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Encyclopedia > Berber
Berbers

Public domain image from [1]. Original source: Hundred Greatest Men, The. ... Image File history File links Image of Numidian king Masinissa on an ancient coin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Krim. ...

Total population: c. 22 million
Significant populations in: Morocco:
12,000,000

Algeria:
7,500,000
Tunisia:
   200,000
Libya:
   250,000+
Mauretania:
   80,000
Egypt:
   10,000
France:
   1,000,000
Spain:
   50,000
Israel:
   50,000
Mauretania was a Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Mauri tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria and northern Morocco. ...

Language: Berber (Tamazight)
Religion: Islam, Judaism, Christianity, atheism, Others
Related ethnic groups: Afro-Asiatic

  Semitic
The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Islām is described as a dīn, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ... Over at least the last two thousand years, Judaism has not been monolithic in practice, and has not had any centralized authority or binding dogma. ... The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... It has been suggested that Nontheism be merged into this article or section. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Semitic is a linguistic term referring to a subdivision of largely Middle Eastern Afro-Asiatic languages, the Semitic languages, as well as their speakers corresponding cultures, and ethnicities. ...

The Berbers (also called Imazighen, "free men", singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. There are between 14 and 25 million speakers of Berber languages in North Africa (see population estimation), principally concentrated in Morocco and Algeria but with smaller communities as far east as Egypt and as far south as Burkina Faso. A map showing Northwest Africa Northwest Africa is the northwestern part of Africa. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


Their languages, the Berber languages, form a branch of the Afroasiatic linguistic family comprising many closely related varieties, including Kabyle, Tashelhiyt, and Central Atlas Tamazight, with a total of roughly 14-25 million speakers. The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle taqbaylit, pronounced thaqvayleeth) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... Tashelhiyt (also Tashelhit or Shilha, native name: tašlḥiyt, French: tachelhit or chleuh, Arabic: تشلحيت) is the largest Berber language of Morocco both by number of speakers (between 8 and 10 million) and by the extent of its area. ...

Contents


Origin

There is no complete certitude about the origin of the Berbers; however, various disciplines shed light on the matter. However, no one seems to point out the clear east or central Asian characteristics of many. The European looking ones are slave decendents and are NOT from Africa. The (clearly) black ones are of course from Africa, but the Asian ones are the only mystery.


Genetic evidence

While population genetics is a young science still full of controversy, in general the genetic evidence appears to indicate that most northwest Africans (whether they consider themselves Berber or Arab) are predominantly of Berber origin, and that populations ancestral to the Berbers have been in the area since the Upper Paleolithic era. The genetically predominant ancestors of the Berbers appear to have come from East Africa, the Middle East, or both - but the details of this remain unclear. However, significant proportions of both the Berber and Arabized Berber gene pools derive from more recent migration of various Italic, Semitic, Germanic, and black sub-Saharan African peoples, all of whom have left their genetic footprints in the region. Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the five evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration and nonrandom mating. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... The Maghreb (المغرب العربي ; sometimes also rendered Moghreb), meaning western in Arabic, is the region of the continent of Africa north of the Sahara desert and west of the Nile — specifically, the modern countries of Morocco, Western Sahara (annexed and occupied by Morocco), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya — and to a much lesser extent... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... East Africa is a region generally considered to include: Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Somalia Tanzania Uganda Burundi, Rwanda, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, and Sudan are sometimes considered a part of East Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... An Arabized Berber is an inhabitant of North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya) whose native language is Arabic. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another. ... Italic can refer to: Italic languages Italic scripts Italic means Of or from Italy; the usage is most commonly restricted to talking about the people and languages of what is now Italy from the historic period before the Roman Empire. ... Semitic is a linguistic term referring to a subdivision of largely Middle Eastern Afro-Asiatic languages, the Semitic languages, as well as their speakers corresponding cultures, and ethnicities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A satellite composite image of Africa showing the ecological break between North and Sub-Saharan regions Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa or some areas of West Africa. ...


The Y chromosome is passed exclusively through the paternal line. According to Bosch et al. 2001, "the historical origins of the NW African Y-chromosome pool may be summarized as follows: 75% NW African Upper Paleolithic (H35, H36, and H38), 13% Neolithic (H58 and H71), 4% historic European gene flow (group IX, H50, H52), and 8% recent sub-Saharan African (H22 and H28)". They identify the "75% NW African Upper Paleolithic" component as "an Upper Paleolithic colonization that probably had its origin in eastern Africa." The North-west African population's 75% Y chromosome genetic contribution from East Africa contrasted with a 78% contribution to the Iberian population from western Asia, suggests that the northern rim of the Mediterranean with the Straight of Gibraltar acted as a strong, albeit incomplete, barrier (Bosch et al, 2001). The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos = new, lithos = stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ... A satellite composite image of Africa showing the ecological break between North and Sub-Saharan regions Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa or some areas of West Africa. ...


The interpretation of the second most frequent "Neolithic" haplotype is debated: Arredi et al. 2004, like Semino et al. 2000 and Bosch et al. 2001, argue that the H71 haplogroup and North African Y-chromosomal diversity indicate a Neolithic-era "demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic-speaking pastoralists from the Middle East", while Nebel et al. 2002 argue that H71 rather reflects "recent gene flow caused by the migration of Arabian tribes in the first millennium of the Common Era." Bosch et al. also find little genetic distinction between Arabic and Berber-speaking populations in North Africa, which they take to support the interpretation of the Arabization and Islamization of northwestern Africa, starting during the 7th century A.D., as cultural phenomena without extensive genetic replacement. Cruciani et al. 2004 note that the E-M81 haplogroup on the Y-chromosome correlates closely with Berber populations. A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The mtDNA, by contrast, is inherited only from the mother. According to Macaulay et al. 1999, "one-third of Mozabite Berber mtDNAs have a Near Eastern ancestry, probably having arrived in North Africa ∼50,000 years ago, and one-eighth have an origin in sub-Saharan Africa. Europe appears to be the source of many of the remaining sequences, with the rest having arisen either in Europe or in the Near East." [Maca-Meyer et al. 2003] analyze the "autochthonous North African lineage U6" in mtDNA, concluding that: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ...

The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion.

A genetic study by Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. 2004 argues concerning certain exclusively North African haplotypes that "expansion of this group of lineages took place around 10500 years ago in North Africa, and spread to neighbouring population", and apparently that a specific Northwestern African haplotype, U6, probably originated in the Near East 30,000 years ago but has not been highly preserved and accounts for 6-8% in southern Moroccan Berbers, 18% in Kabyles and 28% in Mozabites. Rando et al. 1998 (as cited by [1]) "detected female-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa to NW Africa" amounting to as much as 21.5% of the mtDNA sequences in a sample of NW African populations; the amount varied from 82% (Touaregs) to 4% (Rifains). This north-south gradient in the sub-Saharan contribution to the gene pool is supported by Esteban et al. This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... For the African ethnic group or nation see Tuareg. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river...


Archaeological

The Neolithic Capsian culture appeared in North Africa around 9,500 BC and lasted until possibly 2700 BC. Linguists and population geneticists alike have identified this culture as a probable period for the spread of an Afro-Asiatic language (ancestral to the modern Berber languages) to the area. The origins of the Capsian culture, however, are archeologically unclear. Some have regarded this culture's population as simply a continuation of the earlier Mesolithic Ibero-Maurusian culture, which appeared around ~22,000 BC, while others argue for a population change; the former view seems to be supported by dental evidence. [2] The Neolithic, (Greek neos = new, lithos = stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Capsian culture (named after the town of Gafsa) was a Neolithic culture of the Maghreb. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age) is the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. ...


Linguistic

The Berber languages form a branch of Afro-Asiatic, and thus descended from the proto-Afro-Asiatic language; on the basis of linguistic migration theory, this is most commonly believed by historical linguists (notably Igor Diakonoff and Christopher Ehret) to have originated in east Africa no earlier than 12,000 years ago, although Alexander Militarev argues instead for an origin in the Middle East. Ehret specifically suggests identifying the Capsian culture with speakers of languages ancestral to Berber and/or Chadic, and sees the Capsian culture as having been brought there from the African coast of the Red Sea. It is still disputed which branches of Afro-Asiatic are most closely related to Berber, but most linguists accept at least one of Semitic and Chadic as among its closest relatives within the family (see Afro-Asiatic languages#Classification history.) Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (Игорь Михайлович Дьяконов in Russian) (born December 30, 1914 in Petrograd) is a Russian historian who should be ranked among the greatest authorities on Ancient East and its languages. ... Christopher Ehret, Professor of African History at UCLA, is a major figure in African history and African historical linguistics, particularly known for his efforts to correlate linguistic taxonomy and reconstruction with the archeological record. ... The Chadic languages are a language family spoken across Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon, belonging to the Afro-Asiatic languages phylum; their best-known member is Hausa, the lingua franca of much of West Africa. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea (Arabic البحر الأحمر Baḥr al-Aḥmar, al-Baḥru l-’Aḥmar; Hebrew ים סוף Yam Suf; Tigrigna ቀይሕ ባሕሪ QeyH baHri) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ...


The Nobiin variety of Nubian contains several Berber loanwords, according to Bechhaus-Gerst, suggesting a former geographical distribution extending further southeast than the present. Nobiin is a Nubian language spoken along the banks of the Nile river in southern Egypt and northern Sudan by approximately 495 000 people. ... The Nubian language group, according to the most recent research by Bechhaus-Gerst comprises the following varieties: Nobiin (previously called Mahas or Fadicca/Fiadicca). ...


Phenotype and genotype by region

The appearance and the genetic make-up of Berbers is best examined together with that of their fellow Arabic-speaking inhabitants of North Africa; both share a predominant Berber ancestry. The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size or eye color, that varies between individuals. ... The genotype is the specific genetic makeup (the specific genome) of an individual, usually in the form of DNA. It codes for the phenotype of that individual. ...


Coastal Northwest Africans

Berber Kabyles in an MCB meeting
Berber Kabyles in an MCB meeting

About 75% of Northwest Africans live on the coast. Berber groups such as the Rifains and Kabyles have the least sub-Saharan admixture (~2%) and the highest European admixture (~15%); Arabic-speaking groups have about 7% sub-Saharan admixture overall. Berber groups in this zone include: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ...

  • Kabyles
  • Chawis
  • Rifains
  • Amazighs
  • Chenwas

Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ...

Northwest Africans of the interior

About 20% of Northwest Africans live between the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara; these groups have a moderate sub-Saharan admixture (~20%), including: The Atlas Mountains are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2400 km (1500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ...

The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ...

Saharan Northwest Africans

About 5% of Northwest Africans live in the Sahara; these groups have the highest West African admixture, sometimes reaching 80-90% among the Tuaregs. They include: For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...

  • Touaregs
  • Saharan Berbers, Oasis Berbers.

Religions and beliefs

Berbers are predominantly Sunni Muslim, most belonging to the Maliki madhhab, while the Mozabites, Djerbans, and Nafusis of the northern Sahara are Ibadi Muslim. Sufi tariqas are common in the western areas, but rarer in the east; marabout cults were traditionally important in most areas. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Maliki madhab (Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ... Djerba, or Jerba, is an island (the largest in Northern Africa) off the coast of Tunisia in the Gulf of Gabes. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... A marabout is a personal spiritual leader in the Islam faith as practiced in West Africa, and still to a limited extent in the Maghreb. ...


Before their conversion to Islam, some Berber groups had converted to Christianity (often Donatist) or Judaism, while others had continued to practice traditional polytheism. Under the influence of Islamic culture, some syncretic religions briefly emerged, as among the Berghouata, only to be replaced by Islam. The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Over at least the last two thousand years, Judaism has not been monolithic in practice, and has not had any centralized authority or binding dogma. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... Islām is described as a dīn, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ...


History

The Berbers have lived in North Africa between western Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean for as far back as records of the area go. References to them occur frequently in ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman sources. Berber groups are first mentioned in writing by the ancient Egyptians during the Predynastic Period, and during the New Kingdom the Egyptians later fought against the Meshwesh and Lebu (Libyans) tribes on their western borders. Many Egyptologists think that from about 945 BC the Egyptians were ruled by Meshwesh immigrants who founded the Twenty-second Dynasty under Shoshenq I, beginning a long period of Berber rule in Egypt, although others posit different origins for these dynasties, including Nubian ones. They long remained the main population of the Western Desert - the Byzantine chroniclers often complained of the Mazikes (Amazigh) raiding outlying monasteries there. ... The Predynastic period of Egypt is the period that culminates in the rise of the Old Kingdom and the first of the thirty dynasties based on royal residences, by which Egyptologists divide the history of Pharaonic civilization, using a schedule laid out first by Manethos Aegyptaica. ... The New Kingdom is the period in Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan (i. ... This article is on the social structure. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC - 940s BC - 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC Events and Trends 947 BC - Death of Zhou mo wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Second Dynasty. ... nomen or birth name Shoshenq I (Egyptian Å¡Å¡nq), also known as Sheshonk I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


For many centuries the Berbers inhabited the coast of North Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, the coastal regions of North Africa saw a long parade of invaders and colonists including Phoenicians (who founded Carthage), Greeks (mainly in Libya), Romans, Vandals and Alans, Byzantines, Arabs, Ottomans, and the French and Spanish. Most if not all of these invaders have left some imprint upon the modern Berbers as have slaves brought from throughout Europe (some estimates place the number of Europeans brought to North Africa during the Ottoman period as high as 1.25 million)[3] and sub-Saharan Africa have also left impressions upon the local populations. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... The Alans or Alani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...


In historical times, the Berbers expanded south into the Sahara (displacing earlier black African populations such as the Azer and Bafour), and have in turn been mainly culturally assimilated in much of North Africa by Arabs, particularly following the incursion of the Banu Hilal in the 11th century. This page has been deleted, and should not be re-created. ... The Bafours were the original inhabitants of Mauritania, and the ancestors to the Soninke tribe. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ...


The areas of North Africa which retained the Berber language and traditions have, in general, been those least exposed to foreign rule - in particular, the highlands of Kabylie and Morocco, most of which even in Roman and Ottoman times remained largely independent, and where the Phoenicians never even penetrated beyond the coast. However, even these areas have been affected by some of the many invasions of North Africa, most recently including the French. Another major source of foreign influence, particularly in the Sahara, was the slave trade routes from West Africa. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Berbers and the Islamic conquest

Unlike the conquests of previous religions and cultures, the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabs, was to have pervasive and long-lasting effects on the Maghrib. The new faith, in its various forms, would penetrate nearly all segments of society, bringing with it armies, learned men, and fervent mystics, and in large part replacing tribal practices and loyalties with new social norms and political idioms. Islām is described as a dīn, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ...


Nonetheless, the Islamization and Arabization of the region were complicated and lengthy processes. Whereas nomadic Berbers were quick to convert and assist the Arab conquerors, not until the twelfth century under the Almohad Dynasty did the Christian and Jewish communities become totally marginalized. The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי transliterated: Yehudi) is used in many ways but generally refers to a follower of Judaism, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of these attributes. ...


The first Arab military expeditions into the Maghrib, between 642 and 669, resulted in the spread of Islam. These early forays from a base in Egypt occurred under local initiative rather than under orders from the central caliphate. When the seat of the caliphate moved from Medina to Damascus, however, the Umayyads (a Muslim dynasty ruling from 661 to 750) recognized that the strategic necessity of dominating the Mediterranean dictated a concerted military effort on the North African front. In 670, therefore, an Arab army under Uqba ibn Nafi established the town of Al Qayrawan about 160 kilometers south of present-day Tunis and used it as a base for further operations. Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... Events Theodore appointed Archibishop of Canterbury Births Justinian II, Byzantine emperor Deaths Hasan ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad and second Shia Imam Categories: 669 ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Uqba ibn Nafi (d. ... Kairouan (Kairwan, Al Qayrawan) is a city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ...


Abu al Muhajir Dinar, Uqba's successor, pushed westward into Algeria and eventually worked out a modus vivendi with Kusayla, the ruler of an extensive confederation of Christian Berbers. Kusayla, who had been based in Tilimsan (Tlemcen), became a Muslim and moved his headquarters to Takirwan, near Al Qayrawan. Tlemcen (Arabic: تلمسان) is a town in Northwestern Algeria, and the seat of government for the wilaya of the same name. ...


This harmony was short-lived, however. Arab and Berber forces controlled the region in turn until 697. By 711 Umayyad forces helped by Berber converts to Islam had conquered all of North Africa. Governors appointed by the Umayyad caliphs ruled from Al Qayrawan, capital the new wilaya (province) of Ifriqiya, which covered Tripolitania (the western part of present-day Libya), Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. Events End of the reign of Empress Jito of Japan Emperor Mommu ascends to the throne of Japan Approximate date of the Council of Birr, when the northern part of Ireland accepted the Roman calculations for celebrating Easter. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Kairouan (Kairwan, Al Qayrawan) is a city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ...


Paradoxically, the spread of Islam among the Berbers did not guarantee their support for the Arab-dominated caliphate. The ruling Arabs alienated the Berbers by taxing them heavily; treating converts as second-class Muslims; and, at worst, by enslaving them. As a result, widespread opposition took the form of open revolt in 739-40 under the banner of Kharijite Islam. The Kharijites objected to Ali, the fourth caliph, making peace with the Umayyads in 657 and left Ali's camp (khariji means "those who leave"). The Kharijites had been fighting Umayyad rule in the East, and many Berbers were attracted by the sect's egalitarian precepts. For example, according to Kharijism, any suitable Muslim candidate could be elected caliph without regard to race, station, or descent from the Prophet Muhammad. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ...


After the revolt, Kharijites established a number of theocratic tribal kingdoms, most of which had short and troubled histories. Others, however, like Sijilmasa and Tilimsan, which straddled the principal trade routes, proved more viable and prospered. In 750 the Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers, moved the caliphate to Baghdad and reestablished caliphal authority in Ifriqiya, appointing Ibrahim ibn al Aghlab as governor in Al Qayrawan. Although nominally serving at the caliph's pleasure, Al Aghlab and his successors, the Aghlabids, ruled independently until 909, presiding over a court that became a center for learning and culture. Sijilmasa (or Sijilmassa) was a mediaeval trade centre in the western Maghreb. ... Tlemcen (Arabic: تلمسان) is a town in Northwestern Algeria, and the seat of government for the wilaya of the same name. ... Kairouan (Kairwan, Al Qayrawan) is a city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ... The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ...


Just to the west of Aghlabid lands, Abd ar Rahman ibn Rustam ruled most of the central Maghrib from Tahert, southwest of Algiers. The rulers of the Rustamid imamate, which lasted from 761 to 909, each an Ibadi Kharijite imam, were elected by leading citizens. The imams gained a reputation for honesty, piety, and justice. The court at Tahert was noted for its support of scholarship in mathematics, astronomy, and astrology, as well as theology and law. The Rustamid imams, however, failed, by choice or by neglect, to organize a reliable standing army. This important factor, accompanied by the dynasty's eventual collapse into decadence, opened the way for Tahert's demise under the assault of the Fatimids. The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Tahert (aka Tiaret or Tihert, the Berber for station) is the name of a large Algerian town, one that gives its name to the wider farming region of Wilaya de Tiaret province in central Algeria. ... Map of Algeria showing Algiers province Algiers (French Alger, (Arabic: ولاية الجزائر) El-Jazair, The Islands) is the capital and largest city of Algeria in North Africa. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Tahert (aka Tiaret or Tihert, the Berber for station) is the name of a large Algerian town, one that gives its name to the wider farming region of Wilaya de Tiaret province in central Algeria. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ...


Berbers in Al-Andalus

The Muslims who entered Iberia in 711 were mainly Berbers, and were led by a Berber, Tariq ibn Ziyad, though under the suzerainty of the Arab Caliph of Damascus Abd al-Malik and his North African Viceroy, Musa ibn Nusayr. A second mixed army of Arabs and Berbers came in 712 under Ibn Nusayr himself, and are claimed to have formed approximately 66% of the Islamic population in Iberia, and supposedly that is the reason why they helped the Umayyad caliph Abd ar-Rahman I in Al-Andalus, because his mother was a Berber woman. During the Taifa era, the petty kings came from a variety of ethnic groups; some - for instance the Zirid kings of Granada - were of Berber origin. The Taifa period ended when a Berber dynasty - the Almoravids from modern-day Western Sahara and Mauritania - took over Al-Andalus; they were succeeded by the Almohad dynasty from Morocco, during which time al-Andalus flourished. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Musa bin Nusair (640 - 716) was a Yemeni Muslim governor and general under the Umayyads. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd ar-Rahman I (ruled 756-788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain for nearly three centuries. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Spain (Arabic: Al-Andalus) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


In the power hierarchy, Berbers were situated between the Arabic aristocracy and the Muladi populace. Ethnic rivalries were one of the factors of Andalusi politics.


Initially they settled the Cantabric Mounts, the Central System and the Andalusian mountains. Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87 268 km²  17,2% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 1st  7 478 432  17,9%  85,70...


After the fall of the Caliphate, the taifa kingdoms of Toledo, Badajoz, Málaga and Granada had Berber rulers. This article is about the city in Spain named Toledo. ... Badajoz (formerly Badajos), the capital of the Spanish province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, is situated close to the Portuguese frontier, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway. ... Málaga is a port city in Andalucia, southern Spain, on the Costa del Sol coast of the Mediterranean. ...


Modern-day Berbers

Distribution of Berbers in Northwest Africa
Distribution of Berbers in Northwest Africa

The Berbers live mainly in Morocco (between 35%- 80% of the population) and in Algeria (about 15%-33% of the population), as well as Libya and Tunisia, though exact statistics are unavailable[4]; see Berber languages. Most North Africans who consider themselves Arab also have significant Berber ancestry[5]. Prominent Berber groups include the Kabyles of northern Algeria, who number approximately 4 million and have kept, to a large degree, their original language and culture; and the Chleuh (francophone plural of Arabic "Shalh" and Tashelhiyt "ašəlḥi") of south Morocco, numbering about 8 million. Other groups include the Riffians of north Morocco, the Chaouia of Algeria, and the Tuareg of the Sahara. There are approximately 3 million Berber immigrants in Europe, especially the Riffians and the Kabyles in the Netherlands and France. Some proportion of the inhabitants of the Canary Islands are descended from the aboriginal Guanches - usually considered to have been Berber - among whom a few Canary Islander customs, such as the eating of gofio, originated. Download high resolution version (605x615, 69 KB) Distrubutions of Berbers in Northwest Africa. ... Download high resolution version (605x615, 69 KB) Distrubutions of Berbers in Northwest Africa. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... Tashelhiyt (also Tashelhit or Shilha, native name: taÅ¡lḥiyt, French: tachelhit or chleuh, Arabic: تشلحيت) is the largest Berber language of Morocco both by number of speakers (between 8 and 10 million) and by the extent of its area. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in... Chaouia is the Zenati Berber language of the Chaoui people of eastern Algeria, around Batna and Khenchela. ... For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Guanches (also: Guanchis or Guanchos) were the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands. ... Gofio is a flour made from roasted sweetcorn and other grains. ...


Although stereotyped in the West as nomads, most Berbers were in fact traditionally farmers, living in the mountains relatively close to the Mediterranean coast, or oasis dwellers; the Tuareg and Zenaga of the southern Sahara, however, were nomadic. Some groups, such as the Chaouis, practiced transhumance. For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber - Zenaga Zenaga is a Berber language spoken by some 200 to 300 people between Mederdra and the Atlantic coast in southern Mauritania. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ...


Political tensions have arisen between some Berber groups (especially the Kabyle) and North African governments over the past few decades, partly over linguistic and cultural issues; for instance, in Morocco, giving children Berber names was banned. This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ...


The Arabization of Northwest Africa

Before the 9th century, most of Northwest Africa was a Berber-speaking area. The process of Arabization only became a major factor with the arrival of the Banu Hilal, a tribe sent by the Fatimids of Egypt to punish the Berber Zirid dynasty for having abandoned Shiism. The Banu Hilal reduced the Zirids to a few coastal towns, and took over much of the plains; their influx was a major factor in the Arabization of the region, and in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had previously been dominant. The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


Soon after independence, the countries of North Africa established Arabic as their official language, replacing French (except in Libya), although the shift from French to Arabic for official purposes continues even to this day. As a result, most Berbers had to study and know Arabic, and had no opportunities to use their mother tongue at school or university. This may have accelerated the existing process of Arabization of Berbers, especially in already bilingual areas, such as among the Chaouis. Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in a country, state, or other territory. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ...


Berberism had its roots before the independance of these countries but was limited to some Berber elite. It only began to gain success when North African states replaced the colonial language with Arabic and identified exclusively as Arab nations, downplaying or ignoring the existence and the cultural specificity of Berbers. However, its distribution remains highly uneven. In response to its demands, Morocco and Algeria have both modified their policies, with Algeria redefining itself constitutionally as an "Arab, Berber, Muslim nation". Berberism is a political and a social movement across North Africa among Berbers. ...


Currently, Berber is a "national" language in Algeria and is taught in some Berber speaking areas as a non-compulsory language. In Morocco, Berber has no official status, but is now taught as a compulsory language regardless of the area or the ethnicity.

Liamine Zeroual, Former President of Algeria
Liamine Zeroual, Former President of Algeria

Berbers are not discriminated based on their Ethnic or mother tongue. As long as they share the reigning ideology they can reach high positions in the social hierarchy; good examples are the former president of Algeria, Liamine Zeroual, and the current prime minister of Morocco, Driss Jettou. In Algeria, furthermore, Chaoui Berbers are over-represented in the Army for historical reasons. Limamine Zeroual File links The following pages link to this file: Berber Liamine Zéroual ... Limamine Zeroual File links The following pages link to this file: Berber Liamine Zéroual ... Liamine Zeroual (born 1941) is an Algerian general and political figure. ... Moroccan Prime Minister Driss Jettou Driss Jettou (born May 24, 1945) is the Prime Minister of Morocco. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ...


Berberists who openly show their political orientations rarely reach high hierarchical positions. However, Khalida Toumi, a feminist and Berberist militant, has been nominated as head of the Ministry of Communication in Algeria. Berberism is a political and a social movement across North Africa among Berbers, Berberism aspires to the recognition of the Berber culture and its language(s), Berberists see Northwest Africans as principally Berbers whether they are Berber-speaking or Arabs-speaking as being Berbers. ... Khalida Toumi (Also known as Khalida Messaoudi) is an Algerian feminist woman born in 13 March 1958 at Ain Bessem, Kabylie, in the north of Algeria. ...


Famous Berbers

In ancient times

nomen or birth name Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Sheshonk I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Pharaoh (Hebrew פַּרְעֹה (without niqqud: פרעה), Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh, Arabic فرعون) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... Masinissa, King of Numidia Masinissa (c. ... Numidia was an ancient African Berber kingdom and later a Roman province on the northern coast of Africa between the province of Africa (where Tunisia is now) and the province of Mauretania (which is now the western part of Algerias coastal area). ... Jugurtha, (c. ... Numidia was an ancient African Berber kingdom and later a Roman province on the northern coast of Africa between the province of Africa (where Tunisia is now) and the province of Mauretania (which is now the western part of Algerias coastal area). ... Juba II Juba II of Numidia (52 BC - 23 AD) was the husband of Cleopatra Selene, the daughter of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. ... Numidia was an ancient African Berber kingdom and later a Roman province on the northern coast of Africa between the province of Africa (where Tunisia is now) and the province of Mauretania (which is now the western part of Algerias coastal area). ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... The Aur s Mountains also known as the Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas Mountains. ... St. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called Phoenicia /Canaan (now Lebanon, coastal Syria and northern Israel ). Phoenician is a Semitic language of the Canaanite subgroup, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Saint Monica of Hippo (333 - 387) is a Christian saint and mother of Saint Augustine. ... Arius (AD 256 - 336, poss. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Donatus Magnus (?-355?) was a bishop of the city of Carthage in north Africa. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ...

In medieval times

Kahina, also known as Dihya, Kahya, or al-Kahina was a Berber queen and military leader of the late 600s. ... al-Kāhinah (Classical Arabic for female seer or priest), also known as Dihya, Kahya, modern Maghrebin Arabic l-Kahna and commonly romanised as Kahina, was a female Berber religious and military leader of the late 600s who led indigenous resistance to the Arabization and Islamisation of the Maghreb (Northwest... Sâlih ibn Tarîf (Arabic صالح بن طريف) was the second king of the Berghouata, and proclaimed himself a prophet of a new religion. ... The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart (c. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Yusuf ibn Tashfin يوسف ابن تاشفين or Tashufin (died in 1106), was the Almoravid ruler in Muslim Spain and North Africa. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Ibn Battuta (1304-1377). ... Events 20 July - Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Events January 17 – Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Antonio de Abreu (16th century Portuguese explorer of Indonesia) Charles Albanel (1616-1696), Canada Afonso de Albuquerque (16th century... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Abu Yaqub Yusuf or Yusuf I (died on July 29, 1184), was the second Almohad caliph. ... The Giralda The Giralda is a former Almohad minaret converted to a bell tower in Seville, Spain. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, crossed by the river Guadalquivir (37° 22′38″N, 5° 59′13″W). ... Yusuf II (also Yusuf al-Mustansir, 1197 - 1224) was Caliph of Morocco from 1213 until his death. ... The Torre del Oro at night The Torre del Oro or Tower of the Gold is a military watchtower built in Seville, Spain during the Almohad dynasty in order to control access to the city via the Guadalquivir river. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, crossed by the river Guadalquivir (37° 22′38″N, 5° 59′13″W). ... Ziri ibn Manad (d. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... Kairouan (Kairwan, Al Qayrawan) is a city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ... The first page of an 18th century Sous Berber manuscript of Muḥammad Awzals al-Ḥawḍ, part I (adapted from N. v. ... Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Jazuli (died 1465) was a Moroccan muslim of Berber origin who is most famous for compiling the Dalail ul Khairat, an extremely popular Muslim prayer book. ... BismillahirRahmanirRahim Dalail ul Khairat is a famous collection of prayers for the Prophet Muhammad, which was written by the Moroccan Muhammad al-Jazuli (died 1465). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...

In modern times

Kabyles

This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ...

Politicians

Saïd Sadi Saïd Sadi (born 26 August 1947 in Aghribs, near Azazga) is an Algerian psychiatrist and Berber nationalist. ... Hocine Aït Ahmed Hocine Ait Ahmed (born 20 August 1926 in Ain El Hammam, Kabylie) is an Algerian politician. ... Sidi Said Sidi Said, Leader of the Algerian syndicat of workers : UGTA. Categories: People stubs ... Khalida Toumi (Also known as Khalida Messaoudi) is an Algerian feminist woman born in 13 March 1958 at Ain Bessem, Kabylie, in the north of Algeria. ... Ahmed Ouyahya Ahmed Ouyahia (born July 2, 1952) is the Prime Minister of Algeria. ... The Prime Minister is the head of government of Algeria. ... Belaïd abrika Belaïd Abrika is one of the spokesmen of the Arouch, a protest movement in the region of Kabylie in Algeria. ... The Berber Arouch Citizens Movement, or simply Arouch, is an organization representing Algerian Berbers. ... Chanteur kabyle très célèbre en Algérie, Ferhat Mehenni a fondé en août 2001 le MAK (Mouvement pour l’autonomie de la Kabylie), qui a fait de la défense des intérêts kabyles sa priorité et revendique une autonomie de type espagnol. ... Amirouche Amirouche was born in 1926 in a small locality of Djurdjura kabylie, Algeria; he organized the maquis of the wilaya III Kabylie. ...

Figures of the Algerian resistance and revolution

Abane Ramdane Abane Ramdane was an Algerian revolutionarist born in Kabylie, He was the architect of the Soummam platform in 1956. ... Krim Belkacem Krim Belkacem (September 14, 1922 - October 18, 1970) was an Algerian revolutionary fighter and politician. ... Amirouche Amirouche was born in 1926 in a small locality of Djurdjura kabylie, Algeria; he organized the maquis of the wilaya III Kabylie. ... This article needs translation. ... Kabylie is a mountainous area in the north of Algeria. ...

Artists
  • Takfarinas - Kabyle singer
  • Ait Menguellet - Kabyle singer
  • Khalid Izri - Singer from Rif
  • Lounes Matoub, Berberist and secularist singer assassinated in 1998.
  • Idir - Kabyle singer
  • Sliman Azem - singer
  • Si Mohand, Kabyle folk poet.
  • Aît Ouarab Mohamed Idir Halo (Al Anka), Chaabi Singer in Both Kabyle and Algerian Arabic.
  • Karim Ziad - singer
  • El Hachemi Guerouabi, Chaabi Singer from Mostaghanem, North of algéria.

Lounes Matoub is a famous Kabyle singer who supported the Berber cause and secularism in Algeria during all his life. ... Berberism is a political and a social movement across North Africa among Berbers, Berberism aspires to the recognition of the Berber culture and its language(s), Berberists see Northwest Africans as principally Berbers whether they are Berber-speaking or Arabs-speaking as being Berbers. ... // Biography: Idir Idir was born in 1949 at Aït Lahcène a Berber village in Haute-Kabylia. ... Chaabi is the popular music of North Africa. ... Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle taqbaylit, pronounced thaqvayleeth) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ... Chaabi is the popular music of North Africa. ...

Writers
  • Mouloud Feraoun, writer assassinated by the OAS.
  • Tahar Djaout, writer and journalist assassinated by the GIA in 1993.
  • Salem Chaker, Berberist, linguist, cultural and political activist, writer, and director of Berber at the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales in Paris

Mouloud Feraoun (1913 - 1962) was an Algerian writer born in Tizi Hibel, Kabylie. ... OAS can stand for: Organization of American States Organisation de larmée secrète This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tahar Djaout (1954-1993) was an Algerian journalist and fiction writer. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ...

Sport

Zinedine Zidane playing for Real Madrid Zinédine Yazid Zidane (born June 23, 1972, in Marseille, France), nicknamed Zizou, is a French football player for Real Madrid and formerly France. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Asian Football Confederation (AFC) Confederation of African Football (CAF) Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) The Current Laws of the Game (LOTG) The Rec. ...

Others

  • Abd el-Krim, leader of the Rif guerrillas against the Spanish and French colonizers.
  • Walid Mimoun - Protest Singer from Rif
  • Ali Lmrabet, Moroccan journalist.
  • Kateb Yacine, Algerian Writer.
  • Mohamed Choukri (famous writer)
  • Liamine Zeroual, President of Algeria between 1994-1999.
  • Mohamed Chafik
  • Abdallah Oualline Berber Warrior & freedom fighter. Fought against the Spanish occupation in Ait Baamrane, south of Agadir.
  • Driss Jettou, Prime Minister of Morocco
  • Didouche Mourad
  • Cherif Khedam - composer
  • Cheikh El Hasnaoui - singer
  • Abdallah Nihrane -Scientific Investigator, Assistant Professor, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York USA
  • Tinariwen - critically acclaimed band of Tuareg musicians
  • M. Toufali - Writer and composer from the Rif (Melilla)

Time Magazine, August 17, 1925 Abd el-Krim (c. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river... Kateb Yacine (1929 - 1989) was an Algerian writer. ... Liamine Zeroual (born 1941) is an Algerian general and political figure. ... Moroccan Prime Minister Driss Jettou Driss Jettou (born May 24, 1945) is the Prime Minister of Morocco. ... The Prime Minister is the head of the government of Morocco. ... Tinariwen (Tamashek for empty places) is a musical band formed in 1982 in Moammar al-Qadhafis camps of Tuareg rebels. ... For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...

Famous people who were either Berber or Punic

Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Punic (from Latin pÅ«nicus) was a Latin version of the term Phoenician. (After the Punic Wars, Romans used this term as an adjective meaning treacherous.) In archaeological and linguistic usage, it refers to the Greco-Roman era culture and dialect of Carthage and its empire as distinct from their... Leptis Magna, or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled, was a prominent city of the republic of Carthage, and later, of the Roman Empire. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria, between the Lebanon Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea. ... Caracalla Caracalla (April 4, 186–April 8, 217) was emperor of the Roman Empire from AD 211–217. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ... The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... Martyrdom is a form of religious persecution. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... Saint Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) (died September 14, 258) bishop of Carthage and an important early Christian writer, was born probably at the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage, where he received an excellent pagan education; having converted to Christianity, he became a Bishop (249... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ...

Famous people who may have had some Berber ancestors

Nearly all North Africans - and many Andalusi Moors - fall and fell into this category, but do not in general identify themselves as Berber. For lists of them, look under the respective countries. The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. // Origins of the name The name derives from the old tribe of the Mauri and their kingdom, Mauretania. ...


See also

Kabylie is a mountainous area in the north of Algeria. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river... The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans till the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... Tamazgha is a recent Tamazight neologism for the area more often known as the Maghreb or North Africa, covering the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Niger River, from the west bank of the Nile river to the Atlantic Ocean. ... The traditional Berber pantheon contains a variety of gods. ...

References

  • Brett, Michael; & Fentress, Elizabeth (1997). The Berbers (The Peoples of Africa). ISBN 0631168524. ISBN 0631207678 (Pbk).
  • The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800 by Christopher Ehret
  • Egypt In Africa by Celenko
  • Stone Age Races of Northwest Africa by L. Cabot-Briggs
  • The people of Africa (People of the world series) by Jean Hiernaux
  • Britannica 2004
  • Encarta 2005

External links


Berber Ethnic groups

Chaouis | Chenouas | Chleuhs | Kabyles | Mozabites | Rifains | Siwis | Tuareg Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures External links chawinet. ... The Chenouas are a Berber ethnic group living in Tipaza (Algeria). ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... The Siwis are a Berber ethnic group living in the Siwa Oasis. ... For other uses, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...


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Berber@Everything2.com (1402 words)
Berber protests have had limited success, but they have at least led to the introduction of formal teaching of Berber in some Moroccan and Algerian schools and universities.
The Berber language is known as "Berber" to Europeans and as "Shilha" to Arabs, while the Berbers themselves call their language Tamazight (the "gh" in the words Tamazight and Amazigh is pronounced as a sharp "r").
Instead, the Berbers have tended to assimilate the culture and adopt the written language of their conquerors - initially Phoenician, Greek and Latin, later Arabic - while continuing to speak spoken Berber among themselves.
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Berber carpet was named after a handmade, bulky textured wool floorcovering made by a tribe of the same name located in a region of North Africa.
Berber carpet is a term used today to describe any broadloom that has the natural off-white, heathered look of the cloaks used by these same tribespeople.
Berbers unique patterning lends itself to a more attractive dimensional design statement and the random effects are quite effective in hiding soiling and tracking.
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