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Encyclopedia > Berlin
Berlin
Flag Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Berlin
Details
Location within Germany and EU
Location within Germany and EU
Coordinates 52°31′00″N 13°25′00″E / 52.516667, 13.416667Coordinates: 52°31′00″N 13°25′00″E / 52.516667, 13.416667
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country Flag of Germany Germany
NUTS Region Flag of Europe DE3
City subdivisions 12 boroughs
Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD)
Governing parties SPDLeft
Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69)
Basic statistics
Area  892 km² (344 sq mi)
Elevation 34 - 115m
Population 3,415,742 (11/2007)[1]
 - Density 3,830 /km² (9,920 /sq mi)
 - Urban 3,700,000
 - Metro 4,940,000 
Other information
GDP/ Nominal € 81.7 billion (2007)
Postal codes 10001–14199
Area codes 030
Licence plate code B
Website berlin.de / 3D Berlin

Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. With a population of 3.4 million in its city limits, Berlin is the country's largest city.[2] It is the second most populous city and the ninth most populous urban area in the European Union.[3] Located in northeastern Germany, it is the centre of the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan area, comprising 5 million people from over 180 nations.[4] Berlin is the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Berlin. ... Coat of arms of Berlin This article is about the coat of arms of the German state of Berlin. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 491 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,580 × 1,585 pixels, file size: 469 KB, MIME type: image/png) Stadtstaat Berlin in Deutschland und EU. City-State Berlin in Germany and EU. Ville-État Berlin en Allemagne et UE. By User:Athinaios, based... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs (Bezirke in German), which are administrative units with political rights comparable to incorporated communities in the rest of Germany (although they are not separate legal entities from the city). ... The following List of Mayors of Berlin shows all the mayors of Berlin, Germany since 1809: 1809-1948 Leopold von Gerlach Johann Büsching Friedrich von Bärensprung Heinrich Wilhelm Krausnick Franz Christian Naunyn Karl Theodor Seydel Arthur Hobrecht Max von Forckenbeck Robert Zelle Martin Kirschner Adolph Wermuth Gustav B... Klaus Wowereit Klaus Wowereit (born October 1, 1953 in Berlin) is a German politician, member of the SPD (Social Democratic Party), and mayor of Berlin since the 2001 state elections. ... SPD redirects here. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... GDP redirects here. ... German Postleitzahl map of the first two digits. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... German car number plates (Kfz-Kennzeichen) show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... // Eurostat, the European Unions statistical agency, has created the concept of Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) in an effort to harmonize definitions[1] of urbanization in the European Union. ...


First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was successively the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918), the German Empire (1871-1918), the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and the Third Reich (1933-1945).[5] After the Second World War, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a Western enclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall from 1961-1989.[6] Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, the city regained its status as the capital of all Germany.[7] Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...


Berlin is a major center in European politics, culture, media, and science.[8][9][10] It serves as a continental hub for air and rail transport. The city's economy is primarily based on the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, media corporations, environmental services, congress and convention venues.[11][12] Berlin is the third most-visited tourist destination in the EU.[13] Other industries include traffic engineering, optoelectronics, IT, vehicle manufacturing, health care, biomedical engineering, and biotechnology. The politics of Europe deals with the continually evolving politics within the continent. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Creative Industries (or sometimes Creative Economy) refers to a set of interlocking industry sectors, and are often cited as being a growing part of the global economy. ... A tourist destination is a city, town or other area the economy of which is dependent to a significant extent on the revenues accruing from tourism. ... The term traffic engineering is used in more than one sense. ... Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light, and thus is usually considered a sub-field of photonics. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Automakers, also known as carmakers, automobile manufacturers, motor manufacturers, or the automobile industry are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...


The metropolis is home to world-renowned universities, research institutes, sporting events, orchestras, museums and personalities.[14] Berlin's urban landscape and historical legacy has made it a popular setting for international film productions.[15] Recognized for its festivals, contemporary architecture, nightlife and avant-garde arts,[16] Berlin has evolved into a focal point for individuals attracted by liberal lifestyle, modern zeitgeist and low cost of living.[17][18] For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about the German word. ... For other uses, see The Cost of Living. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Berlin

The name Berlin, which is pronounced /bɚˈlɪn/ in English and /bɛɐˈliːn/ in German, is of unknown origin, but may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- "swamp".[19] Berlin is the capital city of reunited Germany. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image File history File links De-Berlin. ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ...


The earliest evidence of Berlin is an artifact dated approximately 45 years before the official founding of the city. A wooden beam from a cellar near the (demolished) Petrikirche in Petriplatz, which is now located in Berlin's Mitte District but was originally part of Cölln, has been dated to 1157.[20] The first written mention of towns in the area of present-day Berlin dates from the late 12th and early 13th century. The suburb of Spandau is first mentioned in 1197, and Köpenick in 1209, though these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns: Cölln (on the Fisher Island) is first mentioned in a 1237 document that references a priest at Petrikirche.[20] Berlin (across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel) is referenced in a document from 1244. From the beginning, the two cities formed an economic and social unit. In 1307, the two cities were united politically. Over time, the twin cities came to be known simply as Berlin, the larger of the pair. The location of Mitte in Berlin. ... Originally Cölln was the sister town of old Berlin located on the southern Spree Island in Germanys Mark Brandenburg of the 13th century. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ... Köpenick is a former borough of Berlin; in 2001 it merged with Treptow to form the new borough Treptow-Köpenick. ... Originally Cölln was the sister town of old Berlin located on the southern Spree Island in Germanys Mark Brandenburg of the 13th century. ... Map of Museum Island (in red) Museum Island (or, in German, Museumsinsel) in Berlin, Germany, is the name of the northern half of the Spreeinsel, an island in the Spree river, in the center of the city. ... The Nikolaiviertel (German for Nicholas Quarter) is the reconstructed historical core of Berlin, Germany, founded in the 13th century. ...


In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. His successor, Frederick II, established Berlin as capital of the margraviate, and subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled until 1918 in Berlin, first as electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and finally as German emperors. In 1448 citizens rebelled in the “Berlin Indignation” against the construction of a new royal palace by Elector Frederick II Irontooth. This protest was not successful, however, and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. In 1451 Berlin became the royal residence of the Brandenburg electors, and Berlin had to give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. In 1539, the electors and the city officially became Lutheran. Frederick (German: Friedrich) I (1371–1440), Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I from House of Hohenzollern. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Margrave of Brandenburg was one of the seven Electors of the Holy Roman Empire created by the Golden Bull of 1356. ... Frederick II the Iron (sometimes Irontooth) (1413-1470) of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was margrave of Brandenburg, from 1440 until his abdication in 1470. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Frederick II the Iron (sometimes Irontooth) (1413-1470) of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was margrave of Brandenburg, from 1440 until his abdication in 1470. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... -1...


17th–19th century

Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 after its proclamation in Versailles-France (Bismarck at the center in white)
Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 after its proclamation in Versailles-France (Bismarck at the center in white)

The Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648 had devastating consequences for Berlin. A third of the houses were damaged and the city lost half of its population. Frederick William, known as the “Great Elector”, who had succeeded his father George William as ruler in 1640, initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious tolerance. With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the French Huguenots. More than 15,000 Huguenots went to Brandenburg, of whom 6,000 settled in Berlin. By 1700, approximately twenty percent of Berlin's residents were French, and their cultural influence on the city was immense. Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... Georg Wilhelm Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg, duke of Prussia, was born 1595 in Berlin. ... For the Religioustolerance. ... Upon learning of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685), Fredrich Wilhelm, the elector of Brandenburg, issued a proclamation giving French Huguenots safe passage to Berlin, offered them tax-free status for ten years, and allowed them to hold French-language services. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical state of the Holy Roman Empire, consisting of roughly of the present-day state of Salzburg in Austria. ...


With the coronation of Frederick I in 1701 as king, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1740 Friedrich II, known as Frederick the Great (1740-1786) came to power. Berlin became, under the rule of the philosophically-oriented Frederick II, a center of the Enlightenment. Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city. The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main rail hub and economic center of Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In 1861, outlying suburbs including Wedding, Moabit, and several others were incorporated into Berlin. In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire.
Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire United Kingdom Sweden Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Sicily First French Empire: - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Etruria - Confederation of the Rhine - Swiss Confederation - Polish insurgents Kingdom of Spain Commanders Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen Count... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Wedding is a district in the borough of Mitte, Berlin, Germany and was a separate borough in north-western Berlin until it was fused with Tiergarten and Mitte in 2001. ... Moabit is a district in the center of Berlin. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...


20th century

Berlin in ruins after World War II, Potsdamer Platz 1945
Berlin in ruins after World War II, Potsdamer Platz 1945

At the end of the First World War in 1918, the Weimar Republic was proclaimed in Berlin. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act united dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates around Berlin into a greatly expanded city and established Berlin as a separate administrative region. After this expansion, Berlin had a population of around four million. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... The Greater Berlin Act (German: ) of 1920, in full the Law Regarding the Ronstruction of the New Local Authority of Berlin (German: ), was a law passed by the Prussian government that led to the formation of the separate Prussian administrative region of Berlin. ...


On January 30th, 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. Nazi rule destroyed Berlin's Jewish community, which had numbered 170,000 before 1933. After the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, thousands of the city's German Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp or, in early 1943, were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz. During the war, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. After the end of the war in Europe in 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[21] Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Prisoners of Sachsenhausen, 19 Dec 1938 Sachsenhausen (IPA: ) was a concentration camp in Germany, operating between 1936 and 1950. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... The term Battle of Berlin is sometimes restricted to the Royal Air Force for a bombing campaign on Berlin and other cities between the night of November 18 1943 and March 1944. ... Belligerents Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[3] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[4] Strength Total strength 2... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... CCCP redirects here. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...

The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. People crossing the so-called death strip on the eastern side were at risk of being shot.
The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. People crossing the so-called death strip on the eastern side were at risk of being shot.

All four allies retained shared responsibility for Berlin. However, the growing political differences between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union led the latter, which controlled the territory surrounding Berlin, to impose the Berlin Blockade, an economic blockade of West Berlin. The allies successfully overcame the Blockade by airlifting food and other supplies into the city from 24 June 1948 to 11 May 1949.[22] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and consisted of the American, British and French zones, but excluded those 3 countries' zones of Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin remained a free city that was separate from the Federal Republic of Germany, and issued its own postage stamps. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines. Lufthansa and other German airlines were prohibited from flying to West Berlin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory. East Germany, however, proclaimed East Berlin (which it described only as "Berlin") as its capital, a move that was not recognized by the Western powers. Although half the size and population of West Berlin, it included most of the historic center of the city. The tensions between east and west culminated in the construction of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin and other barriers around West Berlin by East Germany on 13 August 1961 and were exacerbated by a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie on 27 October 1961. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Allied Checkpoint Charlie. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

The Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
The Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989

Berlin was completely separated. It was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other only through strictly controlled checkpoints. For most Easterners, travel to West Berlin or West Germany was no longer possible. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access across East Germany to West Berlin and ended the potential for harassment or closure of the routes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ...


In 1989, pressure from the East German population brought a transition to a market-based economy in East Germany, and its citizens gained free access across the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, which was subsequently mostly demolished. Not much is left of it today; the East Side Gallery in Friedrichshain near the Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree preserves a portion of the Wall. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... East Side Gallery The East Side Gallery is an international memorial for freedom. ... Location of Friedrichshain in Berlin Friedrichshain is a part of Berlins borough of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. ... This article is about the river in Germany. ...


On 3 October 1990 the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin became the German capital according to the unification treaty. In 1999, the German parliament and government began their work in Berlin.
is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ...


Geography

View over Central Berlin
View over Central Berlin

Berlin is located in eastern Germany, about 70 kilometers (44 mi) west of the border with Poland in an area with marshy terrain. Berlin's landscape was shaped by ice sheets during the last Ice Age. The city center lies along the river Spree in the Berlin-Warsaw Urstromtal (ancient river valley), formed by water flowing from melting ice sheets at the end of the last Ice Age. The Urstromtal lies between the low Barnim plateau to the north, and the Teltow plateau to the south. In Spandau, Berlin's westernmost borough, the Spree meets the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. The course of the Havel is more like a chain of lakes, the largest being the Tegeler See and Großer Wannsee. A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which flows through the Großer Müggelsee in eastern Berlin.[23] The location of Mitte in Berlin. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... This article is about the river in Germany. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ... For other uses, see Havel (disambiguation). ... Map of Berlin-Wannsee The Wannsee is both a locality in the southwestern Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, in Germany, and a linked pair of lakes adjoining the locality. ... The Müggelsee is the largest of the Berlin lakes (7,4 km²; 4,3 km long, 2,6 km broad). ...

Natural and built environment
Natural and built environment

Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie on the Barnim plateau, while most of the boroughs Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, and Neukölln lie on the Teltow plateau. The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Urstromtal and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. The highest elevations in Berlin are the Teufelsberg in the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and the Müggelberge in the borough of Treptow-Köpenick. Both hills have an elevation of about 115 meters (377 ft). The Teufelsberg is in fact an artificial pile of rubble from the ruins of the Second World War.
Image File history File links Berlin. ... Image File history File links Berlin. ... Reinickendorf is a borough of Berlin. ... The location of Pankow in Berlin. ... Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf is a borough of Berlin, formed in 2001 by merging the former boroughs of Charlottenburg and Wilmersdorf. ... The location of Steglitz-Zehlendorf in Berlin. ... Tempelhof-Schöneberg is a borough of Berlin, formed in 2001 by merging the former boroughs of Tempelhof and Schöneberg. ... The location of Neukölln in Berlin. ... Teufelsberg (German for Devils Mountain) is a hill in Berlin, Germany, in former West Berlin, rising about 80 meters above the surrounding Brandenburg plain, currently parkland, Grunewald Park. ... The Districts in borough Treptow-Köpenick of Berlin Treptow-Köpenick is a borough of Berlin, formed in 2001 by merging the former boroughs of Treptow and Köpenick. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Climate

The hinterland of Berlin is covered with woodlands and numerous lakes (Havel river)
The hinterland of Berlin is covered with woodlands and numerous lakes (Havel river)

Berlin has a temperate/mesothermal climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The mean annual temperature for Berlin-Dahlem (a location within Steglitz-Zehlendorf) is 9.4 °C (48.9 °F) and its mean annual precipitation totals 578 millimeters (22.8 in). The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 16.7 to 17.9 °C (62.1 to 64.2 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with mean temperatures of −0.4 to 1.2 °C (31.3 to 34.2 °F).[24] Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings. Temperatures can be 4 °C (7.2 °F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Havel (disambiguation). ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... The location of Steglitz-Zehlendorf in Berlin. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Microclimate on rock located in intertidal zone on rock at Sunrise-on Sea Tree ferns thrive in a protected dell at the Lost Gardens of Heligan, in Cornwall, England, latitude 50° 15N A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. ...

Weather averages for Berlin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 3 (37) 4 (39) 9 (48) 13 (55) 19 (66) 22 (72) 24 (75) 24 (75) 19 (66) 13 (55) 7 (45) 4 (39)
Average low °C (°F) -2 (28) -2 (28) -1 (30) 4 (39) 9 (48) 12 (54) 14 (57) 14 (57) 11 (52) 6 (43) 2 (36) 0 (32)
Precipitation mm (inches) 42 (1.7) 33 (1.3) 41 (1.6) 37 (1.5) 54 (2.1) 69 (2.7) 56 (2.2) 58 (2.3) 45 (1.8) 37 (1.5) 44 (1.7) 55 (2.2)
Source: worldweather.org[24] 2007-07-26

Cityscape

Berlin along the Spree river and the TV tower by night
Berlin along the Spree river and the TV tower by night

The city's appearance today is predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history in the 20th century. Each of the national governments based in Berlin —the 1871 German Empire, the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany, East Germany, and now the reunified Germany— initiated ambitious construction programs, each with its own distinctive character. Berlin was devastated by bombing raids during the Second World War and many of the old buildings that escaped the bombs were eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s in both West and East. Much of this destruction was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new residential or business quarters and main roads. Berlin's unique recent history has left the city with an eclectic array of architecture and sights. Image File history File links Berlin_Mitte_by_night. ... Image File history File links Berlin_Mitte_by_night. ... This article is about the river in Germany. ... The Berliner Fernsehturm seen from a distance. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


In the eastern part, many Plattenbauten can be found, reminders of Eastern Bloc ambitions to create complete residential areas with fixed ratios of shops, kindergartens and schools. Another difference between former east and west is in the design of little red and green men on pedestrian crossing lights (Ampelmännchen in German); the eastern versions received an opt-out during the standardization of road traffic signs after reunification. The eastern Ampelmännchen design is now used in the western part of the city as well. Modernized Plattenbau in Rostock Original East German Plattenbau like it was built in 1980 Plattenbau is the German word for a building whose structure is constructed of large, prefabricated concrete slabs. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... A modern pedestrian traffic signal showing the revived Ampelmännchen. ...


Architecture

"Haus des Lehrers" and Congress Hall at Alexanderplatz.
"Haus des Lehrers" and Congress Hall at Alexanderplatz.

The Fernsehturm (TV tower) at Alexanderplatz in Mitte is the second highest building in the European Union at 368 meters (1,207 ft). Built in 1969, it is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin. The city can be viewed from its 204 meter (669 ft) high observation floor. Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism Style of the Stalin era. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall), with its distinctive red-brick architecture. The previously built-up part in front of it is the Neptunbrunnen, a fountain featuring a mythological scene. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (1555 × 1002 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) weitere Informationen / further Information: Dieses Bild kann ohne zusätzliche Erlaubnis verwendet werden. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixelsFull resolution (1555 × 1002 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) weitere Informationen / further Information: Dieses Bild kann ohne zusätzliche Erlaubnis verwendet werden. ... Alexanderplatz from the Fernsehturm   is a large open square and public transport hub in Berlin city centre, near the river Spree and the Berliner Dom, at . Berliners often call it simply Alex. ... The Berliner Fernsehturm seen from a distance. ... Alexanderplatz from the Fernsehturm   is a large open square and public transport hub in Berlin city centre, near the river Spree and the Berliner Dom, at . Berliners often call it simply Alex. ... Karl-Marx-Allee, towards Strausberger Platz. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The Rotes Rathaus The Rotes Rathaus as seen from the TV tower The Rotes Rathaus (German: ) is the town hall of Berlin, located on Rathausstraße in the borough of Berlin-Mitte. ... Neptunbrunnen (Berlin) The Neptun Fountain in Berlin was built in 1891 and was designed by Reinhold Begas. ...


The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division. It has recently undergone a restoration. East Side Gallery The East Side Gallery is an international memorial for freedom. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ...

The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany. It also appears on German euro coins (10 Cent / 20 Cent and 50 Cent). The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament, renovated in the 1950s after severe Second World War damage. The building was again remodeled by British architect Norman Foster in the 1990s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Reichstag building. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ...


Gendarmenmarkt, a neoclassical square in Berlin whose name dates back to the Napoleonic occupation of the city, is bordered by two similarly designed cathedrals, the French Cathedral with its observation platform and the German Cathedral. The Konzerthaus (Concert Hall), home of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, stands between the two cathedrals. The Gendarmenmarkt is a square in Berlin, and the site of the Konzerthaus (Schauspielhaus) and the French and German Cathedrals. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Französischer Dom (German for: French Cathedral) is a cathedral located in Berlin on the Gendarmenmarkt accross from the Deutscher Dom (German Cathedral). ...

The Berliner Dom, a Protestant cathedral and the third church on this site, is located on the Spree Island across from the site of the Berliner Stadtschloss and adjacent to the Lustgarten. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. Like many other buildings, it suffered extensive damage during the Second World War. The Cathedral of St. Hedwig is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roof of Sony Center. Potsdamer Platz is an important square and traffic intersection in the center of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the south east corner of the Tiergarten park. ... Berliner Dom Berliner Dom by night The Berliner Dom or Berlin Cathedral in Berlin, Germany was built between 1895 and 1905. ... Map of Museum Island (in red) Museum Island (or, in German, Museumsinsel) in Berlin, Germany, is the name of the northern half of the Spreeinsel, an island in the Spree river, in the center of the city. ... The Berlin City Palace (German: Berliner Stadtschloss) was a palace in central Berlin, on Schlossplatz, next to Alexanderplatz. ... Lustgarten, Germany is situated on the banks of the River Spree and crowned by two of Berlins most impressive buildings - the Altes Museum and Berliner Dom - the Lustgarten is one of the most atmospheric spots in the city. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... St. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Unter den Linden is a tree lined east-west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade. Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is located there. A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... The Berlin City Palace (German: Berliner Stadtschloss) was a palace in central Berlin, on Schlossplatz, next to Alexanderplatz. ... Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is the successor to Berlins oldest university, the Friedrich Wilhelm University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), founded in 1810 by the liberal Prussian educational reformer...


Friedrichstraße was Berlin's legendary street during the Roaring Twenties. It combines twentieth century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin. Friedrichstraße - view to north The Friedrichstraße (pronounced in IPA) (Frederick Street) is a major shopping street in (east) central Berlin. ... For the film, see The Roaring Twenties. ...

The glass dome adorning the roof of the Reichstag
The glass dome adorning the roof of the Reichstag

Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch after 1995 and was not rebuilt as it was divided by the Wall.[25] To the west of Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, which houses the Gemäldegalerie, and is flanked by the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Philharmonic. The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust memorial, is situated to the north.[26] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Reichstag building. ... Roof of Sony Center. Potsdamer Platz is an important square and traffic intersection in the center of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the south east corner of the Tiergarten park. ... The Gemäldegalerie is one of the worlds leading collections of European art from the 13th to 18th century. ... This interior view of the Neue Nationalgaleries ground floor shows the play of light off the reflective floor, as well as the animated red LCD tracks on the ceiling. ... Entrance to the concert hall The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (a. ... Holocaust-Memorial (Spring 2004) The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, also known as Holocaust memorial for short, is a memorial in Berlin a block to the south of the Brandenburg Gate. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


The area around Hackescher Markt is home to the fashionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs, bars, and galleries. This includes the Hackesche Höfe, a conglomeration of buildings around several courtyards, reconstructed around 1996. Oranienburger Straße and the nearby New Synagogue were the center of Jewish culture before 1933, and regains being it today. The Neue Synagoge (German: New Synagogue) is a large synagogue in Berlin. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


The Straße des 17. Juni, connecting the Brandenburg Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as central East-West-Axis. Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June 1953. Approximately half-way from the Brandenburg Gate is the Großer Stern, a circular traffic island on which the Siegessäule (Victory Column) is situated. This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated 1938–39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag. The site is annually used as the center stage for the Love Parade. Originally called Charlottenburger Chaussee, The Straße des 17. ... Ernst Reuter, 1950 Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter (born July 29, 1889 in Apenrade (today Aabenraa, Denmark); died September 29, 1953 in Berlin) was the mayor of West Berlin from 1948 to 1953, during the time of the Cold War. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlin Siegessäule (June 2003) The victory column (in German: Siegessäule) is one of the more famous sights of Berlin. ... The Reichstag building. ... For the 1929 film, see The Love Parade. ...

Schloss Charlottenburg is the largest existing palace in Berlin.
Schloss Charlottenburg is the largest existing palace in Berlin.

The Rathaus Schöneberg, where John F. Kennedy made his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner!" speech, is situated in Tempelhof-Schöneberg. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Schloss Charlottenburg, front view Schloss Charlottenburg is located in the Charlottenburg district of the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf area of Berlin. ... Rathaus Schöneberg The Rathaus Schöneberg is the city hall for the Borough of Schöneberg in Berlin. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a citizen of Berlin) is a famous quotation from a June 26, 1963 speech of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. ... Tempelhof-Schöneberg is a borough of Berlin, formed in 2001 by merging the former boroughs of Tempelhof and Schöneberg. ...


The Kurfürstendamm is home to some of Berlin's luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz. The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. Near by on Tauentzienstraße is KaDeWe, claimed to be continental Europe's largest department store. The Kurfürstendamm, Berlins upscale retail neighbourhood The Kurfürstendamm is one of the most famous avenues in Berlin, Germany. ... Old and new parts Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church around 1900 The Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church (in German: Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche) is located in Berlin at the Kurfürstendamm. ... Breitscheidplatz seen from the Bahnhofzoo // Geography Today the Breitscheidplatz lies within Charlottenburg (a region of intercity Berlin) at the tip of the Tiergarten between the Kurfürstendamm (a large, popular alley in Berlin West), the Tauentzien and the Budapester-Strasse. ... KaDeWe Main entrance Kaufhaus des Westens (commonly abbreviated KaDeWe) is a department store in Berlin, the largest in all of continental Europe. ...


West of the center, Schloss Bellevue is the residence of the German President. Schloss Charlottenburg, which was burnt out in the Second World War and largely destroyed, has been rebuilt and is the largest surviving historical palace in Berlin. Schloss Bellevue Bellevue Palace (German: Schloss Bellevue) is a château north of the Tiergarten park in Berlin. ... Schloss Charlottenburg, front view Schloss Charlottenburg is located in the Charlottenburg district of the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf area of Berlin. ...


Funkturm Berlin is a 150 meter (492 ft) tall lattice radio tower at the fair area, built between 1924 and 1926. It is the only observation tower, which stands on insulators, and has a restaurant 55 meters (180 ft) and an observation deck 126 meters (413 ft) above ground, which is reachable by an elevator. As the Berliner Funkturm is an open lattice structure, its elevator has windows. The Funkturm Berlin Funkturm - blue illuminated on the occasion of the Funkausstellung 2005 Berliner Funkturm seen from the Zentraler Omnibus Bahnhof The Berliner Funkturm or Funkturm Berlin (Radio Tower Berlin) is a transmitting tower in Berlin, built between 1924 and 1926 by Heinrich Straumer. ...


Government

The Reichstag is the site of the German parliament
The Reichstag is the site of the German parliament

Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany and is the seat of the President of Germany, whose official residence is Schloss Bellevue.[27] Since German reunification on 3 October 1990, it has been one of the three city states, together with Hamburg and Bremen, among the present sixteen states of Germany. The Bundesrat ("federal council") is the representation of the Federal States (Bundesländer) of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian Herrenhaus (House of Lords). Though most of the ministries are seated in Berlin, some of them, as well as some minor departments, are seated in Bonn, the former capital of West Germany. The European Union invests in several projects within the city of Berlin. Infrastructure, education and social programs are co-financed with budgets taken from EU cohesion funds.[28] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (4368 × 2912 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (4368 × 2912 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Reichstag building. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Schloss Bellevue Bellevue Palace (German: Schloss Bellevue) is a château north of the Tiergarten park in Berlin. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... The German term Herrenhaus is equivalent to the English House of Lords and describes roughly similar institutions as the English House of Lords in German-speaking countries. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ...


City state

Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit
Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit

The city and state parliament is the House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus), which currently has 141 seats. Berlin's executive body is the Senate of Berlin (Senat von Berlin). The Senate of Berlin consists of the Governing Mayor (Regierender Bürgermeister) and up to eight senators holding ministerial positions, one of them holding the official title "Mayor" (Bürgermeister) as deputy to the Governing Mayor. The Social Democratic Party (SPD) and The Left (Die Linke) took control of the city government after the 2001 state election and won another term in the 2006 state election.[29] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Klaus Wowereit Klaus Wowereit (born October 1, 1953 in Berlin) is a German politician, member of the SPD (Social Democratic Party), and mayor of Berlin since the 2001 state elections. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... The following List of Mayors of Berlin shows all the mayors of Berlin, Germany since 1809: 1809-1948 Leopold von Gerlach Johann Büsching Friedrich von Bärensprung Heinrich Wilhelm Krausnick Franz Christian Naunyn Karl Theodor Seydel Arthur Hobrecht Max von Forckenbeck Robert Zelle Martin Kirschner Adolph Wermuth Gustav B... SPD redirects here. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ... The Berlin state election, 2001, was conducted on October 21, 2001, to elect members to the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) of Berlin. ... The Berlin state election, 2006, was held on September 17, 2006, to elect members to the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) of Berlin. ...


The Governing Mayor is simultaneously Lord Mayor of the city (Oberbürgermeister der Stadt) and Prime Minister of the Federal State (Ministerpräsident des Bundeslandes). The office of Berlin's Governing Mayor is in the Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall). Since 2001 this office has been held by Klaus Wowereit of the SPD.[30][31] The city's government is based on a coalition between the Social Democratic Party and The Left.
The Rotes Rathaus The Rotes Rathaus as seen from the TV tower The Rotes Rathaus (German: ) is the town hall of Berlin, located on Rathausstraße in the borough of Berlin-Mitte. ... Klaus Wowereit Klaus Wowereit (born October 1, 1953 in Berlin) is a German politician, member of the SPD (Social Democratic Party), and mayor of Berlin since the 2001 state elections. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ...


Budget

The total annual state budget of Berlin in 2007 exceeded €20.5 ($28.7) billion including a budget surplus of €80 ($112) million. The figures indicate the first surplus in the history of the city state.[32] Due to increasing growth rates and tax revenues, the Senate of Berlin calculates an increasing budget surplus in 2008 and 2009. The total budget includes an estimated amount of €5.5 ($7.7) bn, which is directly financed by either the German government or the German Bundesländer.[33] Mainly due to reunification-related expenditures, Berlin as a German state has accumulated more debt than any other city in Germany, with the most current estimate being €60 ($84)bn in December 2007.[34]


Boroughs

Map of Berlin's twelve boroughs and their localities
Map of Berlin's twelve boroughs and their localities

Berlin is subdivided into twelve boroughs (Bezirke), but before Berlin's 2001 administrative reform there were 23. Each borough is subdivided into a number of localities (Ortsteile), which represent the traditional urbanized areas that inhabitants identify with. Some of these have been rearranged several times over the years. At present the city of Berlin consists of 95 such localities. The localities often consist of a number of city neighborhoods (usually called Kiez in the Berlin dialect) representing small residential areas. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The boroughs of Berlin Berlin is both a city and one of Germanys federal states. ... Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs (Bezirke in German), which are administrative units with political rights comparable to incorporated communities in the rest of Germany (although they are not separate legal entities from the city). ... Kiez is a German word that refers to a city neighbourhood; a relatively small community within a larger town. ...


Each borough is governed by a Borough Council (Bezirksamt) consisting of five Councilors (Bezirksstadträte) and a Borough Mayor (Bezirksbürgermeister). The Borough Council is elected by the Borough Assembly (Bezirksverordnetenversammlung). The boroughs of Berlin are not independent municipalities. The power of borough governments is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Berlin. The borough mayors form the Council of Mayors (Rat der Bürgermeister), led by the city's Governing Mayor, which advises the Senate.


The localities have no government bodies of their own, even though most of the localities have historic roots in older municipalities that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October 1920. The subsequent position of locality representative (Ortsvorsteher) was discontinued in favor of borough mayors. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sister cities

Town twinning between Berlin and other cities began with Los Angeles in 1967. East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification and later partially reestablished. West Berlin's partnerships had previously been restricted to the borough level.[35] During the Cold War era, the partnerships had reflected the different power blocs, with West Berlin partnering with capitals in the West, and East Berlin mostly partnering with cities from the Warsaw Pact and its allies. Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... -1...


There are several joint projects with many other cities, such as Copenhagen, Helsinki, Johannesburg, Shanghai, Seoul, Sofia, Sydney, and Vienna. Berlin participates in events organized by international city associations such as the Union of the Capitals of the European Union, Eurocities, Network of European Cities of Culture, Metropolis, Summit Conference of the World's Major Cities, Conference of the World's Capital Cities. For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


Berlin has partnerships with 17 cities.[36]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Constantinople Ottoman period 1453 as Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages Turkish Republic period 1923 as Constantinople, officially renamed as Istanbul in... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... --193. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Demographics

See also: Berlin population statistics
People in Kreuzberg
People in Kreuzberg

Berlin has been a center for national and international immigration. In 2006, 26 % of its population had an international migration background, while almost half of these inhabitants have either become naturalized German citizens or obtained citizenship by virtue of birth in Germany. About 40 % of Berlin residents below 18 years of age have a background of migration, which means that they either were born outside of Germany, or have at least one parent who is born abroad.[37] Population of Berlins Districts Historical Development of Berlins Population References Berlin State Statistical Office Schwenk, Herbert, Berliner Stadtentwicklung von A bis Z: Kleines Handbuch zum Werden und Wachsen der deutschen Hauptstadt, 2nd edition. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of Kreuzberg in Berlin Kreuzberg Kreuzberg, located south of Berlin-Mitte, is one of the best-known boroughs of Berlin, famous for its nightlife and its political leftness as well as its problems with criminality, the drug scene and a very high number of immigrants. ...


Migration into the city has a long history since the Edict of Potsdam in 1685. The Edict guaranteed religious freedom and a tax-free status to French Calvinists for ten years. The Greater Berlin Act in 1920 incorporated many suburbs and surrounding cities of Berlin. It formed most of the territory that comprises modern Berlin. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 square kilometers (25.5 sq mi) to 883 square kilometers (341 sq mi) and the population from 1.9 million to 4 million. Active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin have initiated waves of immigrants in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1990s the Aussiedlergesetze made immigration from the former Soviet Union possible. The current decade experiences a continual increasing influx from various Western countries and especially young EU-Europeans are settling in the city. Upon learning of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685), Fredrich Wilhelm, the elector of Brandenburg, issued a proclamation giving French Huguenots safe passage to Berlin, offered them tax-free status for ten years, and allowed them to hold French-language services. ... The Greater Berlin Act (German: ) of 1920, in full the Law Regarding the Ronstruction of the New Local Authority of Berlin (German: ), was a law passed by the Prussian government that led to the formation of the separate Prussian administrative region of Berlin. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


The largest religious groupings are No religion 60%, Protestant (mostly belonging to the Evangelical Church in Germany) 23% (757,000), Roman Catholic 9% (312,000), Muslim 6% (213,000), Jewish 0.4% (12,000).[38] This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Evangelical Church in Germany (German Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated as EKD) is a federation of 23 regional Lutheran, Reformed and United Protestant churches[1]. In fact only one member church (the Protestant Reformed Church) is not restricted to a certain territory. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Population 1880 - 2006
Population 1880 - 2006

As of September 2007, the city state Berlin numbered 3,410,147 registered inhabitants[39] in an area of 891.82 km² (344.31 sq mi). The population density amounts to 3,820 inhabitants per km² (9,900/sq mi). The urban area comprises about 3.7 million people while the metropolitan area of the Berlin-Brandenburg region is home to about 4.3 million in an area of 5,370 square kilometers (2,073 sq mi). The Larger Urban Zone comprised about 4.94 million people in an area of 17,405 km² in the year 2001.[40] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... // Eurostat, the European Unions statistical agency, has created the concept of Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) in an effort to harmonize definitions[1] of urbanization in the European Union. ...


470,004 (14.0%) residents were of foreign nationality in December 2007, coming from 184 different countries.[41] The largest groups by nationality are citizens from Turkey (113,779), Poland (44,400), Serbia (23,370), Russia (14,615), Italy (14,446), United States (13,761), France (12,611), Vietnam (12,165), Croatia (11,029), Bosnia and Herzegovina (10,576), UK (9,797), Greece (9,749), Austria (8,813), Ukraine (8,709), Lebanon (7,691), Spain (6,637), the People's Republic of China (6,013), Bulgaria (6,621), Thailand (5,878). Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Berlin
The economy of the city is mainly based on the service sector. The ICC and the Funkturm are part of the city's exhibition and congress center.
The economy of the city is mainly based on the service sector. The ICC and the Funkturm are part of the city's exhibition and congress center.

After the reunification of Germany and Berlin in 1990, substantial subsidies were phased out, formerly received by the city of West Berlin. The industrial base of former East Berlin decreased significantly within a decade, leading to stagnant nominal GDP growth and high unemployment rates until 2005. Since then the unemployment rate steadily decreased to 14.1% (Nov/2007) and remains above the German (8.4%/Sept/2007) average.[42][43] In 2007 the nominal GDP of Berlin experienced a growth rate of 1.8% (2.5% in Germany) and totaled €81.7 ($114) billion.[44] The economy of Berlin has been affected through the years by the citys changing political fortunes. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Funkturm Berlin Funkturm - blue illuminated on the occasion of the Funkausstellung 2005 Berliner Funkturm seen from the Zentraler Omnibus Bahnhof The Berliner Funkturm or Funkturm Berlin (Radio Tower Berlin) is a transmitting tower in Berlin, built between 1924 and 1926 by Heinrich Straumer. ...


Among the Forbes Global 2000 and the 30 German DAX companies only Siemens and Deutsche Bahn control a headquarters in Berlin. Nevertheless, a multitude of German and international companies established secondary departments or service offices in the city. Among the 20 largest employers in Berlin are the railway company Deutsche Bahn AG, the hospital company Charité, the local public transport company BVG, the service provider Dussmann and the Piepenbrock Group. Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. BayerSchering Pharma and Berlin Chemie are major pharmaceutical companies headquartered in the city. The Forbes Global 2000 - is an annual ranking of the top 2000 corporations in the world by Forbes magazine. ... DAX 30 chart in the Frankfurt Stock Exchange DAX 30 (Deutsche Aktien Xchange 30, former Deutscher Aktien-Index 30) is a Blue Chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Germanys main train operator, the Deutsche Bahn AG (German Railway Corporation, also known as DB or DBAG) provides passenger and freight service via federally owned tracks. ... Daimler may refer to Gottlieb Daimler, German engineer and automobile inventor in the 1880s Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, his Stuttgart-based company, maker of Mercedes vehicles since 1903, later merged into Daimler-Benz, maker of Mercedes-Benz vehicles (since 1926) DaimlerChrysler (1998), a part German, part American, part Japanese car maker... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... A 1924 BMW R32 at the 2006 BMW MOA international rally in Vermont. ...


The Science and Business Park of Berlin-Adlershof is among the 15 biggest technology parks world-wide. Research and development have established economic significance, and the Berlin Brandenburg region ranks among the top three innovative regions in the EU.[45][38]


Fast-growing sectors are communications, life sciences, mobility and services with information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology and environmental services, transportation and medical engineering.[46] Berlin is among the top three congress cities in the world and is home to Europe's biggest convention center in the form of the Internationales Congress Centrum (ICC).[11] It contributes to the rapidly increasing tourism sector encompassing 592 hotels with 90,700 beds and numbered 17.3 million overnight stays and 7.5 million hotel guests in 2007. Berlin has established itself as the third most visited city destination in the European Union.[47][48]

2005 EUROSTAT[49] Area Population GDP/Nominal in billion GDP/Nominal per capita
Flag of Berlin Berlin 892 km² 344 sq mi 3,400,000 € 79 / ~$111 € 23,292 / ~$32,609
Flag of Brandenburg Brandenburg 29,478 km² 11,382 sq mi 2,550,000 € 48 / ~$67 € 18,781 / ~$26,294
Flag of Germany Germany 357,050 km² 137,858 sq mi 82,000,000 € 2,245 / ~$3,143 € 27,219 / ~$38,107
Flag of Europe EU27 4,325,675 km² 1,670,152 sq mi 494,000,000 € 11,019 / ~$15,426 € 22,400 / ~$31,360

Image File history File links Flag_of_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brandenburg. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Media

See also: List of films featuring Berlin
The Berlin Film Festival is annually held in February
The Berlin Film Festival is annually held in February

Berlin is the home of many television and radio stations; international, national as well as regional.[50] The public broadcaster RBB has its headquarters there as well as the commercial broadcasters MTV Europe, VIVA, TVB, FAB, N24 and Sat.1. German international public broadcaster Deutsche Welle has its TV production unit in Berlin. Additionally, most national broadcasters have a studio in the city. Detail from the memorial plaque on the Marlene Dietrich house in the Rote Insel area of Schöneberg This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Berlin International Film Festival, also called the Berlinale, is one of the most important film festivals in Europe and the world. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... MTV Europe launched on August 1, 1987. ... REDIRECT Television Broadcasts Limited ... FAB may mean: Look up fab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... N24 is a German television station that broadcasts news and shows documentary in cooperation with the Discovery Channel. ... Sat. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ...


Berlin has Germany's largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets (Berliner Zeitung, Der Tagesspiegel), and three major tabloids, as well as national dailies of varying sizes, each with a different political affiliation, such as Die Welt, Junge Welt, Neues Deutschland, and Die Tageszeitung. In addition, several weekly papers publish here (Junge Freiheit), and Berlin has three alternative weeklies focusing on culture and entertainment. The Exberliner, a monthly magazine, is Berlin's only English-language periodical. Berlin is also the headquarters of two major German-language publishing houses: Walter de Gruyter and Springer, each of which publishes books, periodicals, and multimedia products. Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... The Berliner Zeitung, founded in 1945, is an East German center-left daily newspaper based in Berlin. ... Der Tagesspiegel (The Daily Mirror; motto: rerum cognoscere causas, or to know the causes of things) is a liberal German daily newspaper. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ... Die Welt is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer company. ... Junge Welt is a socialist German newspaper published in Berlin. ... Neues Deutschland is a German newspaper. ... die tageszeitung (referred to commonly as taz), founded in 1978 in Berlin, is a cooperative-owned German daily newspaper. ... The Junge Freiheit (JF, Young Freedom) is a German conservative weekly newspaper for politics and culture. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: vanity/advert If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Axel Springer AG is one of the largest newspaper publishing companies in Europe, claiming to have over 150 newspapers and magazines in over 30 countries, including several central and eastern european countries: Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia and western european countries: Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, more than 10,000...


Berlin is an important center in the European and German film industry. It is home to more than one thousand film and television production companies, 270 movie theaters, and around 300 national and international co-productions are filmed in the region every year.[38] The venerable Babelsberg Studios and the production company UFA are located outside Berlin in Potsdam. The city is also home of the European Film Academy and the German Film Academy, and hosts the annual Berlin Film Festival.[51][52] Cinema in Germany can be traced back to the very beginnings of the medium at the end of the 19th Century and German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. ... Filmstudio Babelsberg Logo showing a scene from Metropolis The Babelsberg Studios is a film studio located in Potsdam-Babelsberg, Germany. ... UFA logo Universum Film AG, better known as Ufa or UFA, was the principal film studio in Germany, home of the German film industry during the Weimar Republic and through World War II, and a major force in world cinema during its brief existence from 1917 to 1945. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Berlin International Film Festival, also called the Berlinale, is one of the most important film festivals in Europe and the world. ...


Education

See also: Universities, colleges, and research institutions in Berlin and Education in Germany

The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centers of higher education and research in the European Union. The city has four universities and numerous private, professional and technical colleges (Fachhochschulen), offering students a wide range of disciplines.[53] Around 130,000 students attend the universities and professional or technical colleges.[39] The three largest universities account for around 100,000 students. These are the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University of Berlin) with around 35,000 students, the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin with 35,000 students, and the Technische Universität Berlin with 30,000 students. The Universität der Künste has about 4,300 students. Berlin has Germanys largest concentration of universities, colleges, and research institutions. ... Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany has to lie primarily with the states while the federal government only has a minor role. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... Free University of Berlin The Free University of Berlin (FU Berlin, German: Freie Universität Berlin) is the largest university in Berlin, Germany. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... The Central Institute for Modern Languages at the Technical University The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin in Germany. ... The Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der Künste Berlin) in Berlin, Germany, was founded in 1975 with the merger of the Berlin State School of Fine Arts and the Berlin State School of Music and the Performing Arts. ...


The city has a high concentration of research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society and the Max Planck Society, which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities. A total number of 62,000 scientists are working in research and development.[38] The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ... The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use...


In addition to the libraries affiliated with the various universities, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major research library. It has two main locations: one near Potsdamer Platz on Potsdamer Straße and one on Unter den Linden. There are 108 public libraries to be found in the city.[38] // Staatsbibliothek The Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin State Library – Prussian Cultural Heritage) Short history: Founded in 1661 During the World War II the entire holdings (at the time some three million books and other materials)were hidden to safety in 30 monasteries, castles and disused mines. ... Roof of Sony Center. Potsdamer Platz is an important square and traffic intersection in the center of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the south east corner of the Tiergarten park. ... A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ...

Canisius-Kolleg Berlin
Canisius-Kolleg Berlin

Berlin has 878 schools teaching 340,658 children in 13,727 classes and 56,787 trainees in businesses and elsewhere.[38] The city has a six-year primary education program. After completing primary school, students progress to one of the four types of secondary schools for six further years: Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule. Berlin has a unique bilingual school program embedded in the "Europaschule". At these schools children get taught the curriculum in German and a foreign language, starting in grammar school and later in secondary school. Throughout nearly all boroughs, a range of 9 major European languages in 29 schools can be chosen.[54] While most European School teach English, one of them, the Französisches Gymnasium Berlin which was founded in 1689 for the benefit of Huguenot refugees, offers (German/French) instruction.[55] The John F. Kennedy School, a bilingual German-American public school located in Zehlendorf, is particularly popular with children of Diplomats and the expat community. There are also four schools ("Humanistische Gymnasien") teaching Latin and Classical Greek, which are traditionally renowned for highest academic standards. Two of them are state schools (Steglitzer Gymnasium in Steglitz and Goethe-Gymnasium in Wilmersdorf), one is Protestant (Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Wilmersdorf) and one Jesuit (Canisius-Kolleg in the "Embassy Quarter" in Tiergarten). The Canisius-Kolleg is a College in Berlin, Germany. ... Rütli-Hauptschule, Berlin-Neukölln. ... In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... The Französisches Gymnasium (or Collège francais) is a long-existing bilingual highschool in Berlin, Germany. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The John F. Kennedy School was established in the 1960s in Berlin, Germany and has brought students from all corners of the world together. ... Zehlendorf is the southwestern-most district in Berlin. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since Turkey, Italy and Libya. ... Location of Steglitz within Berlin. ... Wilmersdorf is an area of Berlin, formerly a borough but since 2001 part of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... Wilmersdorf is an area of Berlin, formerly a borough but since 2001 part of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... The Canisius-Kolleg is a College in Berlin, Germany. ... Tiergarten (Animal Garden) is a large park and a former borough of Berlin, since 2001 a part of the expanded borough Mitte. ...


Culture

See also: 1920s Berlin

Berlin is noted for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation.[14][56] The diversity and vivacity of the Zeitgeist Metropolis led to an ever-changing and trendsetting image among major cities.[57] The city has a very diverse art scene, and is home to hundreds of art galleries. It hosts the annual Art Forum - an international art fair, which focuses on contemporary art.[58] Young Germans and international artists continue to settle in the city,[59] and Berlin has established itself as a center of youth and popular culture in Europe.[60][61] Signs of this expanding role were the 2003 announcement that the annual Popkomm, Europe's largest music industry convention, would move to Berlin after 15 years in Cologne.[62] Shortly thereafter, the Universal Music Group and MTV also decided to move their European headquarters and main studios to the banks of the River Spree in Friedrichshain.[63] Since 2005, Berlin has been listed as a UNESCO City of Design.[12] The Golden Twenties, in Berlin, Germany, were an exciting and extremely vibrant time in the history of Berlin, German history, and European history in general. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1175x881, 280 KB) Summary Berlin-Mitte. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1175x881, 280 KB) Summary Berlin-Mitte. ... Alte Nationalgalerie The Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery) on Museum Island in Berlin is a gallery showing many important 19th century works from the collection of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation. ... Map of Museum Island (in red) Museum Island (or, in German, Museumsinsel) in Berlin, Germany, is the name of the northern half of the Spreeinsel, an island in the Spree river, in the center of the city. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... The music industry is the business of music. ... Metro Toronto Convention Centre, late 2004. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... This article is about the river in Germany. ... Location of Friedrichshain in Berlin Friedrichshain is a part of Berlins borough of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Nightlife, festivals

The city is a center for nightlife and DJ-culture in Europe
The city is a center for nightlife and DJ-culture in Europe

Berlin has one of the most diverse and vibrant nightlife scenes in Europe.[64] After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, many buildings in Mitte, the former city center of East Berlin, were renovated. Many had not been rebuilt since the Second World War. Illegally occupied by young people, they became a fertile ground for all sorts of underground and counter-culture gatherings. It is also home to many nightclubs, including Kunst Haus Tacheles, techno clubs Tresor, WMF, Ufo, E-Werk, the infamous Kitkatclub and Berghain. The Linientreu, near the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, has been well known since the 1990s for techno music. The LaBelle discotheque in Friedenau became famous as the location of the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing.[65] Image File history File links Nightclubbing. ... Image File history File links Nightclubbing. ... The location of Mitte in Berlin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... During the 1960s the term underground acquired a new meaning in that it referred to members of the so-called counterculture, i. ... The Kunst Haus Tacheles is an art center and nightclub started in East Berlin after the Berlin Wall came down in the spring of 1990. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Tresor (German for safe or vault) is an underground techno nightclub and record label. ... The E-Werk was a techno-club in Berlin, which was previously an electrical substation. ... The tone or style of this article may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Berghain Berghain is a techno club in Berlin, Germany. ... Old and new parts Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church around 1900 The Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church (in German: Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche) is located in Berlin at the Kurfürstendamm. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Friedenau is a district within the Borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg in Berlin, Germany. ... The Berlin discotheque bombing of April 5, 1986 was a terrorist attack on the West Berlin La Belle discotheque that was frequented by U.S. soldiers. ...

The "Karneval der Kulturen" at Pentecost
The "Karneval der Kulturen" at Pentecost

SO36 in Kreuzberg originally focused largely on punk music but today has become a popular venue for dances and parties of all kinds. SOUND, located from 1971 to 1988 in Tiergarten and today in Charlottenburg, gained notoriety in the late 1970s for its popularity with heroin users and other drug addicts as described in Christiane F.'s book Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo.[66] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Punk Rock is an anti-establishment music movement that began about 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified by The Ramones,the Misfits, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Heroin (INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Christiane F. (full name Christiane Vera Felscherinow), was born in West Berlin on May 20, 1962. ...


The Karneval der Kulturen, a multi-ethnic street parade celebrated every Pentecost weekend, and the Christopher Street Day, which is Central Europe's largest gay-lesbian pride event and is celebrated the last weekend of June, are openly supported by the city's government.[67] Berlin is also well known for the techno carnival Love Parade and the cultural festival Berliner Festspiele, which include the jazz festival JazzFest Berlin. The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... The President of the German Bundestag (Parliament), Wolfgang Thierse, addresses the crowd at CSD Berlin 2001. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... For the 1929 film, see The Love Parade. ... The Berliner Festspiele is a music, arts, and culture festival held each year in Berlin, Germany. ... JazzFest Berlin (also known as the Berlin Jazz Festival) is a jazz festival based in Berlin, Germany. ...


Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress.
Transmediale is a yearly art festival, held in Berlin, Germany. ... The Chaos Communication Congress is a three-day meeting of the international hacker scene, organized by the Chaos Computer Club. ...


Museums, galleries

See also: List of museums and galleries in Berlin
The reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Museum
The reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Museum

Berlin is home to 153 museums.[38] The ensemble on the Museum Island is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is situated in the northern part of the Spree Island between the Spree and the Kupfergraben.[14] As early as 1841 it was designated a “district dedicated to art and antiquities” by a royal decree. Subsequently, the Altes Museum (Old Museum) in the Lustgarten displaying the bust of Queen Nefertiti,[68] and the Neues Museum (New Museum), Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery), Pergamon Museum, and Bode Museum were built there. While these buildings once housed distinct collections, the names of the buildings no longer necessarily correspond to the names of the collections they house. Alte Nationalgalerie Altes Museum Bode Museum Pergamon Museum Deutsches Historisches Museum German Museum of Technology This is a list of museums and galleries in Berlin, Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The reconstructed Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin A detail from the reconstructed gate. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ... Map of Museum Island (in red) Museum Island (or, in German, Museumsinsel) in Berlin, Germany, is the name of the northern half of the Spreeinsel, an island in the Spree river, in the center of the city. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... The iconic bust of Nefertiti, part of the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin collection, currently on display in the Altes Museum. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alte Nationalgalerie The Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery) on Museum Island in Berlin is a gallery showing many important 19th century works from the collection of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ... The Bode Museum The Bode Museum belongs to the group of museums on Museum Island in Berlin and is a historically preserved building. ...


Apart from the Museum Island, there is a wide variety of museums. The Gemäldegalerie (Painting Gallery) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) specializes in 20th century European painting. The Hamburger Bahnhof, located in Berlin-Moabit, exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. In spring 2006, the expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history through the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The Bauhaus Archiv is an architecture museum. The Gemäldegalerie is an art gallery in Berlin, Germany. ... This interior view of the Neue Nationalgaleries ground floor shows the play of light off the reflective floor, as well as the animated red LCD tracks on the ceiling. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... Hamburger Bahnhof is a former train station in Berlin, Germany on Invalidenstraße in the Berlin-Tiergarten district opposite the Charité. Severely damaged during World War II, it has not been used as a station since then. ... Moabit is a district in the center of Berlin. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Bauhaus archive, view from the west The Bauhaus Archive (German: ) Museum of Design, in Berlin, collects items, documents and literature which relate to the Bauhaus School (1919 - 1933; the most important school of architecture, design, and art of the 20th century) and puts them on public display. ...

The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on 2,000 years of German-Jewish history. The German Museum of Technology in Kreuzberg has a large collection of historical technical artifacts. The Museum für Naturkunde (museum of natural history) near Berlin Hauptbahnhof has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world (a brachiosaurus), and the best preserved specimen of the early bird Archaeopteryx. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jewish Museum Berlin Shalechet (Fallen Leaves) by Menashe Kadishman The Jewish Museum Berlin (Jüdisches Museum Berlin) is a museum in Berlin covering two millennia of German Jewish history. ... Jewish Museum Berlin Shalechet (Fallen Leaves) by Menashe Kadishman The Jewish Museum Berlin (Jüdisches Museum Berlin) is a museum in Berlin covering two millennia of German Jewish history. ... The German Museum of Technology The Deutsche Technikmuseum Berlin (German Museum of Technology) was founded in 1982 and has a large collection of historical technical artifacts. ... Location of Kreuzberg in Berlin Kreuzberg Kreuzberg, located south of Berlin-Mitte, is one of the best-known boroughs of Berlin, famous for its nightlife and its political leftness as well as its problems with criminality, the drug scene and a very high number of immigrants. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Berlin Ostbahnhof was named Berlin Hauptbahnhof from 1987 to 1998. ... Species (type) ?B. (Giraffatitan) brancai Brachiosaurus (IPA: ) meaning Arm Lizard, from the Greek brachion/βραχιων meaning arm and sauros/σαυρος meaning lizard, was a genus of sauropod dinosaur which lived during the Late Jurassic Period. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ...


In Dahlem, there are several museums of world art and culture, such as the Museum of Indian Art, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of European Cultures, as well as the Allied Museum (a museum of the Cold War), the Brücke Museum (an art museum). In Lichtenberg, on the grounds of the former East German Ministry for State Security (Stasi), is the Stasi Museum. The site of Checkpoint Charlie, one of the renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved and also has a museum. The museum, which is a private venture, exhibits a comprehensive array of material about people who devised ingenious plans to flee the East. The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum near Zoo Station claims to be the world's largest erotic museum.
Location of Dahlem within Berlin (inset) and the borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf The main campus of the Free University of Berlin Botanical Gardens This article refers to the neighborhood in Berlin. ... A room of the Museum of Indian Art. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Lichtenberg is a borough of Berlin, Germany. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Allied Checkpoint Charlie. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation). ... The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum (German: Beate Uhse Erotik-Museum) in Berlin, Germany, opened in 1996. ... The Bahnhof Zoo in 2004 The Bahnhof Zoo (the official name is Berlin Zoologischer Garten) was the central transport facility in West Berlin during the citys political division and is still the main station for the western central area of Berlin. ... A sex museum is a museum that displays erotic art, historical sexual aids, and documents on the history of erotica. ...


Performing arts

See also: Music in Berlin
The Berliner Philharmonie is home to the renowned Berlin Philharmonic
The Berliner Philharmonie is home to the renowned Berlin Philharmonic

Berlin is home to more than 50 theaters.[38] The Deutsches Theater in Mitte was built in 1849–50 and has operated continuously since then, except for a one-year break (1944–45) due to the Second World War. The Volksbühne on Rosa Luxemburg Platz was built in 1913–14, though the company had been founded already in 1890. The Berliner Ensemble, famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht, was established in 1949, not far from the Deutsches Theater. The Schaubühne was founded in 1962 in a building in Kreuzberg, but moved in 1981 to the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kurfürstendamm. Throughout its history, Berlin was a musical center in North Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1183x887, 255 KB) The Philharmonie in Berlin, main entrance. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1183x887, 255 KB) The Philharmonie in Berlin, main entrance. ... The Berliner Philharmonie in Berlin-Tiergarten ist one of the most important concert halls in Berlin and home to the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. ... The Berliner Philharmoniker (Berlin Philharmonic), is one of the worlds leading orchestras. ... The Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Germany is a well known theater, which was built in 1850 (then as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Friedrich Wilhelm). ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... The Schaubühne am Lehniner Platz is a famous theatre in the western Part of Berlin. ... The Kurfürstendamm, Berlins upscale retail neighbourhood The Kurfürstendamm is one of the most famous avenues in Berlin, Germany. ...


Berlin has three major opera houses: the Deutsche Oper, the Berlin State Opera, and the Komische Oper. The Berlin State Opera on Unter den Linden is the oldest; it opened in 1742. Its current musical director is Daniel Barenboim. The Komische Oper, which has traditionally specialized in operettas, is located not far from the State Opera just off Unter den Linden. It originally opened in 1892 as a theater and has been operating under its current name since 1947. The Deutsche Oper opened in 1912 in Charlottenburg. During the division of the city from 1961 to 1989 it was the only major opera house in West Berlin. New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... Deutsche Oper Berlin The Deutsche Oper Berlin is an opera house located in Berlin, Germany (in what was formerly West Berlin). ... Staatsoper Unter den Linden, 2003 Berlin State Opera (in German: Staatsoper Unter den Linden) is a prominent German opera company. ... The Komische Oper Berlin is an opera company in Berlin, Germany, which specializes in German-language productions of opera, operetta and musicals. ... A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ...

German Cathedral and Concert Hall at Gendarmenmarkt square.
German Cathedral and Concert Hall at Gendarmenmarkt square.

There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world;[69] it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan.[70] The current principal conductor is Simon Rattle, who took over in 2002 from Karajan's successor, Claudio Abbado.[71] The Konzerthausorchester Berlin was founded in 1952 as the orchestra for East Berlin, since the Philharmonic was based in West Berlin. Its current principal conductor is Lothar Zagrosek. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 347 KB)German Cathedral and Concert Hall in Berlin Photo taken September 4, 2004 by André Huppertz, released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 347 KB)German Cathedral and Concert Hall in Berlin Photo taken September 4, 2004 by André Huppertz, released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Gendarmenmarkt is a square in Berlin, and the site of the Konzerthaus (Schauspielhaus) and the French and German Cathedrals. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ... The Berliner Philharmonie in Berlin-Tiergarten ist one of the most important concert halls in Berlin and home to the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. ... Roof of Sony Center. Potsdamer Platz is an important square and traffic intersection in the center of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the south east corner of the Tiergarten park. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Simon Rattle recording Porgy and Bess with the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road in 1988, aged 33. ... Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ... The Konzerthausorchester Berlin (until 2006 known as the Berlin Symphony Orchestra in English and Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester in German) is a major symphony orchestra from Berlin, Germany. ... Lothar Zagrosek (born 13 November 1942 in Otting, Germany) is a German conductor. ...


The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents various exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences.[72]
The Haus der Kulturen der Welt (House of the worlds cultures) is presenting various exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages also world music and conferences. ...


Recreation

Cafés are part of the city's bohemian lifestyle
Cafés are part of the city's bohemian lifestyle

Zoologischer Garten Berlin, the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in 1844, and presents the most diverse range of species in the world.[73] It is the home of the captive-born polar bear Knut, born in December 2006. He is currently the subject of international popularity and controversy. Tierpark Friedrichsfelde, founded in 1955 in the grounds of Schloss Friedrichsfelde in the Borough of Lichtenberg, is Europe's largest zoo in terms of square meters. Image File history File links Glücklich. ... Image File history File links Glücklich. ... Elephant Gate The Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Berlin zoological garden) is one of the biggest zoos in Germany and with the largest number of species of the world. ... This article is about the animal. ... Knut during his first public appearance at the Berlin Zoo on 23 March 2007. ... Lichtenberg is a borough of Berlin, Germany. ...


Berlin's Botanischer Garten includes the Botanic Museum Berlin. With an area of 43 hectares (106 acres) and around 22,000 different plant species it is one of the largest and most diverse gardens in the world. Giant bamboo in Great Pavilion Great Pavilion Cactus Pavilion Pavilion Victoria Botanical Garden in Berlin (German: Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem) is a large botanical garden in Berlin, Germany. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ...

The Tiergarten park in October
The Tiergarten park in October

The Tiergarten (Animal Garden) is Berlin's largest park located in Mitte and was designed by Peter Joseph Lenné.[74] In Kreuzberg the Viktoriapark provides a good viewing point over the southern part of inner city Berlin. Treptower Park beside the Spree in Treptow has a monument honoring the Soviet soldiers killed in the 1945 Battle of Berlin. The Volkspark in Friedrichshain, which opened in 1848, is the oldest park in the city. Its summit is man-made and covers a Second World War bunker and rubble from the ruins of the city; at its foot is Germany's main memorial to Polish soldiers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (841 × 548 pixels, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (841 × 548 pixels, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Tiergarten (Animal Garden) is a large park and a former borough of Berlin, since 2001 a part of the expanded borough Mitte. ... Tiergarten (Animal Garden) is a large park and a former borough of Berlin, since 2001 a part of the expanded borough Mitte. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The location of Mitte in Berlin. ... Peter Joseph Lenné (29 September 1789 — 23 January 1866) was a Prussian gardener and landscape architect from Bonn who worked in the German classicist style. ... Location of Kreuzberg in Berlin Kreuzberg Kreuzberg, located south of Berlin-Mitte, is one of the best-known boroughs of Berlin, famous for its nightlife and its political leftness as well as its problems with criminality, the drug scene and a very high number of immigrants. ... Viktoriapark is in the Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg borough of city of Berlin, Germany. ... hayfield Treptower Park is a park area along the river Spree south of downtown Berlin in the district of Treptow-Köpenick. ... Treptow is a former borough of Berlin; in 2001 it merged with Köpenick to form the new borough Treptow-Köpenick. ... The statue of the Soviet soldier holding a child Soviet 1-ruble commemorative coin, issued in 1965 The inner area flanked by stone monuments, with four symbolic bronze garlands The Soviet War Memorial (sometimes translated as the Soviet Cenotaph), is a vast war memorial and military cemetery in Berlins... CCCP redirects here. ... Belligerents Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[3] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[4] Strength Total strength 2... Location of Friedrichshain in Berlin Friedrichshain is a part of Berlins borough of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... The twin columns symbolize the joint struggle of Poles and Germans against fascism Memorial wreaths left before the monument on May 8, 2006 Skateboarders in front of the monumental slogan, For your and our freedom The dedication of the memorial was commemorated on this 1972 Polish postage stamp The Memorial...


Berlin is known for its numerous beach bars along the river Spree. Together with the countless cafés, restaurants and green spaces in all districts, they create an important source of recreation and leisure time.[75]


Sports

The Olympiastadion was the venue for the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final
The Olympiastadion was the venue for the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final

Berlin hosted the 1936 Olympics and was the host city for the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final.[76][77] The IAAF World Championships in Athletics will be held in the Olympiastadion in 2009. The annual Berlin Marathon and the annual Golden League event ISTAF for athletics are also held here.[78] The WTA Tour holds the Qatar Total German Open annually in the city. Founded in 1896, it is one of the oldest tennis tournaments for women. The FIVB World Tour has chosen an inner-city site near Alexanderplatz to present a beach volleyball Grand Slam every year. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Olympiastadion redirects here. ... 2006 World Cup redirects here. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... 2006 World Cup redirects here. ... The World Championships in Athletics is an event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations. ... Olympiastadion redirects here. ... The Berlin Marathon is an annual marathon in Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... The IAAF Golden League is an annual series of athletics meetings organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations. ... The Internationales Stadionfest (ISTAF) is an annual athletics meet at the Olympiastadion in Berlin, Germany that takes place on September 4 as the final meet of the IAAF Golden League. ... WTA stands for Womens Tennis Association, and is also known as the WTA Tour, and is to womens tennis what the ATP is to mens tennis. ... The Qatar Total German Open is a WTA Tour affiliated professional tennis tournament for women. ... FIVB Logo Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) is the international governing body for the sport of volleyball. ... Alexanderplatz from the Fernsehturm   is a large open square and public transport hub in Berlin city centre, near the river Spree and the Berliner Dom, at . Berliners often call it simply Alex. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...


Berlin is home to Hertha BSC Berlin, a football team in the Bundesliga, and the basketball team ALBA Berlin (known as the "Berlin Albatrosses"), which won the national championships every year from 1997 to 2003. Berlin is also home to the Eisbären Berlin of the German Ice Hockey League, an ice hockey team which was founded in the East German era. Hertha BSC Berlin is a German football club based in Berlin. ... The official Bundesliga logo. ... ALBA Berlin is a prominent German basketball club based in Berlin, and is also known as Berlin Albatrosse. ... Eisbären Berlin (English: Berlin Polar Bears) are a professional ice hockey team based in Berlin, Germany. ... Deutsche Eishockey-Liga (German Hockey League, shortname DEL) is a German high-calibre ice hockey league, and has the highest number of American and Canadian players overseas. ... For the historical eastern German provinces, see Historical Eastern Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ...

Club Sport Founded League Venue Head Coach
Hertha BSC Berlin Football 1892 Bundesliga Olympiastadion Lucien Favre
ALBA Berlin Basketball 1991 BBL Max-Schmeling-Halle Luka Pavicevic
Eisbären Berlin Ice hockey 1954 DEL O2 World Don Jackson
SCC Berlin Volleyball 1911 DVB Sporthalle Charlottenburg Michael Warm
Füchse Berlin Handball 1891 1. Bundesliga Max-Schmeling-Halle Jörn Uwe Lommel

Hertha BSC Berlin is a German football club based in Berlin. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... The official Bundesliga logo. ... The Olympiastadion (Olympic Stadium) is a sports stadium in Berlin. ... Lucien Favre (born November 2,1957 in Saint-Barthélemy, Switzerland) is a former Swiss footballer, currently managing Hertha BSC Berlin. ... ALBA Berlin is a prominent German basketball club based in Berlin, and is also known as Berlin Albatrosse. ... This article is about the sport. ... In the year 1939 a German basketball bundesliga (federal league) was set up for the first time. ... Max-Schmeling-Halle is an arena in Berlin, Germany. ... Eisbären Berlin (English: Berlin Polar Bears) are a professional ice hockey team based in Berlin, Germany. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Deutsche Eishockey-Liga (German Hockey League, shortname DEL) is a German high-calibre ice hockey league, and has the highest number of American and Canadian players overseas. ... O₂ World is a multi-use indoor arena in Berlin, Germany that is currently under construction. ... SC Charlottenburg (commonly SCC Berlin) is a German sports club based in the Charlottenburg district of Berlin and founded in 1902 as Charlottenburger Sport-Club 1902. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Since 1977, the German handball championship is determined by a uniform premier league, The Handball Bundesliga. ... Max-Schmeling-Halle is an arena in Berlin, Germany. ...

Infrastructure

Berlin developed a complex transportation and energy-supply infrastructure before the Second World War. After the war, West Berlin was cut off from the surrounding territory and had to develop independent infrastructures. Meanwhile, the government of East Germany purposefully constructed rail lines and motorways that allowed traffic to bypass West Berlin. The political reunification of East and West Berlin has led to the reintegration of Berlin's transportation and energy-supply with the infrastructures of the surrounding region. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 853 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 853 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Berlin Ostbahnhof was named Berlin Hauptbahnhof from 1987 to 1998. ...


Crossing 979 bridges, 5,334 kilometers (3,314 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 66 kilometers (41 mi) are motorways. In 2004, 1.428 million motor vehicles, including 6,800 taxis, were registered in the city.[38] Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries. Regional rail lines provide access to the surrounding region of Brandenburg and eastern Germany. For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...


Transport

See also: List of Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn stations, Motorways, canals, ports in Berlin, and Berlin airports
The S-Bahn
The S-Bahn

Public transport within Berlin is provided by the S-Bahn (166 stations/ 331.5 km net length/ 375.8 million passengers in 2006), by the U-Bahn (170 stations/ 144.2 km/ 456.8 million passengers), Straßenbahn (398 stations/ 191,6 km/ 171.3 million passengers), Bus (147 lines/ 1,626 km / 407.1 million passengers), and ferries (6 lines)—operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe, or BVG.[39] The S-Bahn is a mostly overground urban railway system. The U-Bahn is the city's mainly underground rail system. The Straßenbahn or tram (trolley) system operates almost exclusively in the eastern part of the city. Buses provide extensive service linking outlying districts with the city center and to the U-Bahn and S-Bahn. Almost all means of public transport (U- & S- Bahn, trams, buses and most ferries) can be accessed with the same ticket. This is a combined list of U-Bahn and S-Bahn stations in Berlin: Adenauer Platz Afrikanische Straße Alexanderplatz Alt-Mariendorf Alt-Reinickendorf Altstadt Spandau Alt-Tegel Alt Tempelhof Amrumer Straße Anhalter Bahnhof Attilastraße Augsburger Straße Babelsberg Bayerischer Platz Berliner Straße Bernau bei Berlin Bernauer... Berlin Autobahn Berlins inner city is partly surrounded by a motorway (Autobahn), the A 100 Berliner Stadtring, that forms a half circle to the west of the center. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Berlins S-Bahn network The Berlin S-Bahn is a metro system operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn. ... Berlins S-Bahn network The Berlin S-Bahn is a metro system operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn. ... Train leaving Nollendorfplatz, one of the original stations of the Berlin U-Bahn The Berlin (, English: ) is a major part of the public transport system of the German capital, Berlin. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Berlin Straßenbahn Berlins first tram ran in 1865 from Kupfergraben to Charlottenburg. ... Autobus redirects here. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (German: Berlin Transporation Company), often abbreviated the BVG, manages the Berlin U-Bahn, the Berlin Straßenbahn, and the Berlin bus network, as well as several ferry lines. ...

The U-Bahn
The U-Bahn

The inner city is crossed from west to east by the elevated main line (Stadtbahn), which carries S-Bahn trains as well as regional and long-distance trains. This main line passes through most of the city's long-distance and regional train stations, including Berlin-Charlottenburg, Berlin Zoologischer Garten, Berlin Hauptbahnhof, Friedrichstraße, Alexanderplatz, and Berlin Ostbahnhof.[79] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x670, 1175 KB) english Berlin U-Bahn on the Oberbaumbrücke animation made out of 7 images Photographer: Christian Thiele deutsch U-Bahn auf der Oberbaumbrücke Animation aus 7 Einzelbildern Fotograf und Ersteller: Christian Thiele עברית רכבת או באן בברלין שבגרמניה, על גשר אוברבאומבריקה האנימציה נעשתה משבע תמונות צולם בידי כריסטיאן טילה File links The following pages... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x670, 1175 KB) english Berlin U-Bahn on the Oberbaumbrücke animation made out of 7 images Photographer: Christian Thiele deutsch U-Bahn auf der Oberbaumbrücke Animation aus 7 Einzelbildern Fotograf und Ersteller: Christian Thiele עברית רכבת או באן בברלין שבגרמניה, על גשר אוברבאומבריקה האנימציה נעשתה משבע תמונות צולם בידי כריסטיאן טילה File links The following pages... Train leaving Nollendorfplatz, one of the original stations of the Berlin U-Bahn The Berlin (, English: ) is a major part of the public transport system of the German capital, Berlin. ... The Berlin Stadtbahn (city railway) is a major railway thoroughfare in the German capital Berlin. ... Charlottenburg is an area in Berlin, formerly a borough, now part of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... The Bahnhof Zoo in 2004 The Bahnhof Zoo (the official name is Berlin Zoologischer Garten) was the central transport facility in West Berlin during the citys political division and is still the main station for the western central area of Berlin. ... Berlin Ostbahnhof was named Berlin Hauptbahnhof from 1987 to 1998. ... Friedrichstraße - view to north The Friedrichstraße (pronounced in IPA) (Frederick Street) is a major shopping street in (east) central Berlin. ... Alexanderplatz from the Fernsehturm   is a large open square and public transport hub in Berlin city centre, near the river Spree and the Berliner Dom, at . Berliners often call it simply Alex. ... The station concourse contains shops and eating facilities Looking west from a mainline platform, facing the two S-bahn platforms The station has been known by several names over its 160-year history Berlin Ostbahnhof (translates from German as Berlin East Station) is a mainline railway station in Berlin, Germany. ...


The second component of Berlin's rail network is the S-Bahn ring (Ringbahn) that forms a circle around the inner city and crosses the main line at Westkreuz (“west crossing”) and Ostkreuz (“east crossing”). A number of regional and regional express lines connect Berlin with the surrounding regions. The last one is the S-Bahn connection from South to North stopping at Südkreuz and Gesundbrunnen, two of the largest train stations in Berlin. The city is also served by the freight rail yard at Seddin, south of Potsdam.[80] Ostkreuz is almost unchanged since the 1920s. ...

Berlin has three commercial airports. Tegel International Airport (TXL), Tempelhof International Airport (THF), and Schönefeld International Airport (SXF) handled over 20 million passengers in 2007 and served 173 destinations (01/2008) - 128 of them in Europe. Schönefeld lies just outside Berlin's south-eastern border in the state of Brandenburg, while the other two airports lie within the city. Tempelhof handles shorter distance and commuter flights, and there are plans to close the airport and transfer its traffic to Schönefeld Airport. There are longer-term plans to close Tegel as well. Schönefeld is currently undergoing expansion. Berlin's airport authority aims to transfer all of Berlin's air traffic in 2011 to a greatly expanded airport at Schönefeld, to be renamed Berlin Brandenburg International Airport.[81] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (2423 × 1615 pixel, file size: 404 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (2423 × 1615 pixel, file size: 404 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin Metadata This file contains... Tegel International Airport Otto Lilienthal (IATA: TXL, ICAO: EDDT) (often shortened to Tegel) is an airport in Berlin, Germany. ... Tegel International Airport Otto Lilienthal (IATA: TXL, ICAO: EDDT) (often shortened to Tegel) is an airport in Berlin, Germany. ... Exterior of Tempelhof Airport. ... Landsat image of SXF Schönefeld International Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Schönefeld) (IATA: SXF, ICAO: EDDB)is an international airport located on the south-eastern outskirts of Berlin, Germany, near Brandenburg, Germany. ... Berlin Brandenburg International Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Brandenburg International) is the tentative new name of Schönefeld International Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Schönefeld) in Brandenburg, Germany, near Berlin, slated for completion in 2011. ...


Utilities

Heizkraftwerk Mitte
Heizkraftwerk Mitte

Berlin's power supply is mainly provided by the Swedish firm Vattenfall and is relying more heavily than other electricity producers in Germany on lignite as an energy source. Because burning lignite produces harmful emissions, Vattenfall has announced a commitment to shift towards reliance on cleaner, renewable energy sources.[82] During the division of Berlin, the power grid of West Berlin was cut off from the power grid of the surrounding areas in East Germany. West Berlin's electricity supply was provided by thermal power stations. To facilitate buffering during load peaks, accumulators were installed during the 1980s at some of these power stations. These were connected by static inverters to the power grid and were loaded during times of low power consumption and unloaded during times of high consumption. In 1993 the power connections to the surrounding areas, which had been capped in 1951, were restored. In the western districts of Berlin, nearly all power lines are underground cables; only a 380 kV and a 110 kV line, which run from Reuter substation to the urban Autobahn, use overhead lines. The Berlin 380 kV electric line was constructed when West Berlin's electrical system was a totally independent system and not connected to those of East or West Germany. This has now become the backbone of the whole city's power system. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) Heizkraftwerk Berlin-Mitte photo taken by Mazbln on 2003-06-12 Source: de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 52 KB) Heizkraftwerk Berlin-Mitte photo taken by Mazbln on 2003-06-12 Source: de. ... The location of Mitte in Berlin. ... Vattenfall AB, literally Waterfall, is a Swedish energy company and one of the leading energy producers in Northern Europe. ... Strip mining lignite at Tagebau Garzweiler near Grevenbroich, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Power station (disambiguation). ... In electrical engineering, power consumption refers to the electrical energy over time that must be supplied to an electrical device to maintain its operation. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... The Berlin 380-kV electric line is a 38. ...


Health system

The Charité main building
The Charité main building

Berlin has a long tradition as a city of medicine and medical technology.[83] The Berlin Charité Hospital is the largest university hospital in Europe. It is a joint institution of the Free University of Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin, including a wide range of institutes and medical competence centers. Among them are the German Heart Center, one of the most renowned transplantation centers, the Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine and the Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Genetics. Scientific research is complemented by many industry research departments of companies such as Siemens, Schering or debis. The history of medicine has been widely influenced by scientists from Berlin: Rudolf Virchow, the founder of cellular pathology, Ferdinand Sauerbruch, most famous surgeon of the first half of the 20th century or Robert Koch, discoverer of the anthrax bacillus, the tuberculosis bacillus and the cholera bacillus. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1023x741, 125 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charité Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1023x741, 125 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Charité Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The Charité is the largest university hospitals in Europe[1]. The Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin is the medical school for the Free University of Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin. ... A university hospital is an institution which combines the services of a hospital with the education of medical students and with medical research. ... Satellite photo of Berlin. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... Dr. R.L.K. Virchow Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (October 13, 1821, Schivelbein (Pomerania) - September 5, 1902, Berlin) was a German doctor, anthropologist, public health activist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician. ... Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch (3rd July 1875– 2nd July 1951) was a German surgeon. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus globigii Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


Berlin quotations

Marlene Dietrich was born in Berlin-Schöneberg
Marlene Dietrich was born in Berlin-Schöneberg
See also: List of quotes featuring Berlin
  • "Berlin ist arm, aber sexy." ("Berlin is poor, but sexy.")
    (Klaus Wowereit, Governing Mayor, in a press interview, 2003)[84]
  • "Berlin wird leben und die Mauer wird fallen." ("Berlin will live and the wall will come down.")
    (Willy Brandt, Former Governing Mayor of West Berlin and chancellor of Germany, November 10, 1989)[85]
  • “The greatest cultural extravaganza that one could imagine..”
    (David Bowie, singer, on 1970s Berlin)[86]
  • "Ich bin ein Berliner." ("I am a citizen of Berlin")
    (John F. Kennedy, President of the United States, 1963 while visiting Berlin)[87]
  • "Ich hab noch einen Koffer in Berlin" ("I still have a suitcase in Berlin")
    (Marlene Dietrich, song by the actress and singer born in Berlin-Schöneberg, 1951)[88]
  • "“Berlin ist eine Stadt, verdammt dazu, ewig zu werden, niemals zu sein” ("Berlin is a city condemned forever to becoming and never being.")
    (Karl Scheffler, author of Berlin: Ein Stadtschicksal, 1910)[89]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer and entertainer. ... Schöneberg is a district of Berlin. ... Speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate Walter Ulbricht Ich bin ein Berliner. ... Klaus Wowereit Klaus Wowereit (born October 1, 1953 in Berlin) is a German politician, member of the SPD (Social Democratic Party), and mayor of Berlin since the 2001 state elections. ... For the Oz character, see Willy Brandt (Oz). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a citizen of Berlin) is a famous quotation from a June 26, 1963 speech of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer and entertainer. ... Schöneberg is a district of Berlin. ...

See also

There are several remarkable broadcasting facilities in Berlin, more than in other comparable cities. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Gross, Leonard, The Last Jews in Berlin. Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-7867-0687-2
  • Tertius Chandler, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. Edwin Mellen Pr, 1987. ISBN 0-88946-207-0
  • Ribbe, Wolfgang, Geschichte Berlins. Bwv - Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2002. ISBN 3-8305-0166-8
  • Gwertzman, M. Kaufman, The Collapse of Communism, 1990.
  • Read, Anthony, and David Fisher, Berlin Rising: Biography of a City. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. ISBN 0-393-03606-5
  • Large, David Clay, Berlin. New York: Basic Books, 2001. ISBN 0-465-02632-X
  • Gill, Anton: A Dance Between Flames: Berlin Between The Wars, 1993. John Murray, 304 pages. ISBN 0-7195-4986 8
  • Taylor, Frederick: The Berlin Wall: 13 August 1961 - 9 November 1989, 2007. Bloomsbury, 752 pages.

is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... The Treaty of Xanten (German: ) was signed on November 12, 1614 between Wolfgang William, Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg and John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. ... County of Mark in 1477. ... The County of Ravensberg (German: ) was a historical county of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Bishopric of Minden was a Roman Catholic diocese and a state of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... The Bishopric of Halberstadt was a Roman Catholic diocese from 804 until 1648 and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the late Middle Ages until around 1800. ... The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a Roman Catholic archdiocese from 968 to 1545, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the 12th century until 1806. ... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... The Brandenburger Gold Coast, later Prussian Gold Coast, was a part of the Gold Coast that was colonised by Germans before the German unification. ... Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Neuchâtel is a canton of Switzerland. ... Historic Western Pomerania (outlined in yellow) Western Pomerania (also West Pomerania, Polish: , German: ), is a geographical and historical region in the west of Pomerania in northern Poland and Germany. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w KÅ‚odzku Mayor Roman Lipski Area 25 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Netze District or District of the Netze (German: ; Polish: ) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 to 1793. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... South Prussia (1793-1806) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created in Greater Poland after the second partition of Poland (1793). ... New East Prussia (German Neu-Ostpreußen) was the easternmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia between 1795 and 1807, created from areas acquired during the third Partition of Poland, with Warsaw as a capital. ... New Silesia (German: Neuschlesien, also Neu-Schlesien) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1806, created northwest of Kraków from the third partition of Poland. ... The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions Prussia. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... East Prussia (red), within the Kingdom of Prussia, within the German Empire, as of 1871. ... West Prussia (German: ( (help· info)), Polish: Prusy Zachodnie) was a province (1772–1824 and 1878–1918) of the Kingdom of Prussia. ... The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ... The Province of Brandenburg (German: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... The Province of Saxony (German Provinz Sachsen) was a Prussian province between the Napoleonic Wars of 1815 and 1947. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Westphalia and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Lower Rhine Province (red}, within the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), within the German Confederation (member states in black)   Capital Koblenz Population  - 1816 est. ... The province of the Jülich-Cleves-Berg (red}, within the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), within the German Confederation (member states in black). ... Hohenzollern and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Schleswig-Holstein and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... The Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau (German Hessen-Nassau) was created in 1868 as a consequence of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 by combining the previously independent Electorate of Hesse (Hesse-Kassel), the Duchy of Nassau, the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt, areas gained from the Kingdom of Bavaria... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... Lower Silesia (Niederschlesien in German) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... Upper Silesia (Polish: , German: ) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... The Greater Berlin Act (German: ) of 1920, in full the Law Regarding the Ronstruction of the New Local Authority of Berlin (German: ), was a law passed by the Prussian government that led to the formation of the separate Prussian administrative region of Berlin. ... The Grenzmark Posen-Westpreussen were the lands of the former Germany/Prussian provinces of Posen and West Prussia, that remained in Germany after 1920 (end of World War I). ... Capital Merseburg High President Joachim Albrecht Eggeling Historical era World War II  - Established 1 April, 1944  - Disestablished 9 July, 1945 Area  - 1933 (within 1944-45 borders) 10,217. ... Capital Magdeburg High President Joachim Albrecht Eggeling Historical era World War II  - Established 1 April, 1944  - Disestablished 9 July, 1945 Area  - 1933 (within 1944-45 borders) 11,587. ... Capital Kassel High President Karl Gerland Historical era World War II  - Established 1 April, 1944  - Disestablished 19 September, 1945 Area  - 1944 9,200 km² Population  - 1944 est. ... ...


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