelhof with inscription "They lost their lives for the freedom of Berlin in service for the Berlin Airlift 1948/49"

The continued success of the Airlift humiliated the Soviets, and the Easter Parade was the final straw. On April 25 the Russian news agency TASS reported a willingness by the Soviets to lift the blockade. The next day, the U.S. State Department stated the "way appears clear" for the blockade to end. Soon after the four powers began serious negotiations, and a settlement was made on Allied terms. On May 4th the Allies announced that an agreement to end the blockade in eight days had been reached. Image File history File links Berlin_Tempelhof_Luftbrueckendenkmal. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Tempelhof_Luftbrueckendenkmal. ... Rhein-Main Air Base (located at ) was a U.S. Air Force / NATO military airbase near the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 587 KB)Photographer: Matthias Wagner, Fürth, Germany Date: 30th June 2005 Berlin Airlift Monument in Berlin-Tempelhof with inscription Sie gaben ihr Leben ihr Leben für die Freiheit Berlins im Dienste der Luftbrücke 1948/49 They lost... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 587 KB)Photographer: Matthias Wagner, Fürth, Germany Date: 30th June 2005 Berlin Airlift Monument in Berlin-Tempelhof with inscription Sie gaben ihr Leben ihr Leben für die Freiheit Berlins im Dienste der Luftbrücke 1948/49 They lost... TASS can refer to one of the following: The transliteration of the Russian abbreviation for the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union. ...


The blockade was lifted at one minute after midnight, on May 12, 1949. A British convoy immediately drove through to Berlin, and the first train from the West reaches Berlin at 5:32 that morning. Later that day an enormous crowd celebrates the end of the blockade and salutes Clay. Clay, whose retirement has been announced by Truman on the 3rd, is saluted by 11,000 U.S. soldiers and dozens of airplanes. Once home, he would receive a ticker-tape parade in New York, address Congress, and get a medal from Truman. is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Flights continued for some time, in order to build up a comfortable surplus. By July 24 a three month surplus was built up, ensuring that the airlift could be restarted with ease if need be. The Airlift officially ended on September 30, 1949, after fifteen months. In total, the U.S. delivered 1,783,573 tons, while 541,937 tons were delivered by the RAF, totaling 2,326,406 tons of food and supplies on 278,228 total flights to Berlin. The C-47s and C-54s together flew over 92 million miles in the process, nearly the same distance as the earth is from the sun.[9] is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ...


A total of 101 fatalities were recorded as a result of the operation, including 39 British and 31 Americans, mostly due to crashes. Seventeen American and eight British aircraft crashed during the operation.


Afterword

Operational control of the three allied airlift corridors was given to BARTCC (Berlin Air Route Traffic Control Center) air traffic control located at Tempelhof. Diplomatic approval authority was granted to a secretive four-power organization also located in the American sector. It was called the Berlin Air Safety Center (BASC). The Berlin Air Safety Center (BASC) came into existence immediately after the close of World War II and was one of only two Cold War, four-power organizations to ever exist. ...


Tegel was developed into west Berlin's principal airport, and by 2007 had been joined by a redeveloped Berlin-Schoenefeld in Brandenburg. As a result of the development of these two airports Tempelhof is being closed, whilst Gatow no longer serves as an airport and now hosts the Museum of the German Luftwaffe. During the 1970s and 1980s Schoenefeld had its own crossing points through the Berlin Wall for western citizens. Berlin-Schönefeld International Airport ( ) (IATA: SXF, ICAO: EDDB) is an international airport located in the town of Schönefeld in Brandenburg, adjacent to Berlins southern border. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ...


See also

The History of Germany begins with the establishment of the nation from Ancient Roman times to the 8th century, and then continues into the Holy Roman Empire dating from the 9th century until 1806 . ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Gatow Airport is an airport in the city of Berlin, Germany. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Gail Halvorsen (born October 10, 1922 in Salt Lake City, Utah) was an American pilot of C-47s and C-54s during the Berlin airlift (Operation Vittles) 1948–1949. ... The Big Lift is a 1950 film that was shot on location in the city of Berlin, Germany, and tells the story of two Air Force sergeants (played by Montgomery Clift and Paul Douglas) who meet and fall in love with two women in Berlin during the 1948/1949 Berlin... The year 1950 in film involved some significant events. ...

References

  1. ^ Why Stalin Rejected Marshall Aid
  2. ^ a b Airbridge to Berlin, "Eye of the Storm" chapter
  3. ^ Airbridge to Berlin, "Background on Conflict" chapter
  4. ^ a b c d e Airbridge to Berlin, Chartper 11
  5. ^ a b c d The Berlin Airlift
  6. ^ a b c The Berlin Airlift
  7. ^ MAC and the Legacy of the Berlin Airlift
  8. ^ a b c Fifty years ago, a massive airlift into Berlin showed the Soviets that a post-WWII blockade would not work, C.V. Glines
  9. ^ Berlin Airlift: Logistics, Humanitarian Aid, and Strategic Success, Major Gregory C. Tine, Army Logisrician
  • Robert E. Griffin and D. M. Giangreco, Airbridge to Berlin : The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath, Presidio Press, 1988. ISBN 0-89141-329-4. Available online at Airbridge to Berlin
  • Launius, Roger D. and Coy F. Cross II MAC and the Legacy of the Berlin Airlift. Scott Air Force Base IL: Office of History, Military Airlift Command, 1989.
  • Luc De Vos and Etienne Rooms, Het Belgisch buitenlands beleid: Geschiedenis en actoren, Acco, 2006. ISBN 90-334-5973-6.

External links

  • The Berlin Airlift. American Experience. Retrieved on March 5, 2007. - A PBS site on the context and history of the Berlin Airlift.
  • Berlin Airlift. Retrieved on October 22, 2007. - A 1948 propaganda film about the airlift, told from the British point of view.
  • Operation Plainfare
  • Luftbruecke: Allied Culture in the Heart of Berlin
  • Agreement to divide Berlin
  • Memorandum for the President: The Situation in Germany, July 23, 1948
  • Berlin Airlift: Logistics, Humanitarian Aid, and Strategic Success
  • Royal Engineers Museum Royal Engineers and the Cold War (Berlin Airlift)

This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... 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Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...


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Tourist Information about Berlin - 4 Hotel Reservations Berlin (2287 words)
The Reichstag is the seat of the German Bundestag or federal government and, with its new dome, one of the Berlin's biggest crowd-draws in Berlin.
Berlin's magnificent boulevard, the centrepiece of the Old Berlin, leads from Pariser Platz at the »Brandenburg Gate to the Schlossbrücke bridge.
The place of the former Berlin Palace was taken by the Palast der Republik (Palace of the Republic) which had to be closed in the nineties due to its intoxication with asbestos.
Berlin Blockade: The Times Report - Sidebar - MSN Encarta (133 words)
Germany after World War II had been split between the four victorious powers, and Berlin, deep inside the eastern, Soviet-controlled sector, was similarly split into four sectors.
Ostensibly in a conflict over the currency to be used in the German capital, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on all ground routes into western Berlin in order to try to get the western powers to submit to Russian control of Berlin.
This report from The Times on June 28, 1948, describes the beginning of the stand-off that was to lead to the supply of the French, US, and UK sectors of Berlin by air—the Berlin Airlift.
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