FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Berdychiv

Berdychiv (Ukrainian: Бердичів; Polish language: Berdyczów; Russian: Бе́рдичев, Berdichev) is a town in Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine, 44 km south of Zhytomyr. It is located at 49°54′″N, 28°35′″E. Pop. about 88,000 (data 2001). Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... Flag of Zhytomyr Oblast Coat of Arms of Zhyomyr Oblast Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область, Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’ or Житомирщина, Zhytomyrshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Zhytomyr (Ukrainian, Russian Житомир, Polish: Å»ytomierz) is the capital of the Zhytomyrska oblast in Ukraine. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...

17th-century fortified Carmelite convent in Berdychiv.
17th-century fortified Carmelite convent in Berdychiv.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Berdichev. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Berdichev. ... Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ...


History

In 1430, Great Knight of Lithuania Vitautas (великий князь литовский Витовт) granted the rights over the area to Kalinik, the procurator (наместник) of Putyvl and Zvenigorod, and it is believed that his servant named Berdich founded a khutor (remote settlement) there, however the etymology of the name Berdychiv is not known. // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Putyvl or Putivl (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) is an ancient town in north-east Ukraine, in Sumy Oblast. ... Khutor or hutor (Russian: ; Ukrainian: , Khutir) was usually a single-homestead rural settlement (farmstead) in Ukraine, Russia, and some parts of Central Asia. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ...


In 1483, Crimean Tatars destroyed the settlement. During the 1546 partition between Lithuania and Poland, the region was listed as a property of Lithuanian magnate Tyshkevich (Tyszkiewicz). According to the Union of Lublin (1569), Volhynia formed a province of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... For Crimean Tatar ethos see Crimean Tatars For Crimean Tatar language and alphabet see Crimean Tatar language ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The fortified Carmelite monastery (built from 1627-1642, sponsored by Janusz Tyszkiewicz Łohojski). captured and plundered by Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1647, was reestablished in 1864. Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ... The Tikse monastery in Ladakh, India A monastery is the habitation of monks, derived from the Greek word for a hermits cell. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Janusz Tyszkiewicz Łohojski (1590-1649) (also known as Janusz z Łohojska Tyszkiewicz or Janusz Łohojski Tyszkiewicz) was a voivode of Kijów (from 1630) and starosta żytomierski and Å›niatyÅ„ski in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Ukrainian, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bogdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Bohdan Khmelnitsky) ( 1595 – August 6, 1657) was a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth noble of Polish or Ruthenian origin, leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine, noted for... // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


In 1846, the town accounted 1893 buildings, 69 of which were brick-made, 11 streets, 80 walkways and 4 squares. Honoré de Balzac visited it in 1850 and noted that its unplanned development made it resemble the dance of polka as some buildings leaned left, while others right. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Honoré de Balzac Honoré de Balzac (May 20, 1799 – August 18, 1850) was a French novelist. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Polka is a type of dance and genre of dance music; it originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, and is still a common genre of Czech folk music; it is also common both in Europe and in the Americas. ...


Jewish history

According to the census of 1789, the Jews constituted 75% of Berdychiv's population (1,951 out of 2,640, of whom 246 were liquor-dealers, 452 houseowners, 134 merchants, 188 artisans, 150 clerks and 56 idlers). In 1797, Prince Radziwill granted seven Jewish families the monopoly privilege of the cloth trade in the town. Jews were a major driving force of the town's commerce in the first half of the 19th century. They founded a number of trading companies (some traded internationally), banking establishments, served as agents of the neighboring estates of Polish nobility (szlachta). A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ... A privilege—etymologically private law or law relating to a specific individual—is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or a government. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Polish szlachcic. ...


By the end of the 18th century, Berdychiv became an important center of Hasidism. As the town grew, a number of noted scholars served as rabbis there, including Lieber the Great and Joseph the Harif and the Tzadik Levi Yosef Yitzhak of Berdichev (the author of Kedushat Levi), who lived and taught there until his death in 1809. See also Berditchev (Hasidic dynasty). (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbÄ«;; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbÄ«) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished, (in knowledge). In the ancient Judean schools the sages were addressed as רִבִּי (Ribbi... Tzadik - צדיק (plural: Tzadikkim) is the Hebrew word for righteous one, and is a title which is generally given to those whom are considered to be righteous such as a spiritual master or Rebbe. ... The front page of a copy of Kedushas Levi printed in 1861 Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev (1740-1810) was a rabbi and Hasidic leader, and one of the most beloved figures of Eastern European Jewry. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Berditchev Hasidim, also known in Yiddish as Berditchiver Hasidim, originated in the town of Berdychiv, which over the years was under the control of Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. ...


In its heyday, Berdychiv accounted some eighty synagogues and battei midrash and was famous for its cantors. Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... The word Cantor can mean more than one thing: Cantor is another name for a Hazzan, a member of the Jewish clergy Cantor is the title of a member of a student society who is the main singer at a cantus Famous people named Cantor include: Eddie Cantor, singer & entertainer...


Berdychiv was also one of the centers of the conflict between Hasidim and Mitnagdim. As the ideas of Haskalah influenced parts of the Jewish communities, a large group of Maskilim formed in Berdychiv in the 1820s. Hasidim can refer to Saintly Pharisees Hasidic Judaism This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mitnagdim (also: misnagdim) is a Hebrew word (מתנגדים) meaning opponents; this term was used to refer to European religious Jews who opposed Hasidic Judaism. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Haskalah (השכלה, from the Hebrew word sekhel, meaning intellect) was the movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing secular knowledge, Hebrew language... Events and Trends Nationalistic independence movements helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire (1821). ...


In 1847 23,160 Jews resided in Berdychiv and by 1861 the number doubled to 46,683, constituting the second largest Jewish community in the Russian Empire. The May Laws of 1882 and other government persecutions affected Jewish population and in 1897, out of the town's population of 53,728, 41,617 (about 80%) were Jewish. 58% of Jewish males and 32% of Jewish females were literate. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ...


Until World War I, the natural growth was balanced by the emigration. During the 1917 October Revolution and Russian Civil War, the mayor of the town was the Bundist leader D. Lipets. In early 1919, the Jews of Berdychiv became victims of a pogrom perpetrated by the Ukrainian army (See Symon Petliura). Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 8 million Full list Military dead: 3 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 6 million Full... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... The word may have one of the following meanings. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot, a massive violent attack on a particular group; ethnic, religious or other, primarily characterized by destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ...


The Soviet authorities closed or destroyed most of the town's synagogues. (See Yevsektsiya) Yevsektsiya (alternative spelling: Yevsektsia), Russian: ЕвСекция, the abbreviation of the phrase Еврейская секция (Yevreyskaya sektsiya) was the Jewish section of the Soviet Communist party created to challenge and eventually destroy the rival Bund and Zionist parties, suppress Judaism and bourgeois nationalism and replace traditional Jewish culture with proletarian culture, as...


In the 1920s, Yiddish language was officially recognized and in 1924, the first in Ukraine official law court to conduct its affairs in Yiddish was established in the city, but in the 1930s, the use of Yiddish was curtailed and all Jewish cultural activities were suspended before World War II. It has been suggested that Roaring Twenties be merged into this article or section. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... // Events and trends A public speech by Benito Mussolini, founder of the Fascist movement The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France/Free France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II...


Most civilians from areas near the border did not have a chance to evacuate when the Nazi began their invasion on June 22, 1941. An "extermination" unit was established in Berdychiv in early July 1941 and a Jewish ghetto was set up. It was liquidated on October 5, 1941, after all the inhabitants were murdered. The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


A 1973 Ukrainian-language article 1 about the history of Bedichev says: "Гестапівці стратили 38 536 чоловік." (Gestapo killed 38,536 persons.) In line with the official Soviet policy regarding the Jews and the Holocaust, the article does not mention the word "Jew" and does not acknowledge the genocide of the Jews. The Deaths Head emblem similar to Skull and crossbones, often used as the insignia of the Gestapo The (help· info) (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei; secret state police) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Selection at the Auschwitz ramp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation, such as those of the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele. ... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing...


Demographics

Year Total population Jewish population
1789 2,640 1,951 (75%)
1847  ? 23,160
1861  ? 46,683
1867 52,563 41,617 (80%)
1926 55,417 30,812 (55.6%)
1941  ? 0
1946  ? 6,000
1972 77,000 15,000 (est)
1989 92,000  ?
2001 88,000 1000

People

Joseph Conrad Nalecz Coat of Arms Warsaw flat once occupied by Conrad. ... Vasily Semyonovich Grossman (alternatively spelled Vassily, Vasiliy, Russian language: Василий Гроссман), December 12, 1905 – September 14, 1964, was a prominent Soviet-era writer and journalist. ... Vladimir Samoylovych Horowitz (Russian: Владимир Самойлович Горовиц, Ukrainian: Володимир Самійлович Горовиць) (OS 18 September, NS October 1, 1903 – November 5, 1989) was a classical pianist of Jewish origin. ... Rabbi Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev (1740-1810) is one of the most beloved figures in Jewish history. ... Berditchev Hasidim, also known in Yiddish as Berditchiver Hasidim, originated in the town of Berdychiv, which over the years was under the control of Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. ... Abraham (Avraham) Firkovitch (1786-1874) was a Lithuanian Karaite of Crimean Karaite (Karaim) descent, born in Lutsk, Volhynia. ... Israel (Yisrol) Grodner (ca. ... Abraham Goldfaden Abraham Goldfaden (July 24, 1840 – January 9, 1908), born Abraham Goldenfoden (first name alternately Avram, Avron, Avrohom, Avrom, or Avrum, last name alternately Goldfadn; the Romanian spelling Avram Goldfaden is common) was a Russian-born Jewish poet and playwright, author of some 40 plays. ... Categories: People stubs | Jewish history-related stubs | Yiddish writers | Russian Jews ... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Jan Prosper Potocki Paula Szembek Consorts Marianna Lubomirska Children with Marianna Lubomirska Emilia Potocka Date of Birth September 11, 1761 Place of Birth Guzów near Skierniewice Date of Death 1801 Place of Death  ? Antoni Protazy Potocki aka Prot (1761-Polish szlachcic. ... Adler in 1920 Jacob Pavlovitch Adler (1855 - 1926), born Yankev P. Adler, was a (Ukrainian-born) Jewish actor and a star in Yiddish theater, first in Odessa, and later in London and New York City. ... Honoré de Balzac Honoré de Balzac (May 20, 1799 – August 18, 1850) was a French novelist. ...

Berdyschiv on stage

see Abraham Ellstein Lower East Side Abraham Abe Ellstein (אַבֿרהם אײב עלשטײַן, July 7, 1907, New York - 1963) was American composer for Yiddish entertainments. ...


See also

A shtetl or shtetele (Yiddish: , derived from German: , meaning little town/city) was typically a small town or village with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... Most cities in Europe have different names in different languages. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire once hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ...

Footnotes

Note 1: A Soviet article about the history of Berdychiv (1973, in Ukrainian language: Історія міст і сіл УРСР (житомирська область) Бердичів Є. Громенко, О. О. Павлов) Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ...


External links

The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ...

Resources

  • From Berdichev to Jerusalem by Miriam Sperber, 1980
  • The Bones of Berdichev: The Life and Fate of Vasily Grossman by John Garrand, 1996

  Results from FactBites:
 
Berdychiv, Ukraine, The (664 words)
Berdychiv (Ukrainian: Бердичів; Polish language: Berdyczów; Russian: Бе́рдичев, Berdichev) is a town in Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine, 44 km south of Zhytomyr.
According to the census of 1789, the Jews constituted 75% of Berdychiv's population (1,951 out of 2,640, of whom 246 were liquor-dealers, 452 houseowners, 134 merchants, 188 artisans, 150 clerks and 56 idlers).
Berdychiv was also one of the centers of the conflict between Hasidim and Mitnagdim.
Berdychiv (331 words)
Berdychiv was first mentioned in a historical document of 1545.
Berdychiv's population grew in response to commercial and industrial development (2,000 in 1789, 19,000 in 1838, and 51,500 in 1860), and it became Ukraine's fourth largest city after Odesa, Kyiv, and Lviv (but before
With the decline of the market trade and with the construction of railroads, Berdychiv's growth ceased temporarily (in 1897 the population was 56,000), coming to life again at the beginning of the 20th century (in 1914—prior to the war— the population was 80,000).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m