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Encyclopedia > Berke

Berke was the ruler of the Golden Horde from 1257 to 1266, in the aftermath of the reign of his brother Batu Khan. It was under the rule of Berke as Khan, that the Golden, or Kipchak, Horde came to the defense of the Holy Land, defeating their Mongol cousins in alliance with the Mamluks. This article refers to the medieval Turkic state. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Batu Khan (Russian: Batyi, Батый) (c. ...

Contents


Background

Berke was one of the sons of Jochi, himself the eldest son of Genghis Khan. In 1235, Berke joined his brothers Orda, Sinkur, and Siban and an assortment of cousins under the leadership of Batu. The vast army, comprising some 150,000 soldiers, marched from Siberia and into the territory of the Bulgars and Kipchaks, whom they subdued. Next they devastated the principalities of Ryazan and Suzdal in 1237, and marched further into Russia. Berke further served under his brother during the invasion of Europe, fighting at the Battle of the Mohi, where the Hungarian army was decimated. When Ogedei Khan died, and all the princes of the blood were summoned to return to Mongolia to select a Great Khan, Berke and his brothers joined Batu in his bid for power. When that failed, they returned to Russia, and due to the ill-feeling between the heirs of Ogedei, and those of Jochi, the Kipchak Khanate never again invaded Europe in force. (a raid into Poland was strictly for loot) Instead, the Kipchak Khanate settled into Russia, and looked east to defend themselves against their cousins. Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... For the German pop band, see Dschinghis Khan (help· info) (c. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Ryazan (Ряза́нь) is a city in Central Russia federal district, the administrative center of the Ryazan Oblast. ... St. ... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ...


Assuming the Kipchak Khanate

When Batu died in 1255, he was briefly succeeded by his son Sartak, before Berke assumed leadership in 1257. He was an able ruler and succeeded in maintaining and stabilizing the Golden Horde, a newly created empire, one of the four parts of the whole Mongol Empire. During his government, the Mongols made a second attack against Poland, led by general Nogai Khan (Lublin, Sandomierz, Krakow and Bytom were plundered) in 1259, primarily to provide funds for his wars against Hulagu Khan the his Il-Khanate, due to Hulagu's horrific actions in 1258 sacked Baghdad. Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... Saqtaq Khan (also spelt as Sartak or Sartach, died 1256) was the son of Batu Khan and Empress Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (Khanate of Kipchak). ... Mongol Empires largest extent outlined in red; Timur-i-Lenks empire is shaded The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous land empire in world history ruling 35 million km² (13. ... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ...


Aftermath of Conversion to Islam

Berke converted to Islam and became a devout Muslim. This resulted in the Golden Horde becoming primarily Islamic, and its subjects professing Muslim faith. Berke had a deadly determination to deal with Hulagu Khan, who had murdered the Caliph Al-Musta'sim, and whose territorial ambitions in Syria and Egypt threatened Berke's fellow Muslims. Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ...


In the meantime, the Mongols led by Kitbuqa had fallen out with the crusaders holding the coast of Palestine, and the Mamluks were able to ally with them, pass through their territory, and destroy the Mongol army at the Battle of Ain Jalut. Palestine and Syria were permanently lost, the border remaining the Tigris for the duration of Hulagu's dynasty. Berke's vow of vengence against Hulagu had to wait until the later's return to his lands after the death of Mongke Khan.


Hulagu returned to his lands by 1262, but instead of being able to avenge his defeats, was drawn into civil war with Berke and the Golden Horde. Berke Khan had promised such a defeat in his rage after Hulagu's sack of Bagdad; Berke was a Muslim. Muslim Historian Rashid al Din quoted Berke Khan as sending the following message to Mongke Khan, protesting the attack on Bagdad, (not knowing Mongke had died in China) "he has sacked all the cities of the Muslims, and has brought about the death of the Caliph. With the help of God I will call him to account for so much innocent blood." (see The Mongol Warlords, quoting Rashid al Din's record of Berke Khan's pronouncement; this quote is also found in The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War) -- it is notable that Berke Khan kept his promise, allying himself with the Mamluks, (Berke sought an alliance with the Mamluk sultan Baibars against Hulagu) and when Hulagu returned to his lands in 1262, after the succession was finally settled with Kublai as the last Great Khan, and massed his armies to avenge Ain Jalut and attack the Mamluks, Berke Khan initiated a series of raids in force which drew Hulagu north to meet him. This was the first open conflict between Mongols, and signaled the end of the unified empire. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes, Mamlukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (1223 – July 1, 1277) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ...


Finally, in 1262 the conflict turned into open war. Hulagu Khan suffered severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263. Hulagu's forces were crushed at the Terek river by Berke's nephew Nogai, forcing Hulagu into retreat; he died in 1265. Events Strasbourg becomes a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire First Visconti become the lord of Iceland swear fealty to the king of Norway, bringing an end to the Icelandic Commonwealth Births Ladislaus IV of Hungary Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona... The Terek (Те́рек) is a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flowing through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ...


Aftermath

Berke was killed while fighting Hulagu's son, Abaqa Khan, in 1266. He was succeeded by his nephew, Mengu-Timur. The policy of alliance with the Mamluks, and containment of the Il-Khanate, was continued by Mengu-Timur. Most historians are in agreement that the intervention by Berke against Hulagu saved the remainder of the Holy Land, including Mecca and Jerusulem, from the same fate as Bagdad. Abaqa Khan (1234-1282), the son of Hulagu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian. ... Mengu-Timur, Batu Khans grandson, was a khan of the Golden Horde in 1266-1282. ... Mengu-Timur, Batu Khans grandson, was a khan of the Golden Horde in 1266-1282. ...


Sources

  • Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1998
  • Chambers, James, The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe
  • Hildinger, Eric, Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1700
  • Morgan, David -- The Mongols, ISBN: 0-631-17563-6
  • Nicolle, David, -- The Mongol Warlords Brockhampton Press, 1998
  • Reagan, Geoffry, The Guiness Book of Decisive Battles , Canopy Books, NY (1992)
  • Saunders, J.J. -- The History of the Mongol Conquests, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1971, ISBN 0-8122-1766-7
  • Soucek, Svatopluk -- A History of Inner Asia, Cambridge, 2000

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