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Encyclopedia > Bereavement in Judaism

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Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

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Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; "mourning") is a combination of minhag ("traditional custom") and mitzvot ("commandments") derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts. The details of observance and practice vary according to each Jewish community. Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Mitzvah מצוה is Hebrew for commandment (plural mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah - command). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Chevra kadisha

Main article: Chevra kadisha

A chevra kadisha (חברה קדישא "holy group") acting as a burial society is a loosely structured, but generally closed, organization of Jewish men and women who ensure the bodies of Jews are prepared for burial according to Jewish law, and that the bodies of the deceased are protected from desecration, willful or not, until burial. Two of the main requirements are the showing of proper respect for the body of the deceased, and the ritual cleansing of the body and dressing for burial. A chevra kaddisha (Hebrew: holy society, better translated as burial society) is a loosely structured but generally closed organization of Jewish men and women who see to it that the bodies of Jews are prepared for burial according to halacha (Jewish law) and are protected from desecration, willful or not... For the musician, see Burial (musician). ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...


Many local chevra kadishas in urban areas are affiliated with local synagogues, and they often own their own burial plots in various local cemeteries. Some Jews pay an annual token membership fee to the chevra kadisha of their choice, so that when the time comes, the society will not only attend to the body of the deceased as befits Jewish law, but will also ensure burial in a plot that it controls at an appropriate nearby Jewish cemetery. A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Jewish tombstones in Jerusalem Jewish cemetery in Hannover A Jewish cemetery (Hebr. ...


If no gravediggers are available, then it is additionally the function of the male society members to ensure that graves are dug. In Israel, members of chevra kadishas consider it an honor to not only to prepare the body for burial but also to dig the grave for a fellow Jew's body, particularly if the deceased was known to be a righteous person. Look up Gravedigger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many burial societies hold one or two annual fast days and organize regular study sessions to remain up to date with the relevant articles of Jewish law. In addition, most burial societies also support families during the shiva (traditional week of mourning) by arranging prayer services, preparing meals, and providing other services for the mourners. This article is about Jewish event. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ...


Preparing the body — Taharah

There are three major stages to preparing the body for burial: washing (rechitzah), ritual purification (taharah), and dressing (halbashah). The term taharah is used to refer both to the overall process of burial preparation, and to the specific step of ritual purification. (Interestingly, the term means "purity" in Arabic. See Taharah.) Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Purity is a Ismaili pillar of Islam. ...


Here is the general sequence of steps for performing taharah. Blessings, prayers (tefillot), and readings from Torah, Psalms and other Jewish scripture are recited at several points: Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ...

  1. The coffin (aron) (if there is a coffin) is prepared by removing any linings or other embellishments. A sheet (sovev) is laid into the coffin. If the person wore a prayer shawl (tallit) during their life, one is laid in the coffin for wrapping the body once it is placed there. One corner fringe (tzitzit) is removed from the shawl to signify that it will no longer be used for prayer in life.
  2. The dead person (met if male, or metah if female) is slowly uncovered. (They have been covered with a sheet awaiting taharah.)
  3. The body is carefully washed. As all blood must be buried along with the deceased, any open bleeding is stopped. The body is thoroughly cleaned of dirt, body fluids and solids, and anything else that may be on the skin. All jewelry is removed.
  4. The met/metah is purified with running water, either by immersion in a mikvah or by pouring a continuous stream in a prescribed manner.
  5. The body is dried.
  6. The body is dressed in traditional burial clothing (tachrichim). A sash (avnet) is wrapped around the clothing and tied with a knot that forms the Hebrew letter "shin," representing one of the names of God.
  7. The body is then lifted into the coffin and wrapped in the prayer shawl and sheet. Earth from Israel (afar) is placed over various parts of the body and sprinkled in the coffin.
  8. The coffin is closed.

Once the coffin is closed, the chevra then asks for forgiveness from the met/metah for anything that they may have done to offend them or not show proper respect during the taharah. Guards or watchers (shomrim) sit with the coffin until it is taken for burial. It is traditional to recite Psalms (tehillim) during this time. Tachrichim (burial shrouds) are traditional, simple white burial garments; usually made from 100% pure linen; in which Jews are dressed by the Chevra Kadisha for burial, after undergoing a tahara (ritual purification). ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ...


Once the body is dressed, the coffin is sealed. Unlike other religions, in Judaism there is traditionally no viewing of the body and no "open casket" at the funeral, though the immediate family is allowed a visitation right prior to the coffin being sealed to pay their final respects to the deceased. In Israel many do not use caskets at all, but rather wrap the body in thicker white shrouds covered on the outside by a tallit. One slight exception is that some Jews of German extraction ("Yekkes") will slide open the coffin on the side where the feet are located, and the closest relative places a sort of a sock on one of the feet of the met/metah. An open casket A coffin (in North American English, also known as a casket, although the design is different - coffins taper towards the feet while caskets remain the same width) is a funerary box used in the display and containment of deceased remains -- either for burial or cremation. ...


Funeral service

In the United States and Canada, a Jewish funeral service usually commences officially at a funeral home (and occasionally a synagogue or temple) for an ordinary Jew, and from there the mourners and their entourage proceed to a Jewish cemetery for the burial. In the case of a more prominent person, such as a well-known communal leader, rabbi, rebbe, or rosh yeshiva, the entire service with eulogies can be held at the synagogue or yeshiva that the deceased was affiliated with. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means ‘teacher’, or more literally ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbī is derived from a recent (18th... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי. It mostly refers to the leader of a Hasidic Jewish movement. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... This article is about the Jewish educational system. ...


Eulogies

A hesped is a eulogy, and it is common that several people speak at the start of the ceremony at the funeral home, as well as prior to burial at the gravesite, though some people specify in their wills that nothing should be said about them. On certain days, such as on Chol HaMo'ed ("intermediate days" of Jewish holidays), eulogies are forbidden. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Chol HaMoed is a Hebrew phrase which means weekdays of the festival and refers to the intermediate days of one of the following Jewish Holidays: Passover, or Sukkot During Chol HaMoed the usual Yom Tov restrictions are relaxed, but not entirely eliminated. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ...


Burial

Kevura, or burial, should take place as soon as possible after death. The Torah requires burial as soon as possible, even for executed criminals [1]. This means that burial will usually take place on the same day as death, or, if not possible, the next day. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


This custom probably originated from the fact that Israel was, and is, a country with a hot climate. In Biblical times, there were few ways of keeping the dead body from decomposing. Not only would this be generally undesirable, but allowing the dead body of any person to decompose would be showing that person great disrespect. Decomposition would have occurred especially quickly in Israel due to the constant heat. Thus, the custom of burying the body as soon as possible. (Although the practice of embalming and mummification had advanced to a high level in Egypt, this, too, is considered disrespectful, since it involves a great deal of manipulation and the removal of bodily organs.) Rotting fruit Decomposition is a phenomenon common in the sciences of biology and chemistry. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ...


Respect for the dead can be seen from many examples in the Torah and Tanakh. For example, one of the last events in the Torah is the death of Moses when God himself buries him: "[God] buried him in the depression in the land of Moab, opposite Beth Peor. No man knows the place that he was buried, even to this day." (Deuteronomy 34:6) [2] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Additionally, the Cave of the Patriarchs, the spiritual center of Hebron, which was the first capital city of the Kingdom of Israel in the time of King David, is called Me'arat HaMakhpela (מערת המכפלה) in Hebrew, which means "The Cave of the double caves or tombs". This is because the cave's hidden twin caves are considered in Jewish tradition to be the burial place of four "pairs" of important Biblical couples: Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, and Jacob and Leah. The Enclosure of the Cave of the Patriarchs The Cave of the Patriarchs is a religious compound located in the ancient city of Hebron (which lies in the southwest part of the West Bank, in the heart of ancient Judea), and is generally considered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims, to... The Cave of the Patriarchs, also site of the Ibrahimi Mosque. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter. ... A tomb is a small building (or vault) for the remains of the dead, with walls, a roof, and (if it is to be used for more than one corpse) a door. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (רִבְקָה Captivating, Enchantingly Beautiful, Noose or Snare, Standard Hebrew Rivqa, Tiberian Hebrew Riḇqāh) is the wife of Isaac. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Unclaimed dead (met mitzvah) require respectful burial.


Typically, when the funeral service has ended, the mourners (excluding the immediate family[citation needed]) come forward to fill the grave. Symbolically, this gives the mourners closure as they observe the grave being filled in. One custom is for people present at the funeral to take a spade or shovel, held pointing down instead of up, to show the antithesis of death to life and that this use of the shovel is different from all other uses, to throw three shovelfuls of dirt into the grave. When someone is finished, they put the shovel back in the ground, rather than handing it to the next person, so that they shouldn't pass along their grief. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ...


While the grave is being filled in, some Jews may throw in a handful of earth from Israel on the dead body.[citation needed]


Mourning

Keriah and shiva

The mourners traditionally make a tear (keriah קריעה) in an outer garment either before the funeral or immediately after it. The tear should be on the left side for a parent (over the heart and clearly visible) and on the right side for brothers, sisters, children and spouses (and does not need to be visible).


If a son or daughter of the deceased needs to change clothes during the shiva period, he or she must tear the changed clothes. No other family member is required to rend changed clothes during shiva. Neither son nor daughter may ever sew the rent clothes, but any other mourner may mend the clothing 30 days after the burial. [1] This article is about Jewish event. ... This article is about Jewish event. ...


When they get home, the mourners do not shower or bathe for a week, do not wear leather shoes and/or jewelry, men do not shave, and in many communities large wall mirrors in the mourners' home are covered. It is customary for the mourners to sit on low stools or even the floor, symbolic of the emotional reality of being "brought low" by the grief. The meal of consolation (seudat havra'ah), the first meal eaten on returning from the funeral, traditionally consists of hard boiled eggs and other round or oblong foods. This is often credited to the Biblical story of Jacob purchasing the birthright from Esau with stewed lentils; it is traditionally stated that Jacob was cooking the lentils soon after the death of his grandfather, Abraham. A seudat mitzvah (commanded meal), in Judaism, is an obligatory festive meal, usually referring to the celebratory meal following the fulfillment of a mitzvah (commandment), such as a bar mitzvah, a wedding, a brit milah (ritual circumcision), or a siyum (completing a tractate of Talmud or Mishnah). ... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Birthright can mean: An object or title to which a person is entitled, due to circumstances before their birth; see inheritance. ... Esau (Hebrew ‎, Standard Hebrew Esav, Tiberian Hebrew Ēśāw) is the oldest son of Isaac and Rebekah and the twin brother of Jacob in the biblical Book of Genesis. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and...


During this time distant family and friends come to visit or call the mourners to comfort them via "shiva calls".


Commencing and calculating the seven days of mourning

If the mourner returns from the cemetery after the burial before sundown then the day of the funeral is counted as the first of the seven days of mourning. Mourning generally concludes in the morning of the seventh day. No mourning may occur on Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath), nor may the burial take place on Shabbat, but the day of Shabbat does count as one of the seven days. If a Jewish holiday occurs after the first day, that curtails the mourning period. If the funeral occurs during a festival, the start of the mourning period awaits the end of the festival. Some holidays, such as Rosh Hashanah, cancel the mourning period completely. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ...


Stages of mourning

First stage: aninut

Aninut is "[intense] mourning." An onen is considered to be in a state of total shock and disorientation. Thus the onen is exempt (patur) from performing mitzvot that require action such as praying and making blessings, putting on Tefillin ("phylacteries"), or even tending for the funeral if there are others who can make the arrangements. Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are two boxes containing Biblical verses and the leather straps attached to them which are used in traditional Jewish prayer. ...


Aninut lasts until the burial is over, or if unable to attend the funeral, from the moment one is no longer involved with the funeral itself.


Second stage: avelut

Avelut ("mourning") is the official commencement of mourning following the completion of the burial when the mourners customarily go home and then do not leave home for a week to observe the shiva, conduct prayers at home with a minyan ("quorum"), commence the recitation of the Kaddish prayer for eleven months in synagogue, ending when exactly one year after the death, when the first Yahrzeit is observed. A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ...


An avel ("mourner") does not listen to music or go to concerts, and tries not to attend any joyous events or parties such as marriages, Bar or Bat Mitzvahs unless absolutely necessary. If the date for such an event has already been set prior to the death, it is strictly forbidden for it to be postponed or cancelled. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne 2005 A concert is a live performance, usually of music, before an audience. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Celebration of Bar Mitzvah at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. ...


Third stage: shiva

Main article: Shiva (Judaism)

Shiva (שבעה "seven") refers to the week-long period of grief and mourning for seven types of first-degree relatives: mother, father, sister, brother, wife or husband, or child. The shiva ritual is referred to by English-speaking Jews as "sitting shiva". This article is about Jewish event. ... Mourning is in the simplest sense synonymous with grief over the death of someone. ... Jewish English languages are varieties of English that include significant amounts of vocabulary and syntax taken from Yiddish, and both classical and modern Hebrew. ...


Immediately upon the burial of the departed, the first-degree relatives assume the status of avel ("mourner"). This state lasts for seven days, during which family members traditionally gather in one home and receive visitors. For the musician, see Burial (musician). ...


If prayer services are organised in the house of mourning, it is customary for the family to lead the services themselves. It is considered a great mitzvah (commandment) of loving kindness and compassion to pay a home visit to the mourners. Traditionally, no greetings are exchanged and visitors wait for the mourners to initiate conversation. The mourner is under no obligation to engage in conversation, and may in fact, completely ignore his visitors. Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ...


There are various customs as to what to say when taking leave of the mourner(s). One of the most common is to say to them:

המקום ינחם אתכם בתוך שער אבילי ציון וירושלים
Hamakom yenachem etchem betoch sha'ar avelei tzion viyerushalayim:
"May The Omnipresent comfort you among [all the] other mourners for Zion and Jerusalem".

Depending on their community's customs, others may also add: "You should have no more tza'ar ("pain")" or "You should have only simchas ("happy events")" or "we should hear only good news (besorot tovot) from each other" or "I wish you long life". At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Fourth stage: shloshim

This refers to the thirty days (שלושים shloshim) of mourning observed by the immediate family. During this time males do not shave. The mourner is forbidden to marry and to attend even a seudat mitzvah ("religious festive meal") A seudat mitzvah (commanded meal), in Judaism, is an obligatory festive meal, usually referring to the celebratory meal following the fulfillment of a mitzvah (commandment), such as a bar mitzvah, a wedding, a brit milah (ritual circumcision), or a siyum (completing a tractate of Talmud or Mishnah). ...


It is also customary to coordinate a group of people to learn the complete mishnah ("oral law") during the shloshim period.
Since a Jewish soul can still benefit from mitzvot (commandments) done by people still alive, it is a special privilege to help anyone that had died by learning mishnayos (the oral law) on their behalf. The word Mishnah (oral law) and Neshama (soul) are composed of the exact same Hebrew letters indicating a special bond between the two. For that reason, mishnayos have become the customary subject of torah to learn following a death. The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Mitzvah מצוה is Hebrew for commandment (plural mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah - command). ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ...


Shloshim.org is a free website that is dedicated to help people coordinate learning of the oral law by creating an online list.

Fifth stage: shanah, a year of mourning

The shanah (שנה "year") activity gradually returns to normal, although the mourners continue to recite the mourner's kaddish as part of synagogue services for eleven months for a parent, and there are restrictions on attending festive occasions and large gatherings, especially where live music is played. In many Orthodox communities, only men are encouraged to say the mourner's kaddish; and if there are no male relatives an unrelated male will often be contracted to say the Kaddish on behalf of the women. Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ...


Matzevah (Unveiling of the tombstone)

A headstone (tombstone) is known as a matzevah ("monument"). There are varying customs about when it should be placed on the grave. Most communities have an unveiling ceremony a year after the death. Some communities have it earlier, even a week after the burial. In Israel it is done after the "sheloshim", the first thirty days of mourning. There is no restriction about the timing, other than the unveiling cannot be held during certain periods such as Passover or Chol Ha'Moed. Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ... Pasch redirects here. ... Chol HaMoed is a Hebrew phrase which means weekdays of the festival and refers to the intermediate days of one of the following Jewish Holidays: Passover, or Sukkot During Chol HaMoed the usual Yom Tov restrictions are relaxed, but not entirely eliminated. ...


At the end of the ceremony, a cloth or shroud covering that has been placed on the headstone is removed, customarily by close family members. Services include reading of several psalms (1, 24, 23, 103), Mourners Kaddish (if a minyan is available), and the prayer "El Malei Rachameem." The service may include a brief eulogy for the deceased. A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ...


Annual remembrances

Yahrtzeit

Yahrtzeit, יאָרצײַט, means "Time (of) Year" in Yiddish [2]. (Alternative spellings include yortsayt (using the YIVO standard Yiddish orthography), Yohr Tzeit, yahrzeit, and yartzeit.) The word is also used by non-Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, and refers to the annual anniversary of the day of death of a relative. Yahrtzeit literally means "time of [one] year". Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... YIVO, (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), founded in 1925 as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט), or Yiddish Scientific Institute, is the most authoritative source for orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. ... // Orthography Description and development The Yiddish language is written with the 22-letter Hebrew alphabet. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...


The commemoration is known in Ladino as nahala. It is widely observed, and based on the Jewish tradition that mourners are required to commemorate the death of a relative. Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ...


Mourners required to fulfill this observance are the children, siblings, spouses and parents of the deceased. The custom is first discussed in detail in Sefer HaMinhagim (pub. 1566) by Rabbi Isaac Tyrnau. Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means ‘teacher’, or more literally ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbī is derived from a recent (18th... Rabbi Isaac Tyrnau is best known as author of Sefer Minhagim (Hebrew: Book of Customs). He was active in Hungary in the late 1400s and early 1500s, and attended yeshiva with the Maharil (Yaakov Moelin). ...


The date of the Yahrtzeit is determined by the Hebrew calendar, and falls annually on the Hebrew date of the deceased relatives death. The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ‎) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ...


The main halakhic obligation is to recite the mourner's version of the Kaddish prayer three times (evening, morning, and afternoon), and many attend synagogue for the evening, morning, and afternoon services on this day. (During the morning prayer service the mourner's Kaddish is recited at least four times.) As a widely practiced custom, mourners also light a special candle that burns for 24 hours, called a "Yahrzeit candle". Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ...


Lighting a yahrtzeit candle in memory of a loved one is a minhag ("custom") that is deeply ingrained in Jewish life honoring the memory and souls of the deceased.


Strict Jewish law requires that one should fast on the day of a parent's Yahrzeit, although this is not required, some people do observe the custom of fasting on the day of the Yahrtzeit. Among many Orthodox Jews it has become customary to make a siyum by completing a tractate of Talmud or a volume of the Mishnah on the day prior to the Yahrtzeit, in the honor of the deceased. A halakha requiring a siyum ("celebratory meal"), upon the completion of such a study, overrides the requirement to fast. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A siyum (completion) in Judaism is the completion of any unit of Torah study, or book of the Mishnah or Talmud. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ...


Jewish mourners are required to commemorate the death of a first-relative: mother, father, brother, or sister. The main halakhic obligation is to recite the mourner's version of the Kaddish prayer at least three times Maariv at the evening services, Shacharit at morning services, and Mincha at the afternoon services. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ...


Many synagogues will have lights on a special memorial plaque on one of the synagogue's walls, with names of synagogue members who have died. Each of these lights will be lit for individuals on their Yahrzeit, and all the lights will be lit for a Yizkor service. Some synagogues will also turn on all the lights for memorial days, such as Yom Ha'Shoah. Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom hash-sho’āh), or Holocaust Remembrance Day, is a Jewish holiday that takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ...


Visiting the gravesite

Tombstone in the "new Jewish section" of Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, GA.

Some have a custom to visit the cemetery on fast days (Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 559:10) and before Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (581:4, 605), when possible, and for a Yahrzeit. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (547x837, 60 KB)A headstone in the Jewish section of historic Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (547x837, 60 KB)A headstone in the Jewish section of historic Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Aerial map of Oakland Cemetery Oakland Cemetery is the oldest and largest cemetery, as well as one of the largest green spaces, in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S. Founded as Atlanta Cemetery in 1850 on six acres (2. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Typically, even when visiting Jewish graves of someone that the visitor never knew, he or she would leave a small stone at the graveside. This shows that someone had visited, and represents permanence. This contrasts with the common custom of leaving flowers, which do not live long. Another reason for leaving stones is tending the grave. In Biblical times, graves were marked with mounds of stones, so by placing (or replacing) them, one perpetuated the existence of the site.


Memorial through prayer

Mourner's Kaddish

Main article: Kaddish

Kaddish Yatom (heb. קדיש יתום lit. "Orphan's Kaddish") or the "Mourner's" Kaddish, said at all prayer services, as well as at funerals and memorials. Customs for reciting the Mourner's Kaddish vary markedly among various communities. In most Ashkenazi synagogues, particularly Orthodox ones, it is customary that everyone in the synagogue stands. In Sephardi synagogues, the custom is that only the mourners themselves stand and chant, while the rest of the congregation sits, chanting only responsively. Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: holy) refers to an important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: tefillah/תפלה, plural tefilloth/תפלות) are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ...


Yizkor

Yizkor ("remembrance") prayers are recited by those that have lost either one or both of their parents. There is a custom that those who do not recite the Yizkor prayers leave the synagogue until the completion of Yizkor; the symbolic reason for this is to respect the life of one's living parents. Some rabbinic authorities regard this custom as a superstition.


The Yizkor prayers are recited four times a year, and are intended to be recited in a synagogue with a minyan; if one is unable be with a minyan, one can recite it without one. These four Yizkor services are held on Yom Kippur, Shmini Atzeret, on the eighth day of Passover in most of the world (in Israel on the seventh), and on the second day of Shavuot (in Israel on the only day of Shavuot). In the Yizkor prayers God is asked to remember and grant repose to the souls of the departed. A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... Pasch redirects here. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ...


In Sephardic custom there is no Yizkor prayer, but Hashkabóth are recited on Yom Kippur for all members of the community who have died during the last year. A person called up to the Torah may also request the reader to recite Hashkabah for his deceased parents. Sephardic Judaism is used in this article to describe the religious practices of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as these are peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Av HaRachamim

Main article: Av HaRachamim

Av Harachamim is a Jewish memorial prayer that was written in the late 11th or early 12th Century, after the destruction of the Ashkenazi communities around the Rhine River by Christian crusaders during the First Crusade. Av Harachamim אב הרחמים היא תפילה יהודית is a Jewish memorial prayer which was written in the late 11th or early 12th Century, after the destruction of the Ashkenazi communities around the Rhine River by Christian crusaders during the First Crusade. ... Av Harachamim אב הרחמים היא תפילה יהודית is a Jewish memorial prayer which was written in the late 11th or early 12th Century, after the destruction of the Ashkenazi communities around the Rhine River by Christian crusaders during the First Crusade. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim...


Communal responses to death

Zihuy Korbanot Asson (ZAKA)

Main article: ZAKA

ZAKA (heb. זק"א abbr. for Zihuy Korbanot Asson lit. "Identifying Victims of Disaster" – חסד של אמת Hessed shel Emet lit. "True Kindness" – איתור חילוץ והצלה), is a community emergency response team in the State of Israel, officially recognized by the government. The organization was founded in 1989. Members of ZAKA, most of whom are Orthodox, assist ambulance crews, identify the victims of terrorism, road accidents and other disasters and, where necessary, gather body parts and spilled blood for proper burial. They also provide first aid and rescue services, and help with the search for missing persons. In the past they have responded in the aftermath of disasters around the world. A ZAKA volunteer (wearing the yellow vest) helping MDA Mezach volunteers collect bodies and body parts for burial after a suicide bombing. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... In the United States a Community Emergency Response Team (CERT), sometimes known as a Neighborhood Emergency Response Team (NERT), or Neighborhood Emergency Team (NET), is a group of volunteer emergency workers who have received basic training in disaster preparedness, disaster fire suppression, basic disaster medical operations, light search and rescue... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: NPOV: similar articles on one-sided violence committed by Israelis have been deleted for being NPOV fork. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Rescue refers to operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury. ...


Hebrew Free Burial Association (HFBA)

The Hebrew Free Burial Association is a non-profit agency whose mission is to ensure that all Jews receive a proper Jewish burial, regardless of their financial ability. Since 1888, more than 55,000 Jews have been buried by HFBA in their cemeteries located on Staten Island, New York, Silver Lake Cemetery and Mount Richmond Cemetery. The Hebrew Free Burial Association began in the 1880s as a free burial society serving the residents of Manhattans Lower East Side and was incorporated as a non-profit organization in 1889. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ...


Controversy following death

Donating organs

Being an organ donor is permitted according to all Jewish denominations once death has been clearly established, provided that instructions have been left in a written living will. Orthodox and Haredi Jews would consult their rabbis before making the final choice and decision. Organ donation is the removal of specific tissues of the human body from a person who has recently died, or from a living donor, for the purpose of transplanting them into other persons. ... Several denominations have developed within Judaism, especially among Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... A living will, also called will to live, advance health directive, or advance health care directive, is a specific type of power of attorney or health care proxy or advance directive. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ...


Jewish view of cremation

Halakha (Jewish law) forbids cremation. Burial is considered the only proper form of disposal for a Jewish person who has died (and is the only method used in the Tanakh), and is seen in Judaism as providing a final measure of atonement for the deceased. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ...


From a philosophical and ritual standpoint, as with a geneza, Jews bury things as an honorable "interment," and would only burn things as a means of destruction. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... A Genizah or Geniza (Hebrew burial; according to S.D. Goitein, from the Persian word gonj storehouse, treasure; plural: genizot) is the storeroom or depository in a synagogue, usually specifically a cemetery for worn-out Hebrew language books and papers on religious topics. ... For the musician, see Burial (musician). ...


Suicide

See the section on Judaism on the main article, Religious views of suicide. There are a variety of religious views of suicide. ...


Judaism considers suicide to be a form of "self-murder" and thus a Jew who commits suicide is denied some important after-death privileges: no eulogies should be held for that person, and burial in the main section of the Jewish cemetery is normally not allowed. Suicide (Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally taking ones own life. ...


However, in recent times, most people who commit suicide have been deemed to be the unfortunate victims of depression or of a serious mental illness. Under this interpretation, their act of "self-murder" is not deemed to be a voluntary act of self-destruction, but rather the result of an involuntary condition. They have therefore been looked upon as having died of causes beyond their control. Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ...


Additionally, the Talmud (in Semakhot, one of the minor tractates) recognizes that many elements of the mourning ritual exist as much for the living survivors as for the dead, and that these elements ought to be carried out even in the case of the suicide. Furthermore, if reasonable doubt exists that the death may not have been suicide (e.g. if it is unknown whether the victim fell or jumped off a building), the benefit of the doubt is given and regular burial and mourning rituals take place. Lastly, the suicide of a minor is considered a result of a lack of understanding ("da'at"), and in such a case, regular mourning is observed. The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... The Minor Tractates are essays from the tannaitic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal tractate exists in the Mishnah. ... Look up minor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Tattoos

While Halakha (Jewish law) forbids tattoos, there is a common myth that Jews with tattoos are not permitted to be buried in Jewish cemeteries. This is not true, and a Jew with a tattoo would receive a normal funeral service. [3] Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Death of an apostate Jew

There is no mourning for an Apostate Jew according to Jewish law. (See that article for a discussion of precisely what actions and motivations render a Jew an "apostate.") Jews in apostasy are those Jews who have abandoned Judaism and have joined another religion. ...


In the past several centuries, the custom developed among Ashkenazic Orthodox Jews (including Hassidic and Haredi Jews), that the family would "sit shiva" if and when one of their relatives would leave the fold of traditional Judaism. The definition of "leaving the fold" varies within communities; some would sit shiva if a family member married a non-Jew; others would only sit shiva if the individual actually converted to another faith, and even then, some would make a distinction between those who chose to do so of their own will, and those who were pressured into conversion. (In Sholom Aleichem's Tevye, when the title character's daughter converts to Christianity to marry a Christian, Tevye sits shiva for her and generally refers to her as "dead.") At the height of the Mitnagdim (i.e. anti-Hassidic) movement, in the early-to-mid nineteenth century, some Mitnagdim even sat shiva if a family member joined Hassidism. (It is said that when Leibel Eiger joined Hassidism, his father, Rabbi Shlomo Eiger sat shiva, but his grandfather, the famed Rabbi Akiva Eiger, did not.) By the mid-twentieth century, however, Hassidism was clearly recognized by everyone as a valid form of Orthodox Judaism, and thus the (controversial) practice of sitting shiva for those who realign to Hassidism ceased to exist. Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... This article is about Jewish event. ... Sholom Aleichem listens Sholom Aleichem This article is about the writer. ... Tevye is the protagonist of several of Sholom Aleichems stories, originally written in Yiddish and first published in 1894, most famously the fictional memoir Tevye and his Daughters, about a pious Jewish milkman in Tzarist Russia, and the troubles he has with his daughters (Tevye has six daughters — in... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mitnagdim or misnagdim is a Hebrew word (מתנגדים) meaning opponents; this term was used to refer to European religious Jews who opposed Hasidic Judaism. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitnagdim or misnagdim is a Hebrew word (מתנגדים) meaning opponents; this term was used to refer to European religious Jews who opposed Hasidic Judaism. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chassidic, etc. ... Rabbi Akiva Eiger or Eger (1761-1837) was a Jewish scholar and influential halakhic decisor (posek). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chassidic, etc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hasidic Judaism (also Chassidic, etc. ...


Today, some Orthodox Jews, particularly the more traditionalist ones (such as many Haredi and Hassidic communities), continue the practice of sitting shiva for a family member who has left the religious community. Many centrist and left-wing Orthodox Jews, however, question and may not observe the practice for three reasons. First, as a matter of practicality, declaring the family member "dead" is a very harsh act that could make it much more difficult for the family member to return to traditional practice if/when s/he would consider doing so. Second, the definition of actively "leaving the fold" is rather vague today, especially with the majority of Jews today being not religiously observant of Orthodox Judaism. Third, recent scholarship has shown that the source of the original custom, a story published in the twelfth century by Rabbi Isaac ben Moses of Vienna in Or Zarua regarding Rabbi Gershom ben Judah, contained a typo and was thus misunderstood. Rabbi Gershom had a son who had converted to Christianity. A text that had been read as, "Rabbi Gershom sat shiva for his son when he converted [Heb. k'she-nishtamed]", turned out to have been "Rabbi Gershom sat shiva for his son who had converted [Heb. she-nishtamed]", i.e. when the son actually died years later of natural causes.[4] Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Isaac ben Moses of Vienna (also called Isaac Or Zarua; Hebrew: Yitzchak ben Moshe) was one of the greatest rabbis of the Middle Ages. ... Gershom ben Judah best known as Rabbeinu Gershom (in Hebrew: Our teacher Gershom) (c. ... A typographical error or typo is a mistake made during the typing process. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Death of an infant

For a child who has not been born more than 30 days, stricter communities hold that the child cannot be mourned in a traditional manner of sitting shiva. Understandably, this is very difficult for the family, and is not followed by less traditional Jewish sects.


After death in Judaism

  • Honorifics for the dead in Judaism
  • The afterlife according to Judaism
Main article: Jewish eschatology
  • The final redemption according to Judaism
Main article: Jewish Messiah

Honorifics for the dead in Judaism involve the traditions surrounding naming and speaking of the dead in Judaism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during...

National days of remembrance

  • Tisha B'Av
Main article: Tisha B'Av
(Day of mourning for the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and other events.)
  • Fast of the First Born
Main article: Fast of the Firstborn
(Fast of gratitude for not dying during the Plague of the First Born.)
  • Yom Ha'Shoah
Main article: Yom HaShoah
(Holocaust Memorial Day.)
  • Yom Hazikaron
Main article: Yom Hazikaron
(Memorial Day for those who have died in defense of Israel.)

Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bə-āḇ) is a major annual fast day in Judaism. ... A drawing of Ezekiels Visionary Temple from the Book of Ezekiel 40-47 The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim), the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues (עשר המכות, Eser Ha-Makot) are the ten calamities inflicted upon Egypt by God in the Biblical story recounted the book of Exodus, chapters 7 - 12, in order to convince Pharaoh (possibly Ramesses II, making the pharaoh of... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Yom Hazikaron (Memorial Day, Hebrew: יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ונפגעי פעולות האיבה, Israel Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day) is an Israeli national holiday. ...

The Holocaust

Main article: The Holocaust

During the Holocaust, massive crematoria were constructed and operated round-the-clock by the Nazis within their concentration and extermination camps to dispose of the bodies of thousands of Jews and others. The bodies of thousands of Jews were thus disposed of in a manner deeply offensive to Judaism. Since then, cremation has carried an extremely negative connotation for many Jews, even more so than it had previously. “Shoah” redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that the Nazis built before and during World War II for the systematic murder of millions of people in what has become known as The Holocaust. ...


See also

There are several traditions surrounding naming and speaking of the dead in Judaism. The honorifics in Judaism used for the deceased vary depending on the title of the person. ... Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, M.D. (July 8, 1926 - August 24, 2004) was a psychiatrist and the author of the groundbreaking book On Death and Dying, where she first discussed what is now known as the Kübler-Ross model. ... In her 1969 book, On Death and Dying, Swiss-born psychiatrist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross outlined the five stages of grief of someone who is dying: Denial and isolation: Anger: Bargaining: Depression: Acceptance: The list was praised and criticized by grief experts. ...

References

  1. ^ Deuteronomy 21:23
  2. ^ http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=5&CHAPTER=34
  3. ^ http://ohr.edu/ask_db/ask_main.php/275/Q4/ Ohr Somayach — Ask The Rabbi / Tattoo and Jewish Burial
  4. ^ Alfred J. Kolatch, The Second Jewish Book of Why, Jonathan David Publishers, 1995, pp. 137–138.

Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...

External links


 
 

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