FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Berber people
Berbers
Notable Berbers:

Saint Augustine of Hippo, Édith Piaf, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Ibn Battuta, Abd el-Krim, Zinedine Zidane Public domain image from [1]. Original source: Hundred Greatest Men, The. ... Image File history File links Painting of Ibn Battuta. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Abd_el-Krim. ... Zinedine Zidane This work is copyrighted. ... This is a list of famous Berber people. ... St. ... Édith Piaf (December 19, 1915–October 11, 1963) was one of Frances most beloved singers,[1] and became a national icon. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... 199. ... Zidane redirects here. ...

Total population

around 47 million worldwide[citation needed]

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Morocco Morocco
Flag of Algeria Algeria
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of France France
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of Spain Spain
Flag of Tunisia Tunisia
Flag of Mali Mali
Flag of Niger Niger
Flag of Libya Libya
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Languages
Berber languages
Religions
Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic)

Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are discontinuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. They speak various Berber languages, which together form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Between fourteen and twenty-five million Berber speakers live within this region, most densely in Morocco and becoming generally scarcer eastward through the rest of the Maghreb and beyond. Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... ... The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article is about the river. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ...


Many Berbers call themselves some variant of the word Imazighen (singular Amazigh), meaning "free men".[1][2] This is common in Morocco, but elsewhere within the Berber homeland a local, more particular term, such as Kabyle or Chaoui, is more often used instead.[3] Historically Berbers have been variously known, for instance as Libyans by the ancient Greeks,[4] as Numidians and Mauri by the Romans, and as Moors by medieval and early modern Europeans. The modern English term is borrowed from Arabic, but the deeper etymology of "Berber" is not certain. (See also: Berber (Etymology).) The Kabyles are a Berber people whose traditional homeland is highlands of Kabylie (or Kabylia) in northeastern Algeria. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Numidians were tribes who lived in Algeria east of Constantine and in part of Tunisia. ... Bold text:For the modern country, see Mauritania. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... The term Berber is but a variation of the Latin original word Barbarian, earlier in history applied by Romans specifically to their Northern hostile neighbors from Germanica (modern Germany). ...


The best known of them were the Roman author Apuleius, the Roman emperor Septimius Severus, and St. Augustine, whose mother was a berber[5]. Lucius Apuleius (c. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... Augustinus redirects here. ...

Contents

Berber people in Maghreb

During the pre-Roman era, several successive Independent States (Massaesyles, Massyles, Moors ... etc) before the king Massinissa unifing the Numidia . [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] For other uses, see moor. ... Masinissa (c. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ...


According to historians of the Middle Ages, the Berbers are divided into two branches, two are from their ancestor Mazigh. In sum, the two branches Botr and Barnès are also divided into tribes. each Maghreb region is made up of several tribes. The large Berber tribes or peoples are Sanhadja, Houaras, Zenata, Masmouda, Kutama, Awarba, Berghwata ... etc. Each tribe is divided into sub tribes. All these tribes have independence and territorial decisions. [12] [13] The Sanhaja (also commonly spelled Sanhadja) were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda. ... The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. ... The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... The Kutama were a Berber tribe,in the region of Jijel, a member of the great Bavares orientaux confederation of the Maghreb. ... The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ...


Several Berber dynasties have emerged during the Middle Ages to the Maghreb, Sudan, in Andalusia, Italy, in Mali, Niger, Senegal, Egypt ... etc.. Ibn Khaldoun is a table summarizing the Maghreb dynasties whose Berber Dynasties: Zirid, Banu Ifran, Maghrawa, Almoravid, Hammadid, Almohad, Merinid, Abdalwadid, Wattasid , Meknassa, ,,... Hafsides dynasties. [14] [15] The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... The Magrawa were a Berber tribe in Morocco and central and western Algeria. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Hammadids, an offshoot of the Zirids, were a Berber dynasty who ruled an area roughly corresponding to modern Algeria for about a century and a half, until, weakened by the Banu Hilals incursions, they were destroyed by the Almohads. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Merinid dynasty; a Berber dynasty in Morocco (1244-1465) Rulers: Abdalhaqq I. (1195-1217) Uthman I. (1217-1240) Muhammad I. (1240-1244) Abu Yahya Abu Bakr (1244 - 1258) Umar (1258 - 1259) Abu Yusuf Yaqub (1259 - 1286) Abu Yaqub Yusuf (1286 - 1306) Abu Tabil (1307 - 1308) Abu l-Rabia (1308 - 1310... A North African dynasty, centered around Tlemcen. ... The Wattasids were a dynasty in Morocco. ...


The Almohads were able to unify the Maghreb. And the Berbers of the Middle Ages have contributed to the Arabization of the Maghreb, which is a historical fact [16] The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


History

A Berber family crossing a ford - scene in Algeria
A Berber family crossing a ford - scene in Algeria

The Berbers have lived in North Africa between western Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean for as far back as records of the area go. The earliest inhabitants of the region are found on the rock art across the Sahara. References to them also occur frequently in ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman sources. Berber groups are first mentioned in writing by the ancient Egyptians during the Predynastic Period, and during the New Kingdom the Egyptians later fought against the Meshwesh and Libu tribes on their western borders. From about 945 BC the Egyptians were ruled by Meshwesh immigrants who founded the Twenty-second Dynasty under Shoshenq I, beginning a long period of Berber rule in Egypt. They long remained the main population of the Western Desert—the Byzantine chroniclers often complained of the Mazikes (Amazigh) raiding outlying monasteries there. Image File history File links ST-berberfamily. ... Image File history File links ST-berberfamily. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The Predynastic period of Egypt is the period that culminates in the rise of the Old Kingdom and the first of the thirty dynasties based on royal residences, by which Egyptologists divide the history of Pharaonic civilization, using a schedule laid out first by Manethos Aegyptaica. ... The maximum territorial extent of Egypt (XVth century BC) The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan (i. ... The Libu were a tribe of ancient Libyans first attested in ancient Egyptian texts from the New Kingdom, especially from the Ramesside Period. ... http://www. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Second Dynasty. ... Nomen: Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian Å¡Å¡nq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


For many centuries the Berbers inhabited the coast of North Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, the coastal regions of North Africa saw a long parade of invaders and colonists including Phoenicians (who founded Carthage), Greeks (mainly in Cyrene, Libya), Romans, Vandals and Alans, Byzantines, Arabs, Ottomans, and the French and Spanish. Most if not all of these invaders have left some imprint upon the modern Berbers as have slaves brought from throughout Europe (some estimates place the number of Europeans brought to North Africa during the Ottoman period as high as 1.25 million)[2]. Interactions with neighboring Sudanic empires, sub-Saharan Africans, and nomads from East Africa also left impressions upon the Berber peoples. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Cyrene (Greek Κυρήνη, Kurene) was an ancient Greek colony in present-day Libya, the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...


In historical times, the Berbers expanded south into the Sahara (displacing earlier populations such as the Azer and Bafour), and have in turn been mainly culturally assimilated in much of North Africa by Arabs, particularly following the incursion of the Banu Hilal in the 11th century. Azer may refer to: Azer (Islam), the father of Abraham the prophet according to Islam Azer, the Soninke people of western Africa Azer (Dungeons & Dragons), a race from a plane of fire in Dungeons & Dragons Azer (PangYa), a character in PangYa azer, Persian language for fire Azer, a contemporary given... The Bafours were the original inhabitants of Mauritania, and the ancestors to the Soninke tribe. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ...


The areas of North Africa which retained the Berber language and traditions have, in general, been those least exposed to foreign rule—in particular, the highlands of Kabylie and Morocco, most of which even in Roman and Ottoman times remained largely independent, and where the Phoenicians never even penetrated far beyond the coast. However, even these areas have been affected by some of the many invasions of North Africa, most recently including the French. Another source of foreign influence, particularly from across the Sahara, where the trans-Saharan slave trade was operated by the Berbers and Arabs. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ...


Berbers and the Islamic conquest

Unlike the conquests of previous religions and cultures, the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabs, was to have pervasive and long-lasting effects on the Maghreb. The new faith, in its various forms, would penetrate nearly all segments of society, bringing with it armies, learned men, and fervent mystics, and in large part replacing tribal practices and loyalties with new social norms and political idioms. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ...


Nonetheless, the Islamization and Arabization of the region were complicated and lengthy processes. Whereas nomadic Berbers were quick to convert and assist the Arab conquerors, not until the twelfth century, under the Almohad Dynasty, did the Christian and Jewish communities become totally marginalized. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


The first Arab military expeditions into the Maghrib, between 642 and 669, resulted in the spread of Islam. These early forays from a base in Egypt occurred under local initiative rather than under orders from the central caliphate. When the seat of the caliphate moved from Medina to Damascus, however, the Umayyads (a Muslim dynasty ruling from 661 to 750) recognized that the strategic necessity of dominating the Mediterranean dictated a concerted military effort on the North African front. In 670, therefore, an Arab army under Uqba ibn Nafi established the town of Qayrawan about 160 kilometers south of present-day Tunis and used it as a base for further operations. The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Uqba ibn Nafi (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) (also referred to as Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba Ibn al Nafia, or Akbah) (622–683) was an Arab general under the Umayyad dynasty, who began the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day western Algeria and Morocco in North Africa. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ...


Abu al Muhajir Dinar, Uqba's successor, pushed westward into Algeria and eventually worked out a modus vivendi with Kusaila, the ruler of an extensive confederation of Christian Berbers. Kusaila, who had been based in Tilimsan (Tlemcen), became a Muslim and moved his headquarters to Takirwan, near Al Qayrawan. Kusaila (? - 690; also spelled Kusayla, Kosaila and Kasila) was a 7th century chief of the berbers in resistance to Arabs in the Aures mountains, and preceeded el-kahina. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


This harmony was short-lived, however. Arab and Berber forces controlled the region in turn until 697. By 711, Umayyad forces helped by Berber converts to Islam had conquered all of North Africa. Governors appointed by the Umayyad caliphs ruled from Kairouan, capital the new wilaya (province) of Ifriqiya, which covered Tripolitania (the western part of present-day Libya), Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ...


However, the spread of Islam among the Berbers did not guarantee their support for the Arab-dominated caliphate. The ruling Arabs alienated the Berbers by taxing them heavily; treating converts as second-class Muslims; and, at worst, by enslaving them. As a result, widespread opposition took the form of open revolt in 739-40 under the banner of Kharijite Islam. The Kharijites objected to Ali, the fourth caliph, making peace with the Umayyads in 657 and left Ali's camp (khariji means "those who leave"). The Kharijites had been fighting Umayyad rule in the East, and many Berbers were attracted by the sect's egalitarian precepts. For example, according to Kharijism, any suitable Muslim candidate could be elected caliph without regard to race, station, or descent from the Prophet Muhammad. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


After the revolt, Kharijites established a number of theocratic tribal kingdoms, most of which had short and troubled histories. Others, however, like Sijilmasa and Tilimsan, which straddled the principal trade routes, proved more viable and prospered. In 750, the Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers, moved the caliphate to Baghdad and reestablished caliphal authority in Ifriqiya, appointing Ibrahim ibn al Aghlab as governor in Kairouan. Although nominally serving at the caliph's pleasure, Al Aghlab and his successors, the Aghlabids, ruled independently until 909, presiding over a court that became a center for learning and culture. Sijilmasa (or Sijilmassa) was a mediaeval trade centre in the western Maghreb. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab (Arabic: ‎; 756-812) was the first Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya (800-812) He was the son of al-Aghlab, who successully quelled the revolt of the Kharijites in Ifriqiya at the end of the 8th century. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ...


Just to the east of Aghlabid lands, Abd ar Rahman ibn Rustam ruled most of the central Maghrib from Tahert, southwest of Algiers. The rulers of the Rustamid imamate, which lasted from 761 to 909, each an Ibadi Kharijite imam, were elected by leading citizens. The imams gained a reputation for honesty, piety, and justice. The court at Tahert was noted for its support of scholarship in mathematics, astronomy, and astrology, as well as theology and law. The Rustamid imams, however, failed, by choice or by neglect, to organize a reliable standing army. This important factor, accompanied by the dynasty's eventual collapse into decadence, opened the way for Tahert's demise under the assault of the Fatimids. An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Tahert (aka Tiaret or Tihert, the Berber for station) is the name of a large Algerian town, one that gives its name to the wider farming region of Wilaya de Tiaret province in central Algeria. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tahert (aka Tiaret or Tihert, the Berber for station) is the name of a large Algerian town, one that gives its name to the wider farming region of Wilaya de Tiaret province in central Algeria. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ...


Berbers in Al-Andalus

The Muslims who entered Iberia in 711 were mainly Berbers, and were led by a Berber, Tariq ibn Ziyad, though under the suzerainty of the Arab Caliph of Damascus Abd al-Malik and his North African Viceroy, Musa ibn Nusayr. A second mixed army of Arabs and Berbers came in 712 under Ibn Nusayr himself. They supposedly they helped the Umayyad caliph Abd ar-Rahman I in Al-Andalus, because his mother was a Berber. During the Taifa era, the petty kings came from a variety of ethnic groups; some-- for instance the Zirid kings of Granada--were of Berber origin. The Taifa period ended when a Berber dynasty--the Almoravids from modern-day Western Sahara and Mauritania--took over Al-Andalus; they were succeeded by the Almohad dynasty from Morocco, during which time al-Andalus flourished. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Musa bin Nusair (640 - 716) was a Yemeni Muslim governor and general under the Umayyads. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic: (عبد الرحمن الداخل), (known as the Falcon of Andalus or The Falcon of the Quraish)[1] (born 731; ruled from 756 through his death circa 788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


In the power hierarchy, Berbers were situated between the Arabic aristocracy and the Muladi populace. Ethnic rivalry was one of the most important factors driving Andalusi politics. A Muladi (pl: Muladies) is a term used to describe a sect of Moslems living in Spain with mostly Christian origins. ...


After the fall of the Caliphate, the taifa kingdoms of Toledo, Badajoz, Málaga and Granada had Berber rulers. For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Location Badajoz, Spain location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Badajoz (Spanish) Spanish name Badajoz Founded 875 Area code 34 (Spain) + 924 (Badajoz) Website http://www. ... Location of Málaga Government  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area  - Total 385. ...


Arabization of Northwest Africa

Before the 9th century, most of Northwest Africa was a Berber-speaking Muslim area. The process of Arabization only became a major factor with the arrival of the Banu Hilal, a tribe sent by the Fatimids of Egypt to punish the Berber Zirid dynasty for having abandoned Shiism. The Banu Hilal reduced the Zirids to a few coastal towns, and took over much of the plains; their influx was a major factor in the Arabization of the region, and in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had previously been dominant. The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


Soon after independence, the countries of North Africa established Arabic as their official language, replacing French (except in Libya), although the shift from French to Arabic for official purposes continues even to this day. As a result, most Berbers had to study and know Arabic, and had no opportunities to use their mother tongue at school or university. This may have accelerated the existing process of Arabization of Berbers, especially in already bilingual areas, such as among the Chaouis. Arabic redirects here. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ...


Berberism had its roots before the independence of these countries, but was limited to some Berber elite. It only began to gain success when North African states replaced the colonial language with Arabic and identified exclusively as Arab nations, downplaying or ignoring the existence and the cultural specificity of Berbers. However, its distribution remains highly uneven. In response to its demands, Morocco and Algeria have both modified their policies, with Algeria redefining itself constitutionally as an "Arab, Berber, Muslim nation". Berberism is a political and a social movement across North Africa among Berbers. ...


Currently, Berber is a "national" language in Algeria and is taught in some Berber speaking areas as a non-compulsory language. In Morocco, Berber has no official status, but is now taught as a compulsory language regardless of the area or the ethnicity.


Berbers are sometimes not discriminated against based on their ethnicity or mother tongue. As long as they share the reigning ideology, they can reach high positions in the social hierarchy; good examples are the former president of Algeria, Liamine Zeroual, and the current prime minister of Morocco, Driss Jettou. In Algeria, furthermore, Chaoui Berbers are over-represented in the Army for historical reasons. Liamine Zeroual (born 1941) is an Algerian general and political figure. ... Driss Jettou (Arabic: إدريس جطو) (born May 24, 1945 in El Jadida) is the Prime Minister of Morocco. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ...


Berberists who openly show their political orientations rarely reach high hierarchical positions. However, Khalida Toumi, a feminist and Berberist militant, has been nominated as head of the Ministry of Communication in Algeria. Berberism is a political and a social movement across North Africa among Berbers, Berberism aspires to the recognition of the Berber culture and its language(s), Berberists see Northwest Africans as principally Berbers whether they are Berber-speaking or Arabs-speaking as being Berbers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Modern-day Berbers

Berber village in the high Atlas in Morocco (Imlil valley)
Berber village in the high Atlas in Morocco (Imlil valley)

The Berbers live mainly in Morocco (between 90% of the population) and in Algeria (about 60% of the population), as well as Libya and Tunisia, though exact statistics are unavailable[3]; see Berber languages. Most North Africans who consider themselves Arab also have mainly Berber ancestry[4]. Prominent Berber groups include the Kabyles of northern Algeria, who number approximately 4 million and have kept, to a large degree, their original language and culture; and the Chleuh (francophone plural of Arabic "Shalh" and Tashelhiyt "ašəlḥi") of south Morocco, numbering about 8 million. Other groups include the Riffians of north Morocco, the Chaouia of Algeria, and the Tuareg of the Sahara. There are approximately 2.2 million Berber immigrants in Europe, especially the Riffians and the Kabyles in the Netherlands and France. Some proportion of the inhabitants of the Canary Islands are descended from the aboriginal Guanches--usually considered to have been Berber--among whom a few Canary Islander customs, such as the eating of gofio, originated. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 4813 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berber people User:Lviatour/Images/Morocco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 4813 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berber people User:Lviatour/Images/Morocco Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... Tashelhiyt (also Tashelhit or Shilha, native name: , French: tachelhit or chleuh, Arabic: تشلحيت) is the largest Berber language of Morocco both by number of speakers (between 8 and 10 million) and by the extent of its area. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in... Chaouia is the Zenati Berber language of the Chaoui people of eastern Algeria, around Batna and Khenchela. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Guanches (also: Guanchis or Guanchos) were the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands. ... Gofio is a flour made from roasted sweetcorn and other grains. ...

Distribution of Berbers in Northwest Africa
Distribution of Berbers in Northwest Africa

Although stereotyped in the West as nomads, most Berbers were in fact traditionally farmers, living in the mountains relatively close to the Mediterranean coast, or oasis dwellers; the Tuareg and Zenaga of the southern Sahara, however, were nomadic. Some groups, such as the Chaouis, practiced transhumance. Download high resolution version (605x615, 69 KB) Distrubutions of Berbers in Northwest Africa. ... Download high resolution version (605x615, 69 KB) Distrubutions of Berbers in Northwest Africa. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber - Zenaga Zenaga is a Berber language spoken by some 200 to 300 people between Mederdra and the Atlantic coast in southern Mauritania. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ...


Political tensions have arisen between some Berber groups (especially the Kabyle) and North African governments over the past few decades, partly over linguistic and cultural issues; for instance, in Morocco, giving children Berber names was banned. This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ...


Origin

Various disciplines shed light on the origin of the Berbers.


Archaeology

The Neolithic Capsian culture appeared in North Africa around 9,500 BC and lasted until possibly 2700 BC. Linguists and population geneticists alike have identified this culture as a probable period for the spread of an Afro-Asiatic language (ancestral to the modern Berber languages) to the area. The origins of the Capsian culture, however, are archeologically unclear. Some have regarded this culture's population as simply a continuation of the earlier Mesolithic Ibero-Maurusian culture, which appeared around ~22,000 BC, while others argue for a population change; the former view seems to be supported by dental evidence. [5] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Capsian culture (named after the town of Gafsa) was a Mesolithic culture of the Maghreb, which lasted from about 10000 BC to 6000 BC. It was concentrated mainly in modern Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, with some sites attested in Cyrenaica (Libya). ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ...


Physical Anthropology

"At best we can define Berbers as Mediterranean. In terms of physical anthropology they are more closely related to Egyptians, Sicilians and Spaniards than to Nigerians, Saudi Arabians, or Ethiopians... ."[17]. Languages French Occitan Greek Italian Portuguese Spanish Catalan Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Protestant Orthodox The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, following the publication of William Z. Ripleys... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Motto: لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله(Arabic) Lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadun rasÅ«lu-llāhi(transliteration) There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah Anthem: Aash Al Maleek Long live the King Capital (and largest city) Riyadh Official languages Arabic Government Absolute monarchy  -  King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz  -  Crown... The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Ityopiya, Amharic ኢትዮጵያ) is a country situated in the Horn of Africa. ...


There are also theories mixed with observations by acknowledged racists, now discredited by the scientific community, although once popular with the like-minded during the Nazi era, and earlier, which speculate about the Berber people of North Africa.[18]


Genetic evidence

In general, genetic evidence appears to indicate that most North Africans (whether they consider themselves Berber or Arab) are predominantly of Berber origin and that populations ancestral to the Berbers have been in the area since the Upper Paleolithic era. Berbers appear to be largely descended from a group or groups of people who expanded west from an eastern origin, along the southern rim of the Mediterranean sea, beginning perhaps as much as 50 000 years ago. Significant proportions of both the Berber and Arabized Berber gene pools also derive from more recent migration of various groups who have left their genetic footprints to varying degrees throughout the region. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... An Arabized Berber is an inhabitant of North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya) whose native language is Arabic. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ...


Y-chromosome DNA

Y chromosomes are passed exclusively through the paternal line.


Bosch et al. (2001), found little genetic distinction between Arabic-speaking and Berber-speaking populations in North Africa, which they take to support the interpretation of the Arabization and Islamization of northwestern Africa, starting with word-borrowing during the 7th century A.D. and through State Arabic Language Officialisation post independence in 1962, as cultural phenomena without extensive genetic replacement. According to this study the historical origins of the NW African Y-chromosome pool may be summarized as follows: 75% E1b1b (M78, M35, and M81) from the Upper Paleolithic , 13% J (J1-M267 and J2-M172) from the Neolithic, 4% historic European gene flow and 8% recent sub-Saharan African. They identify the "75% NW African Upper Paleolithic" E1b1b component as "an Upper Paleolithic colonization that probably had its origin in Eastern Africa", which further studies have narrowed down specifically to the Horn of Africa.[19][20] The North-west African population's 75% E1b1b Y chromosome genetic contribution from the Horn of Africa contrasted with a 78% contribution to the Iberian population from western Asia, suggests that the northern rim of the Mediterranean with the Strait of Gibraltar acted as a strong, albeit incomplete, barrier. However this study only analysed a small sample of Moroccan Y lineages. Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Islamization (also spelt Islamisation, see spelling differences) or Islamification means the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or a neologism meaning an increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Haplogroup J may refer to: Haplogroup J (mtDNA), a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup Haplogroup J (Y-DNA), a human Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroup Category: ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not considered part of North Africa. ... The Horn of Africa. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain...


A more recent and thorough study by Arredi et al. (2004) which analyzed five additional populations (Algerians and Tunisians) concludes that the North African pattern of Y-chromosomal variation (including both E1b1b and J haplogroups) is largely of Neolithic origin, which suggests that the Neolithic transition in this part of the world was accompanied by demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic–speaking pastoralists from the Middle East. This Neolithic origin was later confirmed by Myles et al. (2005) which "suggest that contemporary Berber populations possess the genetic signature of a past migration of pastoralists from the Middle East and that they share a dairying origin with Europeans and Asians, but not with sub-Saharan Africans". In human genetics, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ...


Cruciani et al. (2004) note that the E-M81 (E1b1b1b, formerly E3b1b, E3b2) haplogroup on the Y-chromosome, colloquially known as the "Berber marker", correlates closely with Berber populations.


Nebel et al. (2002) of the Hebrew University argue that J1-M267 rather reflects "recent gene flow caused by the migration of Arabian tribes in the first millennium of the Common Era(700-800 A.D)." According to Nebel, the indigenous population of the Maghrib, the Berbers, have always been a composite people. After the 8th century CE, a process of Arabization affected the bulk of the Berbers, while the Arab-Islamic culture and population absorbed local elements as well. Under the unifying framework of Islam, on the one hand, and as a result of the Arab settlement, on the other, a fusion took place that resulted in a new ethnocultural entity all over the Maghrib[21]. Another study on Haplogroup J (Semino et al. 2004) agrees with Nebel et al.'s suggestion that J1-M267 may have spread to North Africa in historic times (as identified by the motif YCAIIa22-YCAIIb22; Algerians 35.0%, Tunisians 30.1%), which they assume to be a marker of the Arab expansion in the early medieval period.[22]. This theory is disputed by Arredi et al. 2004, who argue like Bosch et al. 2001 that the J1-M267 haplogroup (formerly H71) and North African Y-chromosomal diversity indicate a Neolithic-era "demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic-speaking pastoralists from the Middle East." The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ...


Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNA, by contrast, is inherited only from the mother. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ...


According to Macaulay et al. 1999, "one-third of Mozabite Berber mtDNAs have a Near Eastern ancestry, probably having arrived in North Africa ∼50,000 years ago, and one-eighth have an origin in sub-Saharan Africa. Europe appears to be the source of many of the remaining sequences, with the rest having arisen either in Europe or in the Near East." [Maca-Meyer et al. 2003] analyze the "autochthonous North African lineage U6" in mtDNA, concluding that: The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ...


The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghreb returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghreb and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion.


A genetic study by Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. 2004 argues concerning certain exclusively North African haplotypes that "expansion of this group of lineages took place around 10,500 years ago in North Africa, and spread to neighbouring population", and apparently that a specific Northwestern African haplotype, U6, probably originated in the Near East 30,000 years ago but has not been highly preserved and accounts for 6-8% in southern Moroccan Berbers, 18% in Kabyles and 28% in Mozabites. Rando et al. 1998 (as cited by [6]) "detected female-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa to NW Africa" amounting to as much as 21.5% of the mtDNA sequences in a sample of NW African populations; the amount varied from 82% (Tuaregs) to 4% (Rifains). This north-south gradient in the sub-Saharan contribution to the gene pool is supported by Esteban et al. Nevertheless, individual Berber communities display a considerably high mtDNA heterogeneity among them. The Berbers of Jerba Island, located in South Eastern Tunisia, display an 87% Eurasian contribution with no U6 haplotypes[7], while the Kesra of Tunisia, for example, display a much higher proportion of typical sub-Saharan mtDNA haplotypes (49%, including 4.2% of M1 haplogroup) Cherni L, et al., as compared to the Zriba (8%). According to the article, "The North African patchy mtDNA landscape has no parallel in other regions of the world and increasing the number of sampled populations has not been accompanied by any substantial increase in our understanding of its phylogeography. Available data up to now rely on sampling small, scattered populations, although they are carefully characterized in terms of their ethnic, linguistic, and historical backgrounds. It is therefore doubtful that this picture truly represents the complex historical demography of the region rather than being just the result of the type of samplings performed so far." Additionally, recent studies have discovered a close mitochondrial link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia which confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated northern Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum and reveals a direct maternal link between those European hunter-gatherer populations and the Berbers. [8] [9] Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... RIF may refer to: Reading Is Fundamental, an organization promoting childrens literacy Reconnaissance in Force, a type of military operation used specifically to probe an enemys disposition Reduction in Force, a large-scale ending of employment Renju International Federation, Renju is the professional variant of board game Gomoku... Eurasian, also Euroasian or Euro-Asian can mean: Eurasian may be used as a slang term to refer to people of Asian decent, living in European countries who have no other traits of being Asian other then the fact that they look it. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ...


Linguistic

Main article: Berber languages

The Berber languages form a branch of Afro-Asiatic, and thus descended from the proto-Afro-Asiatic language; on the basis of linguistic migration theory, this is most commonly believed by historical linguists (notably Igor Diakonoff and Christopher Ehret) to have originated in east Africa no earlier than 12,000 years ago, although Alexander Militarev argues instead for an origin in the Middle East. Ehret specifically suggests identifying the Capsian culture with speakers of languages ancestral to Berber and/or Chadic, and sees the Capsian culture as having been brought there from the African coast of the Red Sea. It is still disputed which branches of Afro-Asiatic are most closely related to Berber, but most linguists accept at least one of Semitic and Chadic as among its closest relatives within the family (see Afro-Asiatic languages.) The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (Игорь Михайлович Дьяконов in Russian) (born December 30, 1914 in Petrograd) is a Russian historian who should be ranked among the greatest authorities on Ancient East and its languages. ... Christopher Ehret, Professor of African History at UCLA, is a major figure in African history and African historical linguistics, particularly known for his efforts to correlate linguistic taxonomy and reconstruction with the archeological record. ... The Chadic languages are a language family spoken across northern Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic and Cameroon, belonging to the Afro-Asiatic phylum. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ...


The Nobiin variety of Nubian contains several Berber loanwords, according to Bechhaus-Gerst, suggesting a former geographical distribution extending further southeast than the present. Nobiin is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum. ... The Nubian language group, according to the most recent research by Bechhaus-Gerst comprises the following varieties: Nobiin (previously known by the geographic terms Mahas or Fadicca/Fiadicca). ...


There are between 14 and 25 million speakers of Berber languages in North Africa (see population estimation), principally concentrated in Morocco and Algeria but with smaller communities as far east as Egypt and as far south as Burkina Faso.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


Their languages, the Berber languages, form a branch of the Afroasiatic linguistic family comprising many closely related varieties, including Tarifit, Kabyle and Tashelhiyt, with a total of roughly 35-40 million speakers. A frequently used generic name for all Berber languages is Tamazight. The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Tarifit is a Northern Berber language of the Zenati subgroup, spoken mainly in the Moroccan Rif by about 2 million people. ... Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle: ,  , pronounced ) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... Tashelhiyt (also Tashelhit or Shilha, native name: , French: tachelhit or chleuh, Arabic: تشلحيت) is the largest Berber language of Morocco both by number of speakers (between 8 and 10 million) and by the extent of its area. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


Ethnic groups

The Kabyles are a Berber people whose traditional homeland is highlands of Kabylie (or Kabylia) in northeastern Algeria. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ... The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. ...

Religions and beliefs

Main article: Berber beliefs

Berbers are mostly Sunni Muslim, while the Mozabites of the Saharan Mozabite Valley are mostly Ibadite. The Berber beliefs or the Amazigh beliefs are the beliefs of the indigenous people of North Africa called the berbers. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ... Panoramic view of Ghardaïa (Tagherdayt) with the dry bed of Wadi Mzab on the right side. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ...


Important Berbers in Islamic history

Yusuf ibn Tashfin

(c. 1061 - 1106) was the Berber Almoravid ruler in North Africa and Al-Andalus (Morrish Iberia). Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


He took the title of amir al-muslimin (commander of the Muslims) after visiting the Caliph of Baghdad 'amir al-moumineen" ("commander of the faithful")and officially receiving his support. He was either a cousin or nephew of Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar, the founder of the Almoravid dynasty. He united all of the Muslim dominions in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain) to the Kingdom of Morocco (circa 1090), after being called to the Al-Andalus by the Emir of Seville. Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar (died in 1087) (Arabic: أبو بكر بن عمر) was a Almoravid ruler. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ...


Yusuf bin Tashfin is the founder of the famous Moroccan city Marrakech (in Berber Murakush, corrupted to Morocco in English). He himself chose the place where it was built in 1070 and later made it the capital of his Empire. Until then the Almoravids had been desert nomads, but the new capital marked their settling into a more urban way of life. For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ...


Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart

(c. 1080 - c. 1130), was a Berber religious teacher and leader from the Masmuda tribe who spiritually founded the Almohad dynasty. He is also known as El-Mahdi (المهدي) in reference to his prophesied redeeming. In 1125 he began open revolt against Almoravid rule. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ...


The name "Ibn Tumart" comes from the Berber language and means "son of the earth." [23] Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


Tariq ibn Ziyad

(d. 720), known in Spanish history and legend as Taric el Tuerto (Taric the one-eyed), was a Berber Muslim and Umayyad general who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711. He is considered to be one of the most important military commanders in Spanish history. He was initially the deputy of Musa ibn Nusair in North Africa, and was sent by his superior to launch the first thrust of an invasion of the Iberian peninsula. Some claim that he was invited to intervene by the heirs of the Visigothic King, Wittiza, in the Visigothic civil war. Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Musa bin Nusair (640 - 716) was a Yemeni Muslim governor and general under the Umayyads. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Wittiza (Witiza) was son of Ergica, king of the Visigoths in Hispania, and ruled jointly with him from 693 to 701 CE. In the latter year Ergica died and Wittiza became sole ruler. ...


On April 29, 711, the armies of Tariq landed at Gibraltar (the name Gibraltar is derived from the Arabic name Jabal Tariq, which means mountain of Tariq, or the more obvious Gibr Al-Tariq, meaning rock of Tariq). Upon landing, Tariq is said to have burned his ships then made the following speech, well-known in the Muslim world, to his soldiers: is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Motto Nulli Expugnabilis Hosti(Latin) Conquered By No Enemy1 Anthem Gibraltar Anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Gibraltar Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of state Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor  -  Chief Minister Peter Caruana Q.C. Event Date   -  Captured 1704   -  Ceded 1713 (Treaty of...

أيّها الناس، أين المفر؟ البحر من ورائكم، والعدوّ أمامكم، وليس لكم والله إلا الصدق والصبر...
O People ! There is nowhere to run away! The sea is behind you, and the enemy in front of you: There is nothing for you, by God, except only sincerity and patience. (as recounted by al-Maqqari).

Abu l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Mahommed al-Maqqari (or Makkari) (c. ...

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta

(born February 24, 1304; year of death uncertain, possibly 1368 or 1377) was a Berber[24] Sunni Islamic scholar and jurisprudent from the Maliki Madhhab (a school of Fiqh, or Sunni Islamic law), and at times a Qadi or judge. However, he is best known as a traveler and explorer, whose account documents his travels and excursions over a period of almost thirty years, covering some 73,000 miles (117,000 km). These journeys covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world, extending from present-day West Africa to Pakistan, India, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia and China, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessor, near-contemporary Marco Polo. is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 20 July - Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... Explorer redirects here. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...


Abu Ya'qub Yusuf

(died on July 29, 1184) was the second Almohad caliph. He reigned from 1163 until 1184. He had the Giralda in Seville built. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For the food company, see Alimentos La Giralda. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ...


Abu Yaqub al-Mustansir Yusuf

Caliph of Morocco from 1213 until his death. Son of the previous caliph, Muhammad an-Nasir, Yusuf assumed the throne following his father's death, at the age of only 16 years. This is a partial list of Kings of Morocco. ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr), date of birth unknown. ...


Ziri ibn Manad

(d. 971), founder of the Zirid dynasty in the Maghreb. The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ...


Ziri ibn Manad was a clan leader of the Berber Sanhaja tribe who, as an ally of the Fatimids, defeated the rebellion of Abu Yazid (943-947). His reward was the governorship of the western provinces, an area that roughly corresponds with modern Algeria north of the Sahara. The Sanhaja (also commonly spelled Sanhadja) were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Abû Yazîd Mukhallad ibn Kayrâd (أبو يزيد مخلد بن كيراد), nicknamed Sâhib al-Himâr or Owner of the Donkey, was a Kharijite Berber who led a rebellion against the Fatimids in Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) starting in 944. ...


Muhammad Awzal

Muhammad ibn Ali Awzal or al-Awzali was a religious Berber poet. He is considered the most important author of the Tashelhiyt (southern Morocco Berber language) literary tradition. He was born around 1670 in the village of al-Qasaba in the region of Sous, Morocco and died in 1748/9 (1162 of the Egira). The first page of an 18th century Sous Berber manuscript of Muḥammad Awzals al-Ḥawḍ, part I (adapted from N. v. ... The first page of an 18th century Sous Berber manuscript of Muḥammad Awzals al-Ḥawḍ, part I (adapted from N. v. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Tashelhiyt (also Tashelhit or Shilha, native name: , French: tachelhit or chleuh, Arabic: تشلحيت) is the largest Berber language of Morocco both by number of speakers (between 8 and 10 million) and by the extent of its area. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... A solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a gold coin issued by the Romans. ... Aegira is also the older name of Lesbos Aigira or Aegira (Greek: Αιγείρα, older: Αίγειρα), also Egira, Eyira, Aiyira is a community located about 500 m SW of the Gulf of Corinth in the northeastern part of the prefecture of Achaea. ...


Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Jazuli al-Simlali

From the tribe of Jazulah which was settled in the Sus area of Morocco between the Atlantic Ocean and the Atlas Mountains. He is most famous for compiling the Dala'il al-Khayrat, an extremely popular Muslim prayer book. Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Jazuli (died 1465) was a Moroccan muslim of Berber origin who is most famous for compiling the Dalail ul Khairat, an extremely popular Muslim prayer book. ... SUS can refer to: Single UNIX Specification Microsoft Software Update Services State University System of Florida This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dalail al-Khayrat (meaning the Waymarks of Benefits) is a famous collection of prayers for Muhammad, which was written by the Moroccan Sufi and Islamic Scholar Muhammad al-Jazuli (died 1465). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Important Berbers in Christian history

Before adhering to Islam, most Berber groups were Christians, and a number of Berber theologians were important figures in the development of Western Christianity. In particular, the Berber Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. The 4th century Catholic (i.e. common or universal) Church viewed the Donatists as heretics and the dispute lead to a schism in the church dividing North African Christians.[25] The Romano-Berber theologian known as Augustine of Hippo (modern Chaoui city of Annaba, Algeria), who is recognized as a saint and a Doctor of the Church by Roman Catholicism and the Anglican Communion, was an outspoken opponent of Donatism.[26] Many believe that Arius, another early Christian theologian who was deemed a heretic by the catholic Church, was of Libyan and Berber descent. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Donatus Magnus (311?-355?) was the leader of the Donatists, a rigorist Early Christian sect in North Africa. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... A small beach in Annaba with the city skyline in background. ... Saints redirects here. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ...


Berber Jews

Main article: Berber Jews

Language(s) •Liturgical: Mizrahi Hebrew •Traditional: Judeo-Berber Modern: typically the language of whatever country they now reside in, including Modern Hebrew in Israel Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Jews Mizrahi Jews Sephardi Jews Other Jewish groups Berbers Berber Jews are the Berber Jewish communities inhabiting the region of...

Berber culture

Main articles: Berber music and Berber cuisine

The Berbers are an ethnic group in North and West Africa. ... The Berber cuisine is considered as a traditional cuisine which evolved little in the course of time. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Quotes

Of all the fathers of the church, St. Augustine was the most admired and the most influential during the Middle Ages... Augustine was an outsider - a native North African whose family was not Roman but Berber... He was a genius - an intellectual giant.[27]

Augustinus redirects here. ...

Famous Berbers

Main article: List of Berbers

This is a list of famous Berber people. ...

See also

Berbers Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kabyle_people. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ... RIF may refer to: Reading Is Fundamental, an organization promoting childrens literacy Reconnaissance in Force, a type of military operation used specifically to probe an enemys disposition Reduction in Force, a large-scale ending of employment Renju International Federation, Renju is the professional variant of board game Gomoku... The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... Guanches (also: Guanchis or Guanchos) were the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Tamazgha is a recent Tamazight neologism for the area more often known as the Maghreb or North Africa, covering the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Niger River, from the west bank of the Nile river to the Atlantic Ocean. ... The traditional Berber pantheon contains a variety of gods. ... The traditional Berber pantheon contains a variety of gods. ... Berberism is a political and a social movement across North Africa among Berbers. ... An Arabized Berber is an inhabitant of North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya) whose native language is Arabic. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Language(s) •Liturgical: Mizrahi Hebrew •Traditional: Judeo-Berber Modern: typically the language of whatever country they now reside in, including Modern Hebrew in Israel Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Jews Mizrahi Jews Sephardi Jews Other Jewish groups Berbers Berber Jews are the Berber Jewish communities inhabiting the region of... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ...

References

  • Arredi, Barbara, et al. (2004) "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics, 75: 338–345
  • Bosch, Elena, et al. (2001) "High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Variation Shows a Sharp Discontinuity and Limited Gene Flow between Northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula". American Journal of Human Genetics, 68: 1019–1029
  • Brett, Michael; & Fentress, Elizabeth (1997). The Berbers (The Peoples of Africa). ISBN 0-631-16852-4. ISBN 0-631-20767-8 (Pbk).
  • The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800 by Christopher Ehret
  • Egypt In Africa by Celenko
  • Stone Age Races of Northwest Africa by L. Cabot-Briggs
  • The people of Africa (People of the world series) by Jean Hiernaux
  • Britannica 2004
  • Encarta 2005
  • Blanc, S. H., Grammaire de la Langue Basque (d'apres celle de Larramendi), Lyons & Paris, 1854.
  • Cruciani, Fulvio, et al. (2004) "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E‐M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics, 74: 1014–1022
  • Entwhistle, W. J. The Spanish Language, (as cited in Michael Harrison's work, 1974.) London, 1936
  • Gans Eric Lawrence, The Origin of Language, Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, 1981.
  • Geze, L., Elements de Grammaire Basque, Beyonne, 1873.
  • Hachid, Malika, Les Premiers Berberes EdiSud, 2001
  • Hagan, Helene E., The Shining Ones: an Etymological Essay on the Amazigh Roots of Ancient Egyptian Civilisation. (XLibris, 2001)
  • Hagan, Helene E. Tuareg Jewelry: Traditional Patterns and Symbols, (XLibris, 2006)
  • Harrison, Michael, The Roots of Witchcraft, Citadel Press, Secaucus, N.J., 1974.
  • Hualde, J. I., Basque Phonology, Routledge, London & New York, 1991.
  • Martins, J. P. de Oliveira, A History of Iberian Civilization, Oxford University Press, 1930.
  • Myles, Sean, et al. (2005) "Genetic evidence in support of a shared Eurasian-North African dairying origin". Human Genetics 117 (1): 34-42
  • Nebel, Almut, et al. (2002) "Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa" (letter to the editor). American Journal of Human Genetics, 70: 1594–1596
  • Osborn, Henry Fairfield, Men of the Old Stone Age, New York, 1915-1923.
  • Renan, Ernest, De l'Origine du Langage, Paris, 1858; La Societe' Berbere, Paris, 1873.
  • Ripley, W. Z., The Races of Europe, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1899.
  • Ryan, William & Pitman, Walter, Noah's Flood: The new scientific discoveries about the event that changed history, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1998.
  • Saltarelli, M., Basque, Croom Helm, New York, 1988.
  • Semino, Ornella, et al. (2004) "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". American Journal of Human Genetics, 74: 1023–1034
  • Silverstein, Paul A. Algeria in France: Transpolitics, Race, and Nation, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 2004.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Brett, M.; Fentress, E.W.B. (1996). The Berbers. Blackwell Publishing. 
  2. ^ Maddy-weitzman, B. (2006). "Ethno-politics and globalisation in North Africa: The berber culture movement*". The Journal of North African Studies 11 (1): 71-84. doi:10.1080/13629380500409917. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  3. ^ Mohand Akli Haddadou, Le guide de la culture berbère, Paris Méditerranée, 2000, p.13-14
  4. ^ Brian M. Fagan, Roland Oliver, Africa in the Iron Age: C. 500 B.C. to A.D. 1400 p. 47
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library Publishing, 2005, v.3, p.569
  6. ^ Histoire de l'émigration kabyle en France au XXe siècleréalités culturelles ... De Karina Slimani-Direche
  7. ^ http://books.google.fr/books?id=7oIJeNasSw8C&pg=PA109&dq=massinissa+unificateur&sig=vhUBHBFLF9YIlNHxXjn779NbaPk
  8. ^ Les cultures du Maghreb De Maria Angels Roque, Paul Balta, Mohammed Arkoun
  9. ^ Histoire de l'émigration kabyle en France au XXe siècleréalités culturelles ... De Karina Slimani-Direche
  10. ^ Dialogues d'histoire ancienne De Université de Besançon, Centre de recherches d'histoire ancienne
  11. ^ Les cultures du Maghreb De Maria Angels Roque, Paul Balta, Mohammed Arkoun
  12. ^ Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale De Ibn Khaldūn, William MacGuckin
  13. ^ http://books.google.fr/books?id=H3RBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PR2&dq=in+khaldoun#PPR15,M1
  14. ^ http://books.google.fr/books?id=H3RBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PR115&dq=ibn+khaldoun#PPR10,M1
  15. ^ Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale De Ibn Khaldūn, William MacGuckin
  16. ^ Les langues de la Méditerranée De Robert Bistolfi
  17. ^ Michael Brett and Elizabeth Fentress, The Berbers (Blackwell 1997) at p.4, which is footnoted with the reference being to L. Cavalli Sforza, P. Menozzi and A. Piazza, History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton, N.J. 1994) at 158ff.
  18. ^ (a) Madison Grant: "The Berbers of north Africa to-day are racially identical with the Spaniards and south Italians and the ancient Egyptians" (Madison Grant The Passing of the Great Race, The mediterraneam Race, 1916); (b) Hans F.K. Günther: "In north Africa there are large areas with a predominantly Mediterranean population: the whole of the northern edge from Egypt to Morocco, and beyond Morocco a tract along the coast southwards and reaching over to the north-west African islands. The Spaniards have always been astonished at the likeness of their Berber foes in Morocco with themselves [...] Among the Berbers, particularly the Kabyles in the Riff and in the Aures range, a Nordic strain shows itself clearly, and in the Canary Islands there seems to be a strain of the Crô-magnon race" (Hans F.K. Günther,The racial elements of european history, Chapter VI Part Four, 1927): (c) Alfred Rosenberg: "The Berbers, among whom even today one finds light skins and blue eyes, do not go back to the Vandal invasions of the fifth century A.D., but to the prehistoric Atlantic Nordic (Aryan) human wave. The Kabyle huntsmen, for example, are to no small degree still wholly Nordic" (Alfred RosenbergThe Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1930);
  19. ^ [Sanchez et al., Y-Chromosome analysis of the Somali population suggests the origin of the haplogroup E3b1]
  20. ^ Cruciani et al., Human Y-chromosome haplogroup E3b in Africa: a phylogeographic study
  21. ^ Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa
  22. ^ Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J
  23. ^ Encyclopaedia of the Orient - Ibn Tumart
  24. ^ Ross E. Dunn, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta - A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century, University of California, 2004 ISBN 0520243854.
  25. ^ "The Donatist Schism. External History." History of the Christian Church, Volume III: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 311-600. [1]
  26. ^ Augustine's Letter to the Donatists (Letter 76).
  27. ^ Norman Cantor, The Civilization of the Middle Ages, Harper, 1993, p. 74

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The Encyclopedia Americana is the second largest printed general encyclopedia in the English language (after the Encyclopædia Britannica). ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Present Distribution of the European Races — Grants vision of the status quo, with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and the Mediterraneans in yellow. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hans_G%C3%BCnther. ... Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... The Myth of the Twentieth Century (Ger. ... Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada on November 19, 1929, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ...

External links

Berber Ethnic groups

Chaouis | Chenouas | Chleuhs | Kabyles | Mozabites | Rifains | Siwis | Tuareg The Journal of World History is the official journal of the World History Association. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ... The Chenouas are a Berber ethnic group living in Tipaza (Algeria). ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... The Siwis are a Berber ethnic group living in the Siwa Oasis. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m