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Encyclopedia > Berg (state)
Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477.

Berg was a medieval territory in today's North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was roughly located between the rivers Rhine, Ruhr and Sieg. Today this territory is still named after the medieval state and is called Bergisches Land. Image File history File links KBMG1477. ... Image File history File links KBMG1477. ... North Rhine-Westphalia (German: , usually shortened to NRW) is - in terms of population and economic output - the largest and westernmost Federal State of Germany. ... The River Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... The Sieg is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany named after the folk of the Sigambrer. ...

Contents

History

The Earls of Berg, a junior line to the dynasty of the Ezzonen, emerged in 1101 and became the most powerful dynasty in the region. In 1160 the territory was divided into two portions, one of them later becoming the County of the Mark. In 1280 the counts moved their court from Schloss Burg on the Wupper river to the town of Düsseldorf. The House of Ezzonen (named from Erenfried “Ezzo”) was, as Counts Palatine of Lotharingia in the German Empire during the 10th and 11th century, the most important representative of the monarchy at in Middle and Lower Rhine. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Mark was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Schloss Burg Schloss Burg, located in Burg an der Wupper, is the largest reconstructed castle in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a popular tourist attraction. ... The Wupper is a tributary to the Rhine river in Northrhine-Westfalia of Germany. ... Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and (together with Cologne and the Ruhr Area) the economic center of Western Germany. ...


The power of Berg was further enlarged in the 14th century. The county of Jülich was united with Berg in 1348. In 1380 the counts of Berg were elevated to dukes. The Duchy of Jülich was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (part of Limburg). ... Events April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Events September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich defeat a mixed army of Tatars and Mongols (the Golden Horde), stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ...


From 1521 the dukes of Berg ruled the duchy in personal union with Mark and the duchy of Cleves (Kleve). Much of present North Rhine-Westphalia (except for the clerical states of the Archbishop of Cologne and Bishop of Münster) was ruled by the dukes. Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Mark was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... North Rhine-Westphalia (German: , usually shortened to NRW) is - in terms of population and economic output - the largest and westernmost Federal State of Germany. ...


The ducal dynasty became extinct in 1609, when the last duke died, insane. A long dispute about the succession followed, before the territories were partitioned in 1614: Jülich and Berg were annexed by the Count Palatine of Neuburg, who had converted to Catholicism, while Cleves and Mark fell to the Elector of Brandenburg. Upon the extinction of the senior dynasty ruling the Palatinate in 1685, the Neuburg line inherited the Electorate, and generally made Düsseldorf their capital until the Elector Palatine inherited Bavaria as well in 1777. // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Castle of Neuburg Palatinate-Neuburg (German: ) was a in 1505 originated part of the Holy Roman Empire with the capital in Neuburg an der Donau. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Year 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Early Rulers of Berg

House of Ezzonen The House of Ezzonen (named from Erenfried “Ezzo”) was, as Counts Palatine of Lotharingia in the German Empire during the 10th and 11th century, the most important representative of the monarchy at in Middle and Lower Rhine. ...

Berg Herman I (died 996), called Pusillus or the Slender, was the Count Palatine of Lotharingia and of several counties along the Rhine, including Bonngau, Eifelgau, Mieblgau, Zulpichgau, Keldachgau, Alzey and Auelgau, from 945 until his death. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Lotharingia (yellow), as established by the Treaty of Verdun, 843, and reduced by the Treaty of Mersen, 870 Lotharingia was a short-lived kingdom in western Europe, the aggregate of territories belonging to Lothair, King of Lotharingia (reigned 855–869), who received it in 855 from his father, Lothair I... Adolf I of Lotharingia, count of Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz from 1108 until 1118, is the son of Hermann I Pusillus (the Slender), count palatine of Lotharingia. ... Adolf II of Lotharingia count in Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz (born 1002, died 1041), son of Adolf I of Lotharingia, count in Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz. ...

Limburg Adolf I of Berg, count of Berg from 1077 until 1082, Vogt of Werden, Deutz, Berg and Gerresheim (died 1086), son of Adolf II of Lotharingia count of Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz (born 1002, died 1041). ... Adolf II of Berg-Hövel (Huvili), count of Berg, count in Auelgau and Siegburg, Vogt of Werden (died 1090/1106), son of Adolf I of Berg. ... Adolf III of Berg count of Berg from 1093 until 1132, and count of Hövel from 1090 until 1106, Vogt of Werden (born 1080, died 12 Oct 1152), son of Adolf II of Berg-Hövel , count of Berg, and Adelheid von Laufen. ... Adolf IV of Berg count of Berg from 1132 until 1160 and of Altena (died after 1161), son of Adolf III of Berg count of Berg and Hövel. ... Count Engelbert I of Berg (d July 1189 in Serbia) ruled the County of Berg from 1160 to 1189. ... Crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt Count Adolf VI of Berg (born before 1176; died 7 August 1218 at Damiette during the Hungarian crusade against Egypt) ruled the County of Berg from 1197 until 1218. ... Note: the description Engelbert I of Berg can refer either to Count Engelbert I of Berg or to his son, Count Engelbert II of Berg, if referred to by his ecclesiastical office, when the form Engelbert I of Berg, Archbishop of Cologne sometimes occurs besides the more usual Engelbert I... The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Irmgard of Berg, heiress of Berg (died 1248-9), daughter of Adolf VI count of Berg (1185-1218) and Berta von Sayn. ...

  • 1218-1247 Henry IV Duke of Limburg, count of Berg
  • 1247-1259 Adolf VII count of Limburg, count of Berg

Henry IV (1195–25 February 1247) was the duke of Limburg and count of Berg from AD 1226 to his death. ...

French revolution, Grand Duchy of Berg

The French annexation of Jülich during the French revolutionary wars separated the two duchies, and in 1803 Berg was separated from the other Bavarian territories and given to a junior branch of the Wittelsbachs. In 1806, in the reorganization of Germany occasioned by the end of the Holy Roman Empire, Berg became a Grand Duchy under the rule of Napoleon's brother-in-law, Joachim Murat. The arms combined the red lion of Berg with the arms of the duchy of Cleves. The anchor and the batons were added because Murat was Grand Admiral and Marshall of the Empire. Being married to Napoleon's sister Murat was also entitled to the imperial eagle Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain Russian Empire Sardinia France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, beginning in 1792 and lasting until the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France Murat portrait, by François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard, c. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ...

Arms of the grand Duchy of Berg
Arms of the grand Duchy of Berg

. Image File history File links Berg_Ghzm. ... Image File history File links Berg_Ghzm. ...


When, in 1808, Murat was promoted to the Kingdom of Naples, Napoleon's infant nephew, Prince Napoleon Louis (18041831, elder son of Napoleon's brother Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland) became Grand Duke, and the territory was administered by French bureaucrats. The Grand Duchy's short existence came to an end with Napoleon's defeat in 1813, and in the peace settlement that followed, Berg, along with much of the Westphalian region, was annexed to Prussia, forming a part of the Rhine province. 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ...


Notable persons from Berg and Juelich

Pina Bausch is a choreographer; one of the giant figures of modern dance, and a leading influence in the development of the Tanztheater style of dance. ... Solingen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Choreography (also known as dance composition) is the art of making structures in which movement occurs, the term composition may also refer to the navigation or connection of these movement structures. ... Friedrich Bayer (born June 6, 1825 in Wuppertal; died May 6, 1880 in Würzburg) was the founder of what would become Bayer, a German chemical and pharmaceutical company. ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Barmen is a municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Friedrich Carl Duisberg ( September 29, 1861- March 19, 1935) was a German chemist and industrialist. ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Barmen is a municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal. ... Konrad Alexander Friedrich Duden (January 3, 1829 - August 1, 1911) was a Gynasium (high school) who became a philologist. ... The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – May 31, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Barmen is a municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal. ... Mönchengladbach is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Joseph Goebbels Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... Mönchengladbach is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Rheydt is a borough of the German city Mönchengladbach, located in the west of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... The Nazi Party, officially known as the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Look up Leader in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A demagogue (sometimes spelled demagog) is a leader who obtains power by appealing to the gut feelings of the public, usually by powerful use of rhetoric and propaganda. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. ... Gustaf Gründgens (December 22, 1899 - October 7, 1963) was one of Germanys most famous actors of the 20th century. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (born as Harry [Hebrew: Chaim] Heine December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was one of the most significant German poets. ... Konrand Heresbach. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Felix Christian Klein (April 25, 1849, Düsseldorf, Germany – June 22, 1925, Göttingen) was a German mathematician, known for his work in group theory, function theory, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory. ... Complex analysis is the branch of mathematics investigating functions of complex numbers, and is of enormous practical use in many branches of mathematics, including applied mathematics. ... Agner Krarup Erlang (January 1, 1878–February 3, 1929) was a Danish mathematician, statistician, and engineer who invented the fields of queueing theory and traffic engineering. ... Heidi Klum (IPA ) (born June 1, 1973 in Bergisch Gladbach, North Rhine-Westphalia, West Germany) is a German supermodel, actress, fashion designer, television producer, singer and artist. ... In this 2001 Apple Computer video, Seal holds an iPod and sits beside an iBook Seal Samuel (born February 19, 1963 in London, England) is a three-time Grammy Award-winning Afro-European soul vocalist and songwriter. ... Peter Kürten, who was given the name The Vampire of Düsseldorf by the contemporary media, was a psychopathic criminal. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Mülheim an der Ruhr, that calls itself City on the River, is a small to medium-sized city in [North Rhine-Westphalia]] in Germany. ... Else Lasker-Schüler (born February 11, 1869 in Elberfeld, Wuppertal; died January 22, 1945 in Jerusalem) was a German Jewish poet. ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Elberfeld is a district of the German town Wuppertal; it was an independent town until 1929. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mannesmann AG is a German corporation with headquarters in Duesseldorf. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Julius Plücker. ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Elberfeld is a district of the German town Wuppertal; it was an independent town until 1929. ... In geometry, Plücker coordinates, introduced by Julius Plücker in the 19th century, are a way to assign six homogenous coordinates to each line in projective 3-space, P3. ... Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (in English: William Conrad Roentgen) (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays, an achievement... Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time and explaining them using mathematics. ... Claudia Schiffer (born August 25, 1970) is a German supermodel and actress, who reached the height of her popularity during the 1990s. ... Matthew Vaughn (born 7 March 1971) is a film producer (Layer Cake, Snatch, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels among others), director (Layer Cake) and husband of Claudia Schiffer, whom he married in 2002. ...

External links

  • Edicts of Jülich, Cleves, Berg, Grand Duchy Berg, 1475-1815 (Coll. Scotti) online
  • Historical Map of Northrhine-Westphalia 1789

 
 

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