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Encyclopedia > Berakot

Berakhot (Hebrew: ברכות, "Benedictions") is the first masekhet ("tractate") of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah, the first major text of Jewish law. It primarily addresses the rules regarding the Shema, the Amidah, Birkat Hamazon ("Grace after Meals"), Kiddush ("Sanctification"), Havdalah ("Separation") and other blessings and prayers. It is the only tractate in Zeraim to have a Gemara ("Completion") from both the Babylonian Talmud and the Jerusalem Talmud. Hebrew redirects here. ... Zeraim (זרעים) is the first Order of the Mishnah (and Tosefta and Talmud). ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esreh (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Birkat Hamazon (ברכת המזון), known in English as the Grace After Meals (lit. ... Shabbat, or Shabbos (Ashkenazic pronunciation) (שבת shabbāṯ, rest), is a day of rest that is observed once a week, from sundown on Friday until nightfall on Saturday, by practitioners of Judaism, as well as by many secular Jews. ... Havdalah, also spelled Habdalah or Havdala, is a Jewish ceremony that formally concludes the Shabbat (weekly day of rest) and Yom Tov (Jewish holidays). ... The Gemara (גמרא - from gamar: Hebrew [to] complete; Aramaic [to] study) is a component of the Talmud, comprising the rabbinical commentaries and analysis on the Mishnah, undertaken in the Academies of Palestine and Babylon over a 300 year period to about 500. ... The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ...

The first page of the tractate
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The first page of the tractate

Contents

The Shema Yisrael

The first three chapters of the tractate address the subject of the Shema, the central prayer of Judaism which is to be said twice per day. Topics discussed include when to say it, how to say it and possible exemptions from the fulfillment of this mitzvah ("commandment").


Saying the Shema

The two mishnayot of the tractate address the subject of precisely when one should say the Shema as the Torah states in (Deut. 6:7) "when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." As the passage indicates that it should be said twice a day, once in the evening and once in the morning, the first two mishnayot (sections) discuss when exactly those two times are. In the case of the evening Shema, the time can be any time after sunset but before dawn. (1:1) While dissenting opinions were given, reaching consensus was not difficult because it made the most sense as not all people go to sleep at the same time. However, the morning Shema was the subject of more controversy as people generally woke at different times and some were of the opinion that it should be said before sunrise. Nonetheless, halakha followed the view that it should be said when one wakes up, but no later than the fourth hour of the day. (1:2) Poo Poo Tlak Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. Itlucky is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...


The third mishnah of the tractate discusses whether one should say the evening Shema standing up or lying down as the passage says "when thou liest down". The School of Shammai said it should be lying down as the passage indicates. The School of Hillel's view, however, was that one may say it in whatever position is comfortable and this was the view accepted as the halakha. (1:3) The rest of the first chapter discusses the blessings said along with the Shema and the differences between the blessings in the evening and the blessings in the morning. (1:4, 1:5) The House of Shammai(Or Beit Shammai, beit is Hebrew for house) was the school of thought of Judaism founded by Shammai, a Jewish scholar of the 1st century. ... Hillel (הלל) was a famous Jewish religious leader who lived in Jerusalem during the time of King Herod; he is one of the most important figures in Judaic history, associated with the Mishnah and the Talmud. ...


The beginning of the second chapter discusses the protocol of exactly how one says the Shema itself. One may choose to read the Shema or say it aloud, so long as his heart is directed to God. If one approaches a person who is saying the Shema and greets him, he is allowed to stop and respond at the breaks between the Shema and its blessings. (2:1, 2:2) However, if an individual chooses to speak the Shema anyway, he or she must articulate the words properly or correct himself or herself if he or she misspeaks, as failing to do so would be being irreverant. (2:3) As saying the Shema is brief and bears no risk, workers may say it even while suspended in a tree or on a scaffold. However, as it would be unsafe, this does not apply to the Amidah. (2:4)


Exemption

The rest of the second chapter as well as all of the third chapter discusses exemptions from the Shema, as there are cases where an individual is not required to say it. The second chapter also contains a series of parables regarding Rabban Gamliel to help the reader understand why exemptions may be acceptable. A recently-married man is exempt from saying the Shema as he may be anxious about his wedding. (2:5) However, if he is able to properly dedicate himself to God in prayer, he should recite it regardless of the exemption. (2:8) A person who is currently mourning the death of a relative is exempt from saying the Shema and from wearing tefillin. (3:1) Funeral attendees who can see the mourner should not recite the Shema so that the mourner does not feel uncomfortable for not saying it. [1] Women, slaves and children are exempt from the recital of the Shema and from wearing tefillin, but are not exempt from the Amidah, affixing a mezuzah ("doorpost") and Birkat Hamazon. [2] Gamaliel the Elder, or Rabbi Gamaliel I, was the grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut - mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are either of two boxes containing Biblical verses and black, leather straps attached to them which are used in rabbinic Jewish prayer. ... Mezuzah (מזוזה literally means a doorpost in Hebrew, plural: mezuzot) refers to one of the 613 commandments in Judaism, which requires that a small parchment (klaf) inscribed with two sections from the Torahs Book of Deuteronomy (6:4-9 and 11:13-21) be affixed to each doorpost and gate...


The Amidah

Chapters 4 and 5 of the tractate address the subject of the Amidah, another important prayer of Judaism which is central to Jewish prayer services. Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ...


Daily Prayers

Shacharit ("morning prayers") can be said until the end of the first third of the day. Mincha ("afternoon prayers") can be at any time from 30 minutes after noon until sunset. Ma'ariv ("evening prayers") can be at any time after sunset, but before dawn. Musaf ("additional prayers") can be at any time from dawn until the seventh hour of the day. (4:1) One should study Torah after prayer services in the synagogue, offering two short prayers when he enters and leaves the library. (4:2) Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Poo Poo Tlak Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. Itlucky is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


How to say the Amidah

One must say the Amidah every day, but may abbreviate it. (4:3) One who makes his praying a mechanical task is not praying. When one enters a dangerous situation, he or she should say a short prayer for safety. (4:4) If one is riding a donkey, he must dismount to say the Amidah. If he cannot dismount, he must turn his head towards Jerusalem. If he cannot do that, he must turn his heart to God. This also applies to one travelling on a ship or in a wagon. (4:5, 4:6) Musaf must always be said on the days it is required regardless of whether or not there is a minyan ("quorum") present. (4:7) One should not say the Amidah if he or she is not serious about what he or she is doing. (5:1) The Musaf of Pesach ("Passover") must include a prayer for rain. (5:2) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by...


Leading prayer

If one makes a error while leading a congregation in saying the Amidah, a substitute must pick up where the person left off. (5:3) The prayer leader should not respond "amen" to the prayers he is leading. (5:4) When one who prays (either for oneself or as a prayer leader) makes a mistake, it is a bad omen for him. If he is a prayer leader, it is also a bad omen for those who appointed him. (5:5)


Blessings for food

Chapter 6 is concerned with the various blessings used before consuming different kinds of food.


Blessings for different types of food

There are special blessings for fruits, vegetables, bread and wine. (6:1) There is also an all-inclusive blessing that can be used if one is unsure of what blessings to say. [3] The all-inclusive blessing should be used for all things which do not directly come from the earth, such as milk, fish and eggs. [4] If one has many different kinds of food to say blessings for, he or she may choose as many to say the blessings for as he or she wishes and the blessings said will suffice for all of the rest. [5]


How to bless food

One blessing over a particular food is sufficient for the entire meal and does not need to be repeated. [6] A communal meal only needs one set of blessings for the entire group, but individuals dining together (albeit not as a group) must say the blessings individually. [7] The food of primary importance is the one which a blessing is said for. For example, if one is eating a sandwich, the blessing for the sandwich's contents would be said rather than the blessing for the bread. [8] One who drinks water should bless the water with the all-inclusive blessing. [9]


Birkat Hamazon

Chapter 7 is concerned with Birkat HaMazon, the prayer said by Jews after a meal is completed.


Figs, grapes or pomegranates do not require the full Birkat Hamazon, but rather an abbreviated form. [10] If a group of three or more people eat together, they must say Birkat Hamazon. [11] Women, slaves and minors must not be included when counting for the requirement of three mentioned in the previous mishnah. An olive's quantity of food is sufficient to require saying the prayer. [12] The number of people present does not change the blessing that begins Birkat Hamazon. [13] If three are dining together, they should not separate until they are finished with Birkat Hamazon. If a person is dining alone, he should join another group so that they may say Birkat Hamazon together. [14]


Kiddush and Havdalah

Chapter 8 is concerned with Kiddush, the sanctification of Shabbat and Jewish holidays and Havdalah, the concluding ceremony of Shabbat. Shabbat (שבת shabbāt, rest Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ...


Kiddush

When saying Kiddush, the blessing over the wine (or over the bread) precedes the blessing over the day. [15] One does not need to wash his hands before saying Kiddush but he should wash them after. [16] The towel used to wash one's hands should not be placed on the tabel, lest it and anything that comes into contact with it be rendered ritually unclean. [17] Following the meal, the all crumbs in the dining room should be thoroughly swept up, then those involved should wash their hands. [18]


Havdalah

If one dines just before the end of Shabbat, one should wait until after having said the blessing for fire (part of the Havdalah ceremony) before saying the Birkat Hamazon. [19] One should not say the Havdalah blessing until the flame is large enough that the person can see reasonably well by its light. [20]


See also

  Books of the Mishnah edit  
Zeraim Moed Nashim Nezikin Kodashim Tohorot
Berakhot · Pe'ah · Demai · Kil'ayim · Shevi'it · Terumot · Ma'aserot · Ma'aser Sheni · Hallah · Orlah · Bikkurim Shabbat · Eruvin · Pesahim · Shekalim · Yoma · Sukkah · Beitzah · Rosh Hashanah · Ta'anit · Megillah · Mo'ed Katan · Hagigah Yevamot · Ketubot · Nedarim · Nazir · Sotah · Gittin · Kiddushin Bava Kamma · Bava Metzia · Bava Batra · Sanhedrin · Makkot · Shevu'ot · Eduyot · Avodah Zarah · Avot · Horayot Zevahim · Menahot · Hullin · Bekhorot · Arakhin · Temurah · Keritot · Me'ilah · Tamid · Middot · Kinnim Keilim · Oholot · Nega'im · Parah · Tohorot · Mikva'ot · Niddah · Makhshirin · Zavim · Tevul Yom · Yadayim · Uktzim

Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esreh (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Birkat Hamazon (ברכת המזון), known in English as the Grace After Meals (lit. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Zeraim (זרעים) is the first Order of the Mishnah (and Tosefta and Talmud). ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodashim or Kodshim (Hebrew קדשים, Holy Things) is the fifth Order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (The Order of Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Kilayim (Hebrew: כלאים, lit. ... Sheviit (Hebrew: שביעית, lit. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Hallah (Hebrew: חלה, lit. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Bikkurim (Hebrew: ביכורים, lit. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Sukkah (Hebrew: סוכה, hut) is a book of the Mishnah and Talmud. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Rosh Ha Shanah is the name of a treatise in the Talmud. ... Taanit or Taanis is a volume (or tractate) of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nazir (Hebrew: נזיר) is a treatise of the Mishnah and the Tosefta and in both Talmuds, devoted chiefly to a discussion of the laws of the Nazirite laid down in Numbers 6:1-21. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Baba Kamma is the first of a series of three tractates in the Talmud, in the order Nezikin, dealing with damages. ... Category: ... Bava Batra is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a persons responsibilities and rights as the owner of property. ... Sanhedrin (סנהדרין) is one of ten tractates of the Nezikin (a section of the Talmud that deals with damages, ie. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Shevuot or Shevuot (Hebrew: שבועות, oaths) is a book of the Mishnah and Talmud. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Avodah Zarah (meaning idolatry - lit. ... Pirkei Avoth (Hebrew: Chapters of the Fathers, פרקי אבות ) or simply Avoth is a tractate of the Mishna composed of ethical maxims of the Rabbis of the Mishnaic period. ... Nezikin (Hebrew: סדר נזיקין, The Order of Damages) is the fourth order of Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Temurah ( Hebrew: תמורה) in Halakha is the prohibition against attempting to switch the sanctity of an animal that has been sanctified for the Temple. ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kodshim (קדשים, Holy Things in Hebrew) is the fifth order in the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Kinnim is a tractate in the Mishna and Talmud. ... Keilim (כלים, literally Vessels) is the first tractate in the Order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ... Oholot (אוהלות, literally Tents) is the second tractate of the Order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ... Negaim (נגעים, literally Blemishes) is the third tractate of the order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tractate Mikvaot (Hebrew: מקואות, lit. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew), in Judaism, is technically a state of marital separation when a woman is menstruating and seven subsequent days until she immerses in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Tohorot (Hebrew: טהורת literally Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Uktzim (Hebrew: עוקצים, stems) is the last volume (or tractate) of the Order of Tohorot in the Mishnah. ...

References

  1. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 45-46. ISBN 0910818002.
  2. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 46. ISBN 0910818002.
  3. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 56-57. ISBN 0910818002.
  4. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 57-58. ISBN 0910818002.
  5. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 58. ISBN 0910818002.
  6. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 58-59. ISBN 0910818002.
  7. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 59. ISBN 0910818002.
  8. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 59-60. ISBN 0910818002.
  9. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 60-61. ISBN 0910818002.
  10. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 60-61. ISBN 0910818002.
  11. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 61-62. ISBN 0910818002.
  12. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 62. ISBN 0910818002.
  13. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 62-63. ISBN 0910818002.
  14. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 64. ISBN 0910818002.
  15. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 65. ISBN 0910818002.
  16. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 65-66. ISBN 0910818002.
  17. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 66. ISBN 0910818002.
  18. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 66. ISBN 0910818002.
  19. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 67. ISBN 0910818002.
  20. ^ Blackman, Philip (2000). Mishnayoth Zeraim. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 67-68. ISBN 0910818002.

External links

  • Partial text of mishnah Berakhot at Wikisource
  • Full text (Hebrew) of mishnah Berakhot at Hebrew Wikisource

 
 

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