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Encyclopedia > Berghof (Hitler)
Haus Wachenfeld during its conversion into the Berghof in about June 1936. 70 years later the site was overgrown by trees and only scattered rubble along with the top of the retaining wall at left were still visible.
Haus Wachenfeld during its conversion into the Berghof in about June 1936. 70 years later the site was overgrown by trees and only scattered rubble along with the top of the retaining wall at left were still visible.

The Berghof was Adolf Hitler's home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. Next to the Wolfsschanze this was the place where Hitler spent the most time during World War II and it was also one of the most widely known of Hitler's headquarters[1] which were located throughout Europe. Rebuilt, much expanded and re-named in 1935, the Berghof as such was a functioning residence for less than ten years. In late April 1945 the house was damaged by British aerial bombs, set on fire by retreating SS troops in early May, looted after Allied troops reached the area and demolished in 1953. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Obersalzberg is a mountainside near Berchtesgaden in Bavaria, Germany. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... Remains of largest bunker (Adolf Hitlers) at Wolfsschanze. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Map showing the locations of the Führer Headquarters throughout Europe. ...

Contents

Hitler's house

Map showing the location of the Berghof, along with Führer Headquarters throughout Europe.
Map showing the location of the Berghof, along with Führer Headquarters throughout Europe.

The Berghof began as a much smaller chalet called Haus Wachenfeld, a vacation home built in 1916 by Otto Winter, a businessman from Buxtehude.[2] Winter's widow rented the house to Hitler in 1928 and his half-sister Angela came to live there as housekeeper (she left soon after her daughter Geli's apparent 1931 suicide in Hitler's Munich apartment following a stay at the house). By 1933 Hitler had purchased Haus Wachenfeld with funds he received through the sale of his political book Mein Kampf. Map showing the locations of the Führer Headquarters throughout Europe. ... Buxtehude is a town at the Este River in Northern Germany in the district of Stade and part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (Metropolregion Hamburg). ... Adolf Hitler with his halfsister Angela Angela Raubal Hamitsch, born Angela Hitler (July 28, 1883 - October 30, 1949), was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler. ... Geli Raubal Angela Geli Raubal (June 4, 1908 – September 18, 1931). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ...


The small chalet-style building was refurbished and much expanded during 1935-1936 when it was re-named The Berghof. A large terrace was built and featured big, colourful, resort-style canvas umbrellas. The entrance hall "was filled with a curious display of cactus plants in majolica pots." A dining room was panelled with very costly cembra pine. Hitler's large study also had a telephone switchboard room. The library had books "on history, painting, architecture, and music." A great hall was furnished with expensive Teutonic furniture and a large globe along with an enormous red marble fireplace mantel. Behind one wall was a projection booth for evening screenings of movies (these were often Hollywood productions which were otherwise banned in Germany). A sprawling picture window could be lowered into the wall to give a sweeping, open air view of the snow covered mountains in Hitler's native Austria. The house was maintained much like a small resort hotel by several housekeepers, gardeners, cooks and other domestic workers. Guests at the Berghof included painters, singers and musicians, along with political figures. Majolica is earthenware with a white tin glaze, decorated by applying colorants on the raw glazed surface. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ...


"This place is mine," Hitler was quoted as saying to a writer for Homes & Gardens in 1938. "I built it with money that I earned." [3][4]


British Homes & Gardens magazine characterized him as "his own decorator, designer, and furnisher, as well as architect" and described the chalet as "bright and airy" with "a light jade green colour scheme," noting caged "Hartz mountain [sic]" canaries were kept in most of the rooms which were furnished with antiques, mostly German furniture from the eighteenth century. Old engravings hung in the guest bedrooms, along with some of Hitler's small water-colour sketches. Smoking was allowed on the terrace (the householder didn't smoke). Hitler's vegetarian diet was fed by nearby kitchen gardens and later, a greenhouse. A Kehlsteinhaus, nicknamed Eagle's Nest by a French diplomat, was built in 1938-1939 (with remarkably lavish government funds spent as a national gift for his 50th birthday) on the mountaintop above the Berghof, but Hitler rarely went there. A large complex of mountain homes for the Nazi leadership along with a landing strip and many buildings for their security and support staff were constructed nearby. To acquire the land for these projects, many local residents were ordered to sell out and leave.[5] The Berghof became something of German tourist attraction during the mid-1930s which led to severe restrictions on access to the area along with other security measures. Hartz Mountain Industries (HMI) is a private family owned and operated company known for its vast real estate holdings in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan Area. ... A canary nesting The Canary is a domesticated form of the Wild Canary, (Serinus canaria) a small songbird in the finch family originating from Madeira and the Canary Islands. ... The Kehlsteinhaus The Kehlsteinhaus is a chalet-style building, which used to be an extension of the Obersalzberg complex built by the Nazis in the German Alps near Berchtesgaden. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


Silent colour movies shot by Hitler's longtime companion Eva Braun survived the war and showed Hitler and his guests relaxing at the Berghof retreat. In 2006 computer lip reading software identified several parts of their conversations. Among those identified in the films were Albert Speer, Heinrich Himmler, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Joseph Goebbels, Karl Wolff and Reinhard Heydrich.[6] Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... Lip reading, also known as lipreading, speech reading, or speechreading, is a technique of understanding speech by visually interpreting the movements of the lips, face and tongue with information provided by the context, language, and any residual hearing. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... Himmler redirects here. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Karl Wolff (2nd from the right) together with, from left to right: Heinrich Himmler (far l. ... Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ...


After the war Hitler's adjutant Otto Günsche told Soviet interrogators how Braun had once wanted to hire ten more serving girls to help the 30 people already working in the villa. Hitler relayed her request to his secretary Martin Bormann by exclaiming, "I stamp whole divisions into the dirt! And I can't get a few more serving wenches for the Berghof? Organise it now!"[7] Otto Günsche (September 24, 1917 - October 2, 2003) was a Sturmbannführer in the SS and a close aide of Adolf Hitler, and was asked by the Führer to ensure that his body would be burnt after death. ... Martin Bormann Martin Bormann (June 17, 1900 - c. ...


Mooslahnerkopf teahouse

In 1937 a Teehaus with a round main room was built in a wooded area on Mooslahnerkopf hill (Braun spelled it Moslanderkopf in photo albums), across the small Berchtesgaden valley from the Berghof. Hitler took an almost daily afternoon walk there when he was at Berchtesgaden. The stroll along the mostly wooded path between the Berghof and the teahouse was less than a kilometer and at one spot featured a scenic overlook of the whole valley, fitted with wooden railings and a bench, where many widely-known photographs were taken and political discussions were held (in 2004 this site was somewhat restored to its early 1940s era appearance for a German television mini-series). At the teahouse Hitler might even nap in an easy chair, surrounded by friends and associates from his inner circle.[8] Most of the only surviving photographs of Hitler wearing eyeglasses were taken in the teahouse. Some sources have now and then mistakenly captioned photographs snapped in the Mooslahnerkopf Teehaus as having been shot in the spectacular Kehlsteinhaus far above the Berghof, where Hitler seldom went.


Post war ruins

Post war U.S. Army aerial photo showing the bombed, burned and stripped remains of the Berghof at lower right
Post war U.S. Army aerial photo showing the bombed, burned and stripped remains of the Berghof at lower right

The Obersalzberg was raided by hundreds of British Lancaster bombers on 25 April 1945, twelve days before the surrender of German forces on 7 May. At least two bombs struck the Berghof. On 4 May, four days after Hitler's suicide in Berlin, departing SS troops set fire to the villa. Only hours later the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division arrived at Berchtesgaden, immediately followed by the French 2nd Armoured Division. The Americans reportedly muddled Berchtesgaden with the Berghof and a French army captain along with his driver were the first Allied personnel to reach the still smoldering chalet. A French tank crew soon joined them. Over the next few days the house was thoroughly looted and stripped, apparently by Allied soldiers. The American 1st Battalion of the 506th A regiment (led by Company C) arrived four days later, on 8 May. The 3rd battalion of the 506th came into Berchtesgaden by a different route and sustained casualties in a skirmish with the crews of two German 88 mm guns. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized). ... M4 Sherman of the 2e DB in Normandy The 2nd Armored Division (French: 2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II in the Western Front. ... German 88 mm guns were used in anti-aircraft and anti-tank roles. ...


The teahouse on Mooslahnerkopf hill was unscathed in the April 1945 bombing raid but by 1951 the house-sized building had been knocked down by the Bavarian government because of its link with Hitler. For 55 years the more or less recognizeable teahouse ruins (along with mostly intact basement rooms below) lay in the woods by the 13th hole of the post war Gutshof (Manor farm) golf course. These were taken away altogether during the late summer of 2006.


The Berghof's shell survived until 1952 when the Bavarian government blew it up, fearing the ruin would become a neo-Nazi shrine and sight-seeing attraction. The garage remained until 1995. The ruins were further obliterated during the 1990s and early 2000s. By 2007 trees had overgrown the site and only scattered rubble and the top of a retaining wall were visible.[9]


References and notes

  1. ^ Eberle, Henrik and Uhl, Matthias, The Unknown Hitler, 11th chapter, p.200
  2. ^ Image of looted red marble "cornerstone" from the Berghof, English translation: Haus Wachenfeld. Built 1916 by... Otto Winter - Refurbished 1935-1936 to the Berghof. Note however: Image source is not considered a reliable secondary source of editorial content so only the photographic image itself is cited, as a primary source and then only for basic, unremarkable information which helps date the house. A few sources cite Wachenfeld as Frau Winter's maiden name.
  3. ^ Phayre, Ignatius, Homes and Gardens, Hitler's Mountain Home, November 1938, retrieved 12 December 2007 - Most of these descriptions come from this 1938 magazine article which was very likely written under a pseudonym by political writer William George Fitzgerald in a tone which has been described as "breathless... Hello!-style." The photographs had all been taken by Heinrich Hoffmann (many of them years earlier) and given to the magazine as publicity handouts. The article happened to surface in 2003 after decades of obscurity, see the Guardian reference below.
  4. ^ Waldman, Simon, The Guardian, At home with the Führer, 3 November 2003, retrieved 12 December 2007
  5. ^ Connolly. Kate, telegraph.co.uk, Hitler's eyrie becomes a playground for the rich, 2 February 2005, retrieved 18 December 2007
  6. ^ New technology catches Hitler off guard Neil Midgley, telegraph.co.uk, 2006-11-23
  7. ^ Hall, Allan, The Scotsman, Stalin's secret files on Hitler (Soviet archival material from the post war interrogations of Otto Günsche and Heinz Linge), 16 March 2005, retrieved 14 December 2007
  8. ^ Third Reich Ruins, Bormann's Gutshof (manor farm) and Hitler's Teehaus, retrieved 14 December 2007
  9. ^ Third Reich Ruins, Berghof, retrieved 12 Dec 2007

For other uses, see David Irving (disambiguation). ... Youth and Hitler, a Hoffmann picture book Heinrich Hoffmann (October 12, 1885 in Fürth - December 11, 1957 in Munich) was a German photographer, who is best known for his numerous pictures of Adolf Hitler. ... The electronic telegraph (the initial lowercase was a marketing device) was Europes first daily web-based newspaper. ... Otto Günsche (September 24, 1917 - October 2, 2003) was a Sturmbannführer in the SS and a close aide of Adolf Hitler, and was asked by the Führer to ensure that his body would be burnt after death. ... Heinz Linge (born 23 March 1913; died 1980) was a valet at German dictator Adolf Hitlers headquarters. ...

Bibiliography

  • Eberle, Henrik and Uhl, Matthias, The Unknown Hitler
  • Wilson, James: Hitler's Alpine Retreat, Pen & Sword Military, Barnsley, S. Yorkshire, England. (2005) 271 photos of the Obersalzberg complex and biographies of leading Nazi figures. ISBN 1 84415 263 4

See also

Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... Map showing the locations of the Führer Headquarters throughout Europe. ... Man Hunt is a 1941 thriller film directed by Fritz Lang. ... Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of Expressionism. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ...

External links

Coordinates: 47°38′01″N, 13°02′31″E This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Hitler redirects here. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... The Zweites Buch (Second Book and sometimes Secret Book) is an unedited transcript of Adolf Hitlers thoughts on a number of topics; it was written after Mein Kampf and was never published in his lifetime. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ... Hitlers rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... Adolf Hitlers medical health has long been a subject of popular controversy. ... Adolf Hitlers religious beliefs have been a matter of dispute, in part because of apparently inconsistent statements made by and attributed to him. ... Adolf Hitlers sexuality has been the subject of much speculation and controversy. ... According to many biographical sources, Adolf Hitler practiced some form of vegetarianism from the early 1930s until his death in 1945. ... This List of Adolf Hitler Books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to Adolf Hitler. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889–30 April 1945) was the Führer of the National Socialist German Workers Party and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Sieg des Glaubens (German for Victory of Faith) is the first documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl, who was hired despite opposition from Nazi officials that resented employing a woman — and a non-Party member too. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ... The Empty Mirror is a film set within a world where Adolf Hitler and his closest cadre of followers survived, this speculative psychodrama attempts to explore the dark, twisted mind of the mad ruler as he converses with Eva Braun, Hermann Goering, Josef Goebbels, and Sigmund Freud. ... Hitler: The Last Ten Days is a 1973 film depicting the days leading up to Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Max is a 2002 Drama movie, that depicts a friendship between art dealer Max Rothman and a young painter, Adolf Hitler. ... Downfall (German: Der Untergang) is a 2004 German / Austrian film depicting the final ten days of Adolf Hitler in his Berlin bunker and Nazi Germany in 1945, written by Bernd Eichinger, directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel, and based upon the books: Inside Hitlers Bunker, by historian Joachim Fest; portions of... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Anna Paula Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... This article is about Adolf Hitlers father. ... Klara Hitler Klara Hitler, born Klara Pölzl (August 12, 1860 - December 21, 1907), was the mother of Adolf Hitler. ... Alois Hitler, Jr. ... Adolf Hitler with his halfsister Angela Angela Raubal Hamitsch, born Angela Hitler (July 28, 1883 - October 30, 1949), was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler. ... Gustav Hitler (1885 - 1886) was the eldest child of Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl and the elder brother of German dictator Adolf Hitler. ... Ida Hitler (1886 - 1886) was the elder sister of German dictator Adolf Hitler, born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. ... Otto Hitler (1887 - 1887) was the infant brother of German dictator Adolf Hitler. ... Edmund Hitler (1894 - February 2, 1900) was the younger brother of German dictator, Adolf Hitler. ... Paula Hitler. ... William Patrick Hitler (later Stuart-Houston) (born March 12, 1911 in Liverpool, England, United Kingdom – died July 1987 in Patchogue, New York, USA), nicknamed Willy (or Paddy Hitler by Irish-Americans), was the nephew of Adolf Hitler. ...

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