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Encyclopedia > Beowulf
The first page of the Beowulf manuscript
The first page of the Beowulf manuscript

Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship. This work of Anglo-Saxon literature dates to between the 8th[1] and the 11th century, the only surviving European manuscript dating to the early 11th century.[2][3] At 3183 lines, it is notable for its length. Beowulf is sometimes called the national epic of England, despite the inaccuracy of that label. The work was originally written in Anglo-Saxon and pertains to events in Scandinavia.[4] Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... For the person Beowulf, see Beowulf (hero) For the poem named after this character, see Beowulf. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... Old English redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle, likely scribed around 1150, is one of the major sources of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


In the poem, Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, battles three antagonists: Grendel, who is attacking the Danish mead hall called Heorot and its inhabitants; Grendel's mother; and, later in life after returning to Geatland (modern southern Sweden) and becoming a king, he fights an unnamed dragon. He is fatally wounded in the final battle, and after his death he is buried in a barrow in Geatland by his retainers. Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... This article refers to literary antagonists. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ... A reconstructed Viking Age longhouse (28,5 metres long). ... Heorot is the stronghold of king Hrothgar in the epic poem Beowulf. ... The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... Götaland Unofficial Nordic cross flag of western Götaland. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ...


The most common English pronunciation is IPA: /ˈbeɪəwʊlf/, but the "ēo" in Bēowulf was a diphthong, and a more authentic pronunciation would be with two syllables and the stress on the first (IPA: [ˈbeːo̯wʊɫf]).[5] In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... The phonology of Old English is necessarily somewhat speculative, since it is preserved purely as a written language. ...

Contents

The Beowulf manuscript

For more details on this topic, see Nowell Codex.

he joost hoestie, wat loop je ons nou uit te schelden, je stinkt zelf, want je bent een nep japanner ...

Provenance

The earliest known owner is the 16th century scholar Laurence Nowell, after whom the manuscript is named, though its official designation is Cotton Vitellius A.XV because it was one of Robert Bruce Cotton's holdings in the middle of the 17th century. Kevin Kiernan argues that Nowell most likely acquired it through William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley in 1563, when Nowell entered Cecil’s household as a tutor to his ward, Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford.[6] Laurence Nowell (died 1576), dean of Lichfield, antiquary; an early scholar of Old English. ... Portrait of Robert Cotton, commissioned 1626 and attributed to Cornelius Johnson (or Janssen), (1593-1661). ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... Earl of Oxford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


It suffered damage in the Cotton Library fire at Ashburnham House in 1731. Since then, parts of the manuscript have crumbled along with many of the letters. Rebinding efforts, though saving the manuscript from much degeneration, have nonetheless covered up other letters of the poem, causing further loss. Kevin Kiernan, Professor of English at the University of Kentucky is foremost in the computer digitization and preservation of the manuscript (the Electronic Beowulf Project[7]), using fiber optic backlighting to further reveal lost letters of the poem. The Lindisfarne Gospels is but one of the treasures collected by Sir Robert Cotton. ... The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ...


The poem is known only from a single manuscript, which is estimated to date from close to AD 1000. Professor Kevin Kiernan has argued from an examination of the manuscript that it was the author's own working copy. He dated the work to the reign of Canute the Great.[3] The poem appears in what is today called the Beowulf manuscript or Nowell Codex (British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv), along with other works. The earliest extant reference to the first foliation of the Nowell Codex was made sometime between 1628 and 1650 by Franciscus Junius (the younger). [6]. Whoever owned the codex before Nowell remains a mystery.[6] Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of... he joost hoestie, wat loop je ons nou uit te schelden, je stinkt zelf, want je bent een nep japanner ... Franciscus Junius (1590 – 1677) was an English (German-born) philologist. ...


The Reverend Thomas Smith and Humfrey Wanley undertook the task of cataloguing the Cotton library, in which the Nowell Codex was held. Smith’s catalogue appeared in 1696, and Humfrey’s in 1705. [8] The Beowulf manuscript itself is mentioned in name for the first time in a letter in 1700 between George Hickes, Wanley’s assistant, and Wanley. In the letter to Wanley, Hickes responds to an apparent charge against Smith, made by Wanley, that Smith had failed to mention the Beowulf script when cataloguing Cotton MS. Vitellius A. XV. Hickes replies to Wanley “I can find nothing yet of Beowulph.’ [8] It is hypothesized that Smith failed to mention the Beowulf manuscript because of his reliance on previous catalogues [8] or because either he had no idea how to describe it or because it was temporarily out of the codex [8].


The two scribes

The Beowulf manuscript is the product of two different scribes transcribing an earlier original, the second scribe taking over at line 1939 of Beowulf. Beowulf was composed by two scribes: Scribe A and Scribe B. The handwriting of the two scribes is ill-matched [6]. The script of Scribe B is archaic [6]. Both scribes proofread their work, and Scribe B even proofread the work of Scribe A [6]. The work of Scribe B bears a striking resemblance to the work of the first scribe of the Blickling homilies, and so much so that it is believed they derive from the same scriptorium [6]. In fact, for at least a century, some scholars have maintained that the description of Grendel’s mere in Beowulf was borrowed from St.Paul’s vision of Hell in Homily 16 of the Blickling homilies. [6] This is about scribe, the profession. ... The Blickling Homilies are a collection of eighteen Old English prose homilies and sermons by anonymous writer(s). ... The Blickling Homilies are a collection of eighteen Old English prose homilies and sermons by anonymous writer(s). ...


Transcription

Icelandic scholar Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin made the first transcriptions of the manuscript in 1786 and published the results in 1815, working under a historical research commission of the Danish government. He made one himself, and had another done by a professional copyist who knew no Anglo-Saxon. Since that time, the manuscript has crumbled further, and the Thorkelin transcripts remain a prized secondary source for Beowulf scholars. The recovery of at least 2000 letters can be attributed to these transcripts. Their accuracy has been called into question, however (e.g., by Chauncey Brewster Tinker in The Translations of Beowulf, a comprehensive survey of 19th century translations and editions of Beowulf), and the extent to which the manuscript was actually more readable in Thorkelin's time is unclear. Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin (1752-1829) was an Icelandic scholar, who became the National Archivist of Denmark and Professor of Antiquities at Copenhagen University. ...


Authorship and date

Beowulf was written in England, but is set in Scandinavia. It has variously been dated to between the 8th and the early 11th centuries. It is an epic poem told in historical perspective; a story of epic events and of great people of a heroic past. Although the author is unknown, its themes and subject matter are generally believed to be formed through oral tradition, the passing down of stories by scops (tale singers) and is considered partly historical. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... SCOP can refer to Structural Classification of Proteins A scop was an Old English poet, the Anglo-Saxon counterpart of the Old Norse skald. ...


Debate over oral tradition

The 11th century date is due to scholars who argue that, rather than transcription of the tale from the oral tradition by a literate monk, Beowulf reflects an original interpretation of the story by the poet.[1][9] M. H. Abrams and Stephen Greenblatt argue in their introduction to Beowulf in the Norton Anthology of English Literature that, "The poet was reviving the heroic language, style, and pagan world of ancient Germanic oral poetry [...] it is now widely believed that Beowulf is the work of a single poet who was a Christian and that his poem reflects well-established Christian tradition."[10] Meyer (Mike) Howard Abrams (born July 23, 1912) is an American literary critic, known for works on Romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is a literary critic, theorist and scholar. ... The Norton Anthology of English Literature is a well-known English Literary studies supplement for many tertiary level students. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Beowulf is not thought to be a Christian hero, however. Since the epic of Beowulf is penned to be taking place four centuries before the actual epic was written and Scandinavia was not Christianized until at least the 12th century, the native Germanic paganism was the prevalent theological system at the time. It is more reasonably thought that the epic was Christianized by Christian monks, who later rewrote it to wider distribution. For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ...


Sivert Hagen, in his essay Classical Names and Stories in the Beowulf, argues that labeling the poem as only Germanic ignores connections between classical literature and Beowulf. He gives the example of Beowulf's swimming match against Breca which, he argues, has roots in both Germanic and classical culture. The name Breca itself derives from the Germanic word brandung, which ultimately translates to “Swimmer, King of the Waves.”[11] In the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, Breca the Bronding is Beowulf’s childhood friend who defeated him in a swimming match. ...


At the same time, he argues, the tale might be a variation of the mythical contest between Hercules and Achelous – both have four key elements: “a hero, a river-god (Breca), a contest, and victory of the hero.”[12] Hagen also argues that the name Grendel could be construed to contain a Latin epithet that translates to “huge monster.”[12] For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... Achelous was often reduced to a bearded mask, an inspiration for the medieval Green Man. ...

The question of whether Beowulf was passed down through the oral tradition prior to its present print form has been the subject of much debate. Indeed, the scholarly discussion about Beowulf in the context of the oral tradition was extremely active throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


Many scholars, including D.K. Crowne, have proposed the idea that the poem was passed down from recitation to recitation under the theory of Oral-Formulaic Composition, which hypothesizes that epic poems were (at least to some extent) improvised by whoever was reciting them. In his landmark work, The Singer of Tales, scholar Albert Lord says that while "analysis of Beowulf does indicate oral composition", whether it was composed using themes and formulas akin to Oral-Formulaic Composition is more suspect.[13] The theory of Oral-Formulaic Composition is the mechanism proposed for how Homeric Epic could have been passed down through many generations purely through word of mouth. ... Albert Bates Lord was a Professor of Slavic and Comparative Literature at Harvard who, after the untimely death of Milman Parry, carried on that scholars research into epic literature. ... The theory of Oral-Formulaic Composition is the mechanism proposed for how Homeric Epic could have been passed down through many generations purely through word of mouth. ...


Examination of Beowulf and other Anglo-Saxon poetry for proof of the use of oral-formulaic composition has yielded mixed results. While "themes" of individual passages depicting similar events (the "donning of armor", or the particularly studied "hero on the beach" formula) do exist across Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic works, some have been rejected as true oral-formulaic patterns. Some thus conclude that Anglo-Saxon poetry is a mix of oral-formulaic and literate patterns arguing that the poems both were composed on a word-by-word basis and followed larger formulae and patterns.[14] Old English redirects here. ...


Larry Benson argued that the interpretation of Beowulf as an entirely formulaic work diminishes the ability of the reader to analyze the poem in a holistic manner. Instead, he proposed that other pieces of Germanic literature contain "kernels of tradition" from which Beowulf borrows and expands upon.[15][16]


A few years later, Ann Watts published a book in which she argued against the imperfect application of traditional, Homeric, oral-formulaic theory to Anglo-Saxon poetry. She also argued that the two traditions are not comparable and should not be regarded as such.[17][16] Thomas Gardner agreed with Watts, in a paper published four years later which argued that the Beowulf text is of too varied a nature to be completely constructed from formulae and themes.[18][16]


John Miles Foley, in a more recent article, argued that "each poetic tradition has its own kind of theme and is comparable with the units of other traditions only to a certain extent." [16]


Similar stories (which some may consider alternate versions of the story) may have also arisen out of oral tradition, including the story of Bödvar Bjarki who, though of Norwegian as opposed Swedish origin, arrived in Denmark to slay a terrible beast that had been attacking the court.[citation needed] Bödvar Bjarki is the hero appearing in tales of Hrólf Kraki in the Saga of Hrölf Kraki, in the Latin epitome to the lost Skjöldunga saga, and as Biarco in Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum. ...


Opinion differs as to whether the composition of the poem is contemporary with its transcription, or whether the poem was composed at an earlier time and orally transmitted for many years, and then transcribed at a later date. Kevin Kiernan argues that on the basis of extraordinary paleographical and codicological evidence, that the poem is contemporary with the manuscript[6]. It has been held by most scholars, until recently, that the poem was composed in the 8th century or earlier on the assumption that a poem eliciting sympathy for the Danes could not have been composed by Anglo-Saxons during the Viking Ages of the 9th and 10th centuries. [6] Kiernan argues against an 8th century provenance because this would still require that the poem be transmitted by Anglo-Saxons through the Viking Age. Keirnan holds that the paleographic and codicological evidence encourages that belief that Beowulf is an 11-th century composite poem, and that Scribe A and Scribe B are the authors and that Scribe B is the more poignant of the two. [6]


Dialect

The spellings in the poem mix the West Saxon and Anglian dialects of Old English, though they are predominantly West Saxon, as are other Old English poems copied at the time. This article concerns the English kingdom, not the Westland Wessex helicopter Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the kingdom of England. ... Anglian is a cover term used to refer to two dialects of Old English, namely the Northumbrian and Mercian dialects. ...


There is a bewildering array of linguistic forms in the Beowulf manuscript. It is this fact that leads some scholars to believe that Beowulf has endured a long and complicated transmission through all the main dialect areas[6]. The poem retains a complicated mix of the following dialectical forms: Mercian, Northumbrian, Early West Saxon, Kentish and Late West Saxon[6]. Kiernan argues that it is virtually impossible that there could have been a process of transmission which could have sustained the complicated mix of forms from dialect to dialect, from generation to generation, and from scribe to scribe [6].


Kiernan’s argument against an early dating based on a mixture of forms is long and involved, but he concludes that the mixture of forms points to a comparatively straightforward history of the written text as: “an 11th-century MS; an 11-th century Mercian poet using an archaic poetic dialect; and 11th-century standard literary dialect that contained early and late, cross-dialectical forms, and admitted spelling variations; and (perhaps) two 11th century scribes following slightly different spelling practices.”[6] Beowulf can largely be seen to be the product of antiquarian interests and that it tells readers more about “an 11th century Anglo-Saxon’s notions about Denmark, and its pre-history, than it does about the age of Bede and a 7th or 8th century Anglo-Saxon’s notions about his ancestors’ homeland”[6]. For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ...


Form and metre

Main article: Alliterative verse

An Old English poem such as Beowulf is very different from modern poetry. Anglo-Saxon poets typically used alliterative verse, a form of verse that uses alliteration as the principal structuring device to unify lines of poetry, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme. This is a technique in which the first half of the line (the a-verse) is linked to the second half (the b-verse) through similarity in initial sound. In addition, the two halves are divided by a caesura: The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... This article is about the art form. ... Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... A caesura, in poetry, is an audible pause that breaks up a line of verse. ...

Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum

The poet has a choice of epithets or formulae to use in order to fulfill the alliteration. When speaking or reading Old English poetry, it is important to remember for alliterative purposes that many of the letters are not pronounced the same way as they are in modern English. The letter "h", for example, is always pronounced (Hroðgar: HROTH-gar), and the digraph "cg" is pronounced like "dj", as in the word "edge". Both f and s vary in pronunciation depending on their phonetic environment. Between vowels or voiced consonants, they are voiced, sounding like modern v and z, respectively. Otherwise they are unvoiced, like modern f in "fat" and s in "sat". Some letters which are no longer found in modern English, such as thorn, þ, and eth, ð — representing both pronunciations of modern English "th", as in "cloth" and "clothe" — are used extensively both in the original manuscript and in modern English editions. The voicing of these characters echoes that of f and s. Both are voiced (as in "clothe") between other voiced sounds: oðer, laþleas, suþern. Otherwise they are unvoiced (as in "cloth"): þunor, suð, soþfæst. Linguistics An epithet (Greek epitheton) is a descriptive word or phrase, often metaphoric, that is essentially a reduced or condensed appositive. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...


Kennings are also a significant technique in Beowulf. They are evocative poetic descriptions of everyday things, often created to fill the alliterative requirements of the metre. For example, a poet might call the sea the "swan-road" or the "whale-road"; a king might be called a "ring-giver." There are many kennings in Beowulf, and the device is typical of much of classic poetry in Old English, which is heavily formulaic. The poem also makes extensive use of elided metaphors. In literature, a kenning is a poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. ... In music, see elision (music). ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


J.R.R. Tolkien argued that the poem is an elegy. [1] J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ...


Story

Further information: Beowulf (hero) and List of characters and objects in Beowulf

The main protagonist, whose name is Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hroðgar, the king of the Danes, whose great hall, Heorot is plagued by the monster Grendel. Beowulf kills both Grendel and Grendel's mother, the latter with the help of a magical sword, Hrunting. Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem composed around 1100 AD. At 3,183 lines, the poem is notable for its length. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... Hroðgar (Proto-Norse *Hrōþigaizaz [1], Hrothgar, Hróar, Ro, Roar), legendary Danish king. ... Heorot is the stronghold of king Hrothgar in the epic poem Beowulf. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ... The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Later in his life, Beowulf is himself king of the Geats, and finds his realm terrorized by a dragon whose treasure had been stolen from his hoard in a burial mound. He attacked the dragon with his thegns, but they did not succeed. Beowulf decided to follow the dragon into its lair, at Earnanæs, but only his young Swedish relative Wiglaf dared join him. Beowulf finally slays the dragon, but is mortally wounded. He is buried in a barrow by the sea. For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... Map of runestones raised over a thegn. ... Earnanæs is the location, in Beowulf, where the hero of the epic fights the dragon and dies. ... Wiglaf is a young well-regarded Swedish warrior of the Waegmunding clan, in Beowulf. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ...


As an epic

Beowulf is considered an epic poem in that the main character is a hero who travels great distances to prove his strength at impossible odds against supernatural demons and beasts. The poet who composed Beowulf, while objective in telling the tale, nonetheless utilizes a certain style to maintain excitement and adventure within the story. An elaborate history of characters and their lineages are spoken of, as well as their interactions with each other, debts owed and repayed, and deeds of valour.


Historical background

Ohthere's mound
Ohthere's mound

The events described in the poem take place in the late 5th century and during the century after the Anglo-Saxons had begun migration and settlement in England, and before it had ended, a time when the Saxons were either newly arrived or in close contact with their fellow Germanic kinsmen in Scandinavia and Northern Germany. The poem could have been transmitted in England by people of Geatish origins.[19] It has been suggested that Beowulf was first composed in the 7th century at Rendlesham in East Anglia,[20] as Sutton Hoo also shows close connections with Scandinavia, and also that the East Anglian royal dynasty, the Wuffings, were descendants of the Geatish Wulfings.[21] Others have associated this poem with the court of King Alfred, or with the court of King Canute.[3] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 941 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 941 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This is about the Swedish king Ohthere. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Northern Germany is the the geographic area of the five German states Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein in the German Lowlands known as the Northern German Plain with Low German as the historic language (see: Benrath line). ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Rendlesham, near Woodbridge, Suffolk was a royal centre of authority for the king of the East Saxons, of the Wuffinga line; the proximity of the Sutton Hoo ship burial may indicate a connection between Sutton Hoo and the East Saxon royal house. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Sutton Hoo ceremonial helmet (British Museum, restored). ... The Wuffings were the ruling dynasty of East Anglia. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... The Wulfings or Wylfings (the name means the wolf clan) was a prominent family/clan in Beowulf and Widsith. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of...

An approximation of the central regions of the tribes mentioned in Beowulf. The red area is Västergötland (the core region of Geatland), the yellow area is the territory ruled by the Wulfings, the pink area is the Danish territory. The green area is the land of the Swedes. The blue area represents the land of Jutes, while the orange area belongs to Frisians. For a more detailed discussion on the fragmented political situation of Scandinavia during the 6th century, see Scandza.
An approximation of the central regions of the tribes mentioned in Beowulf. The red area is Västergötland (the core region of Geatland), the yellow area is the territory ruled by the Wulfings, the pink area is the Danish territory. The green area is the land of the Swedes. The blue area represents the land of Jutes, while the orange area belongs to Frisians. For a more detailed discussion on the fragmented political situation of Scandinavia during the 6th century, see Scandza.

The poem deals with legends, i.e., it was composed for entertainment and does not separate between fictional elements and real historic events, such as the raid by King Hygelac into Frisia, ca. 516. Scholars generally agree that many of the personalities of Beowulf also appear in Scandinavian sources,[22] but this does not only concern people (e.g., Healfdene, Hroðgar, Halga, Hroðulf, Eadgils and Ohthere), but also clans (e.g., Scyldings, Scylfings and Wulfings) and some of the events (e.g., the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern). The Scandinavian sources are notably Ynglinga saga, Gesta Danorum, Hrólfr Kraki's saga and the Latin summary of the lost Skjöldunga saga. As far as Sweden is concerned, the dating of the events in the poem has been confirmed by archaeological excavations of the barrows indicated by Snorri Sturluson and by Swedish tradition as the graves of Ohthere (dated to c. 530) and his son Eadgils (dated to c. 575) in Uppland, Sweden.[23][24][25] In Denmark, recent archaeological excavations at Lejre, where Scandinavian tradition located the seat of the Scyldings, i.e., Heorot, have revealed that a hall was built in the mid-6th century, exactly the time period of Beowulf.[26] Three halls, each about 50 metres long, were found during the excavation.[26] File links The following pages link to this file: User:Wiglaf Beowulf (hero) ... File links The following pages link to this file: User:Wiglaf Beowulf (hero) ...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... Götaland, Gothia, Gothland [1], Gotland (AHD), Gautland or Geatland, is a historical land of Sweden, and was a separate kingdom, before Sweden was unified. ... The Wulfings or Wylfings (the name means the wolf clan) was a prominent family/clan in Beowulf and Widsith. ... Swede (turnip /neep in Scotland) is also the British name for what the Americans call rutabaga. ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... Hygelac, Proto-Norse *Hugilaikaz [1], Latin Chlochilaicus, Old Norse Hugleikr (d. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... Old Norse persons with the name Halfdan (half dane) (Old Norse sources) or Healfdene (Beowulf) or Haldan (Danish Latin sources) was probably kings. ... Hroðgar (Proto-Norse *Hrōþigaizaz [1], Hrothgar, Hróar, Ro, Roar), legendary Danish king. ... Helgi means holy and is an old Nordic name still used in e. ... Hrólf Kraki (Old Norse), Rolf Kraki or Rolf Krake was a legendary king at Lejre on the isle of Zealand, Denmark, described in several old sagas and other documents such as the Leire chronicle and Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus. ... Eadgils was a 6th century king of Sweden who appears in the Old English epic Beowulf. ... This is about the Swedish king Ohthere. ... The Scandinavian clan or ætt in Old Norse, was a social group based on common descent or on the formal acceptance into the group at a þing. ... Old English Scylding (plural Scyldingas) and Old Norse Skjöldung (plural Skjöldungar), meaning in both languages Shielding, refers to members of a legendary royal family of Danes and sometimes to their people. ... For other uses, see Yngling (disambiguation). ... The Wulfings, Wylfings or Ylfings were a prominent family/clan in Beowulf, Widsith and the Norse sagas. ... The battle with Onela is remembered in Norse mythology as a battle on horseback. ... The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... Hrólf Kraki (Old Norse), Rolf Kraki or Rolf Krake was a legendary king at Lejre on the isle of Zealand, Denmark, described in several old sagas and other documents such as the Leire chronicle and Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus. ... The Skjöldunga saga was a Norse saga on the legendary Danish dynasty of the Skjöldungs. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow_in_Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... This is about the Swedish king Ohthere. ... Eadgils was a 6th century king of Sweden who appears in the Old English epic Beowulf. ... Uppland ( ) is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. ... Lejre is a municipality in east Denmark, in the county of Roskilde on the peninsula of Zealand. ... Heorot is the stronghold of king Hrothgar in the epic poem Beowulf. ...


The majority view appears to be that people such as King Hroðgar and the Scyldings in Beowulf are based on real people in 6th century Scandinavia.[27] Like the Finnsburg Fragment and several shorter surviving poems, Beowulf has consequently been used as a source of information about Scandinavian personalities such as Eadgils and Hygelac, and about continental Germanic personalities such as Offa, king of the continental Angles. Hroðgar (Proto-Norse *Hrōþigaizaz [1], Hrothgar, Hróar, Ro, Roar), legendary Danish king. ... Old English Scylding (plural Scyldingas) and Old Norse Skjöldung (plural Skjöldungar), meaning in both languages Shielding, refers to members of a legendary royal family of Danes and sometimes to their people. ... The Finnsburg Fragment is a fragment of an Old English poem, found in the Exeter Book. ... Eadgils was a 6th century king of Sweden who appears in the Old English epic Beowulf. ... Hygelac, Proto-Norse *Hugilaikaz [1], Latin Chlochilaicus, Old Norse Hugleikr (d. ... Offa (or Alavivaz Olauus) (? - c. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ...

Eadgils was buried at Uppsala, according to Snorri Sturluson. When Eadgils' mound (to the left) was excavated, in 1874, the finds supported Beowulf and the sagas.
Eadgils was buried at Uppsala, according to Snorri Sturluson. When Eadgils' mound (to the left) was excavated, in 1874, the finds supported Beowulf and the sagas.

Nineteenth-century archeological evidence may confirm elements of the Beowulf story. Eadgils was buried at Uppsala, according to Snorri Sturluson. When Eadgils' mound (to the left in the photo) was excavated in 1874, the finds supported Beowulf and the sagas. They showed that a powerful man was buried in a large barrow, c 575, on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. These remains include a Frankish sword adorned with gold and garnets and a tafl game with Roman pawns of ivory. He was dressed in a costly suit made of Frankish cloth with golden threads, and he wore a belt with a costly buckle. There were four cameos from the Middle East which were probably part of a casket. This would have been a burial fitting a king who was famous for his wealth in Old Norse sources. Ongenþeow's barrow (to the right in the photo) has not been excavated.[23][24] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x212, 288 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x212, 288 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eadgils was a 6th century king of Sweden who appears in the Old English epic Beowulf. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... Eadgils was a 6th century king of Sweden who appears in the Old English epic Beowulf. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Tafl games are a family of ancient Germanic board games played on a checkered board with two teams of uneven strength. ... Ongenþeow, Ongentheow, Ongendþeow, Egil, Egill, Eigil, or Angantyr (- ca 515) was the name of one or two semi-legendary Swedish kings of the house of Scylfings, who appear in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian sources. ...


Structured by battles

Jane Chance (Professor of English, Rice University) in her 1980 article "The Structural Unity of Beowulf: The Problem of Grendel's Mother" argued that there are two standard interpretations of the poem: one view which suggests a two-part structure (i.e., the poem is divided between Beowulf's battles with Grendel and with the dragon) and the other, a three-part structure (this interpretation argues that Beowulf's battle with Grendel's mother is structurally separate from his battle with Grendel).[28] Chance stated that, "this view of the structure as two-part has generally prevailed since its inception in J. R. R. Tolkien's Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics in Proceedings of the British Academy 22 (1936)."[28] In contrast, she argued that the three-part structure has become "increasingly popular."[28] Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, United States, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ... The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... Tolkien redirects here. ...


First battle: Grendel

Beowulf is challenged by a Danish coast guard, Evelyn Paul (1911).
Beowulf is challenged by a Danish coast guard, Evelyn Paul (1911).

Beowulf begins with the story of King Hroðgar, who built the great hall Heorot for his people. In it he, his wife Wealhþeow, and his warriors spend their time singing and celebrating, until Grendel, an outcast from society who is angered by the singing, attacks the hall and kills and devours many of Hroðgar's warriors while they sleep. But Grendel dares not touch the throne of Hroðgar, because he is described as protected by a powerful god. Hroðgar and his people, helpless against Grendel's attacks, abandon Heorot. Image File history File links Beowulf_challenged_by_the_coastguard_by_E_Paul. ... Image File history File links Beowulf_challenged_by_the_coastguard_by_E_Paul. ... Hroðgar (Proto-Norse *Hrōþigaizaz [1], Hrothgar, Hróar, Ro, Roar), legendary Danish king. ... Heorot is the stronghold of king Hrothgar in the epic poem Beowulf. ... Queen Wealhtheow as the hostess of the banquet Wealhþeow is the queen of the Daner, in Beowulf. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ...


Beowulf, a young warrior from Geatland, hears of Hroðgar's troubles and with his king's permission leaves his homeland to help Hroðgar. Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ...


Beowulf and his men spend the night in Heorot. After they fall asleep, Grendel enters the hall and attacks, devouring one of Beowulf's men. Beowulf, who bears no weapon as this would be an unfair advantage over the unarmed beast, has been feigning sleep, and leaps up and clenches Grendel's hand. The two battle until it seems as though the hall might collapse. Beowulf's retainers draw their swords and rush to his aid, but their blades do not pierce Grendel's skin because he is magically immune to human weapons. Finally, Beowulf tears Grendel's arm from his body at the shoulder and Grendel runs to his home in the marshes to die. For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ...


Second battle: Grendel's mother

The next night, after celebrating Grendel's death, Hroðgar and his men sleep in Heorot. Grendel's mother appears, however, and attacks the hall. She kills Hroðgar's most trusted warrior, Æschere, in revenge for Grendel's death. The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... Hrothgars most trusted warrior, killed by Grendels mother. ...


Hroðgar, Beowulf, and their men track Grendel's mother to her lair under an eerie lake. Beowulf prepares himself for battle; he is presented with a sword, Hrunting, by a warrior called Unferð. After stipulating a number of conditions (upon his death) to Hroðgar (including the taking in of his kinsmen, and the inheritance by Unferð of Beowulf's estate), Beowulf dives into the lake. There, he is swiftly detected and attacked by Grendel's mother. Unable to harm Beowulf through his armor, Grendel's mother drags him to the bottom of the lake. There, in a cavern containing Grendel's body and the remains of many men that the two have killed, Grendel's mother and Beowulf engage in fierce combat. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Beowulf replies to Unferth. ...


Grendel's mother at first prevails, after Beowulf, finding that the sword (Hrunting) given to him by Unferð cannot harm his foe, discards it in fury. Again, Beowulf is saved from the effects of his opponent's attack by his armor and, grasping a mighty sword from Grendel's mother's armory (which, the poem tells us, no other man could have hefted in battle), Beowulf beheads her. Travelling further into the lair, Beowulf discovers Grendel's corpse; he severs the head. Beowulf then returns to the surface and to his men at the "ninth hour" (l. 1600, "nōn", about 3pm).[29] He returns to Heorot, where Hroðgar gives Beowulf many gifts, including the sword Nægling, his family's heirloom. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Beowulf fights the dragon, wielding Nægling. ...


Third battle: The dragon

A 1908 depiction of Beowulf fighting the unnamed dragon by J. R. Skelton.
A 1908 depiction of Beowulf fighting the unnamed dragon by J. R. Skelton.

Beowulf returns home and eventually becomes king of his own people. One day, late in Beowulf's life, a slave steals a golden cup from the lair of an unnamed dragon (sometimes referred to as Sua) at Earnaness. When the dragon sees that the cup has been stolen, it leaves its cave in a rage, burning up everything in sight. Beowulf and his warriors come to fight the dragon, but only one of the warriors, a brave young man named Wiglaf, stays to help Beowulf, because the rest are too afraid. Beowulf kills the dragon with Wiglaf's help, but Beowulf dies from the wounds he has received. Image File history File links Beowulf_and_the_dragon. ... Image File history File links Beowulf_and_the_dragon. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... Aranes is the castle in this detail from the Carta Marina (1539) Earnanæs (Old English), Aranæs (Old Swedish) and Årnäs (Modern Swedish) is the name of at least two locations, in what is today southern Sweden, which are known from history and legend. ... Wiglaf is a young well-regarded Swedish warrior of the Waegmunding clan, in Beowulf. ...


After he is cremated, Beowulf is buried in Geatland on a cliff overlooking the sea, where sailors are able to see his barrow. The dragon's treasure is buried with him, rather than distributed to his people, as was Beowulf's wish, because of the curse associated with the hoard, and also accordance with Germanic and Scandanavian burial practices. Cremation is the practice of disposing of a corpse by burning. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ...


Structured by funerals

It is widely accepted that there are three funerals in Beowulf. [30] These funerals help to outline changes in the poem’s story as well as the audiences’ views on earthly possessions, battle and glory. The funerals are also paired with the three battles described above. [30] The three funerals share similarities regarding the offerings for the dead and the change in theme through the description of each funeral. Gale Owen-Crocker (Professor of Anglo-Saxon, University of Manchester) in The Four Funerals in Beowulf (2000) argues that a passage in the poem, commonly known as “The Lay of the Last Survivor” (lines 2247-66), is an additional funeral.[30] The funerals are themselves involved in the ritual of hoarding: the deposition of sacrificial objects with both religious and socio-economic functions.[31] . Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ...


Scyld Scefing (lines 1- 52)

The first funeral in the poem is of Scyld Scefing (translated in some versions as "Shield Shiefson") the king of the Danes. [32] The first fitt helps the poet illustrate the settings of the poem by introducing Hrothgar’s lineage. The funeral leads to the introduction of the hero, Beowulf and his confrontation with the first monster, Grendel. This passage begins by describing Scyld’s glory as a “scourge of many tribes, a wrecker of mead-benches.” [32] Scyld’s glory and importance is shown by the prestigious death he obtains through his service as the king of the Danes. [30] His importance is proven once more by the grand funeral given to him by his people: his funeral at sea with many weapons and treasures shows he was a great soldier and an even greater leader to his people. [30] The poet introduces the concepts of a heroic society through Scyld. The possessions buried with the king are elaborately described to emphasize the importance of such items. [30] The importance of these earthly possessions are then used to establish this dead king’s greatness in respect to the treasure. [30] Scyld’s funeral helps the poet to elaborate on the glory of battle in a heroic society and how earthly possessions help define a person‘s importance. This funeral also helps the poet to develop the plot to lead into the confrontation between the protagonist, Beowulf, and the main antagonist, Grendel. In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ...


Hildeburg’s kin (lines 1107-24)

The second funeral in the poem is that of Hildeburg’s kin and is the second fitt of this poem. [32] The funeral is sung in Heorot to celebrate Beowulf's victory over Grendel. It also signifies the beginning of the protagonist’s battle against Grendel's mother. The death of Hildeburg’s brother, son(s), and husband are the results of battle. The battle also leads to Scyld’s death and mirrors the use of funeral offerings for the dead with extravagant possessions. [32] As with the Dane’s king, Hildeburg’s relatives are buried with their armor and gold to signify their importance. [30] However, the relatives’ funeral differs from the first as it was a cremation ceremony. Furthermore, the poet focuses on the strong emotions of those who died while in battle. [32] The gory details of “heads melt[ing], gashes [springing] open…and the blood [springing] out from the body’s wounds” [32] describes war as a horrifying event instead of one of glory. [30] Although the poet maintains the theme of possessions as important even in death, the glory of battle is challenged by the vicious nature of war. The second funeral displays different concepts from the first and a change of direction in the plot that leads to Beowulf's fight against Grendel's Mother. Hildeburh, introduced in l. ... Heorot is the stronghold of king Hrothgar in the epic poem Beowulf. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ... The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... Hildeburh, introduced in l. ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... Hildeburh, introduced in l. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ...


Lay of the Last Survivor (lines 2247-66)

"The Lay of the Last Survivor" is arguably an addition to the other three funerals in Beowulf because of the striking similarities that define the importance of the other burials. [30] The parallels that identify this passage with the other three funerals are the similar burial customs, changes in setting and plot, and changes of theme. The lament appears to be a funeral, because of the Last Survivor’s description of burial offerings that are also found in the funerals of Scyld Scefing, Hildeburg’s kin, and Beowulf. [30] The Last Survivor describes the many treasures left for the dead such as the weapons, armour and gold cups [32] that have strong parallels to Scyld’s “well furbished ship…,bladed weapons and coats of mail” [32], Hildeburg’s Kin’s “blood-plastered coats of mail [and] boar-shaped helmets.” [32] and Beowulf's treasure from the dragon [32] An additional argument towards viewing this passage as a funeral lies in the statement, “tumbling hawk [and] swift horse” [32] mentioned in the poem. This is an animal offering which was a burial custom during the era of the poem. [30] Moreover this passage, like the other funerals, signifies changes in setting and plot. [30] One can also argue that it is the 3rd part to the poem since it describes the settings during the time lapse for the final battle between Beowulf and the Dragon. The poet also describes death in battle as horrifying, a concept continued from the second part of the poem, through the Last Survivor’s eyes. [30] In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... Hildeburh, introduced in l. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ... Hildeburh, introduced in l. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ...


Beowulf’s funeral (lines 3137-82)

The fourth and final funeral of the poem is Beowulf's funeral. After the final battle against the dragon, Beowulf receives fatal wounds and dies. The greatness of Beowulf's life is demonstrated through this funeral, particularly through the many offerings of his people. [30] In addition, the immense hoard of the dragon is buried with the hero. The poet also bestows on Beowulf more significance than the others through his description of the cremation. [30] “Weohstan’s son(pause) commanded it be announced to many men(pause) that they should fetch from afar wood for the pyre.” [32] for their leader’s funeral. The dragon’s remains are thrown into the sea, a parallel to Scyld’s burial in his ship. Beowulf's funeral is the fourth fitt of the poem and acts as an epilogue for the hero who is the, “most gracious and fair-minded, kindest to his people and keenest to win fame.” [32] Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... In Norse mythology, King Skjöld was the son of Sceaf and the husband of Gefyon. ...


Interpretation and criticism

In historical terms, the poem's characters would have been Germanic pagans, (the historical events of the poem took place before the Christianization of Scandinavia). Beowulf thus depicts a Germanic warrior society, in which the relationship between the lord of the region and those who served under him was of paramount importance. M. H. Abrams and Stephen Greenblatt note that: ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Meyer (Mike) Howard Abrams (born July 23, 1912) is an American literary critic, known for works on Romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is a literary critic, theorist and scholar. ...

Although Hrothgar and Beowulf are portrayed as morally upright and enlightened Pagans, they fully espouse and frequently affirm the values of Germanic heroic poetry. In the poetry depicting warrior society, the most important of human relationships was that which existed between the warrior - the thane - and his lord, a relationship based less on subordination of one man's will to another's than on mutual trust and respect. When a warrior vowed loyalty to his lord, he became not so much his servant as his voluntary companion, one who would take pride in defending him and fighting in his wars. In return, the lord was expected to take care of his thanes and to reward them richly for their valor.[33] Map of runestones raised over a thegn. ...

This society was strongly defined in terms of kinship; if someone was killed, it was the duty of surviving kin to exact revenge either with their own lives or through weregild, a payment of reparation. [33] Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Kin has multiple meanings: It can refer to family. ... Look up wergeld in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Stanley B. Greenfield (Professor of English, University of Oregon) has suggested that references to the human body throughout Beowulf emphasize the relative position of thanes to their lord. He argues that the term “shoulder-companion” could refer to both a physical arm as well as a thane (Aeschere) who was very valuable to his lord (Hrothgar). With Aeschere's death, Hrothgar turns to Beowulf as his new "arm." [34] In addition Greenfield argues, the foot is used for the opposite effect, only appearing four times in the poem. It is used in conjunction with Unferth (a man described by Beowulf as weak, traitorous, and cowardly). Greenfield notes that Unferth is described as “at the king’s feet” (line 499). Unferth is also a member of the foot troops, who, throughout the story, do nothing and “generally serve as backdrops for more heroic action.” [35] The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. ... Hroðgar (Hrothgar, Hróar, Ro), legendary Danish king. ... Unferth was a character of the epic poem Beowulf. ...


At the same time, Richard North (Professor of English, University College London) argues that the Beowulf poet interpreted "Danish myths in Christian form" (as the poem would have served as a form of entertainment for a Christian audience), and states: "As yet we are no closer to finding out why the first audience of Beowulf liked to hear stories about people routinely classified as damned. This question is pressing, given [...] that Anglo-Saxons saw the Danes as 'heathens' rather than as foreigners."[36] Grendel's mother and Grendel are described as descendants of Cain, a fact which some scholars link to The Cain Tradition. [37] Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Heathen is a term used both to describe a person who does not follow an organized religion, and also a modern practitioner of Heathenry. ... The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ... In stories common to the Abrahamic religions, Cain or Káyin (קַיִן / קָיִן spear Standard Hebrew Qáyin, Tiberian Hebrew Qáyin / Qāyin; Arabic قايين Qāyīn in the Arabic Bible; قابيل Qābīl in Islam) is the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and the first man born in creation... The Cain Tradition refers to the the tale of Cain and Abel as seen in the Septuagint[1] and the Vulgate. ...


Allen Cabaniss argues that there are several similarities between Beowulf and the Bible. First he argues, for similarities between Beowulf and Jesus: both are brave and selfless in overcoming the evils that oppose them, and both are kings that die to save their people. [38] Secondly, he argues for a similarity between part of The Book of Revelation (“shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death." Revelation 21:8) and the home of Grendel and Grendel's mother. [39] Third, he compares the words of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke (when he pardons those who call for his crucifixion) to the portion of the poem when (before plunging into the perilous lake) Beowulf forgives his enemy, Unferth. [40] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ...


Scholars disagree, however, as to the meaning and nature of the poem: a Christian work but set in a Pagan context? The questions suggests that the conversion from Pagan beliefs to Christian ones was a very slow and gradual process over several centuries, and it remains unclear the ultimate nature of the poems message in respects to religious belief at the time it was written. Robert F. Yeager (Professor of literature, University of North Carolina at Asheville) notes the facts that form the basis for these questions: "That the scribes of Cotton Vitellius A.XV were Christian is beyond doubt; and it is equally certain that Beowulf was composed in a Christianized England, since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries. Yet the only Biblical references in Beowulf are to the Old Testament, and Christ is never mentioned. The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans. Beowulf’s own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the “Father Almighty” or the “Wielder of All.” Were those the prayers of a pagan who used phrases the Christians subsequently appropriated? Or, did the poem’s author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues?"[41] The University of North Carolina at Asheville (known for short as UNC Asheville) is a public liberal arts university in Asheville, North Carolina. ...


Translations

In 1805 Sharon Turner translated selected verses into English. [42] This was followed in 1814 by John Josias Conybeare who published an edition "in English paraphrase and Latin verse translation." [42] In 1815, Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin published the first complete edition in Latin. [42] Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig reviewed this edition in 1815 and created the first complete verse translation in Danish in 1820. [42] In 1837, J. M. Kemble created an important literal translation in English. [42] In 1895, William Morris & A. J. Wyatt's published the ninth English translation. [42] Sharon Turner (1768 - 1847), historian. ... John Josias Conybeare (1779 - 1824), elder brother of William Daniel Conybeare was also educated at Christ Church, Oxford. ... Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin was the first scholar to transcribe the epic poem Beowulf in 1818. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (September 8, 1783, Udby, Sjælland, Denmark, –September 2, 1872, Copenhagen) was a Danish teacher , writer, poet, philosopher, historian, minister, and even politician. ... John Mitchell Kemble (1807 - March 26, 1857), English scholar and historian, was the eldest son of Charles Kemble the actor. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ...

The barrow of Skalunda, a barrow that was identified by the archaeologist Birger Nerman as Beowulf's burial mound.
The barrow of Skalunda, a barrow that was identified by the archaeologist Birger Nerman as Beowulf's burial mound.[43]

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The barrow of Skalunda Skalunda is a village in Västergötland, Sweden. ... Birger Nerman (1888 – 1971) was a Swedish archeologist and writer. ...

Artistic depictions of Beowulf

Beowulf has been adapted a number of times for other novels, theater, and cinema, including the 2005 film Beowulf and Grendel and the 2007 animated film Beowulf directed by Robert Zemeckis. Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship. ... Beowulf & Grendel is a 2005 movie adaptation of Beowulf, filmed in Iceland, directed by Sturla Gunnarsson, starring Gerard Butler as Beowulf and Ingvar Sigurdsson as Grendel. ... Beowulf is a 2007 animated film adaptation of the Old English epic poem of the same name. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ...


Bibliography

Dictionaries

  • Cameron, Angus, et al. Dictionary of Old English (Microfiche). Toronto: Published for the Dictionary of Old English Project Centre for Medieval Studies University of Toronto by the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1986/1994.

The Dictionary of Old English (DOE) is a dictionary published by the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto under the direction of Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos, and Antonette diPaolo Healey. ...

Editions

Hypertext editions:

Modern English translations: Frederick Klaeber (01 October 1863 - 04 October 1954) was a professor of Old and Middle English at the University of Minnesota. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... McMaster University is a highly regarded medium-sized research-intensive university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, with an enrollment of 18,238 full-time and 3,836 part-time students (as of 2006). ... Northern Virginia Community College, comprising six locations in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., is the nations second largest multi-campus community college and the largest educational institution in the state of Virginia. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

  • Alexander, Michael. Beowulf : A Verse Translation. Penguin Classics;. Rev. ed. London: New York, 2003.
  • Anderson, Sarah M., Alan Sullivan, and Timothy Murphy. Beowulf. A Longman Cultural Edition;. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2004.
  • Crossley-Holland, Kevin; Mitchell, Bruce. Beowulf: A New Translation. London: Macmillan, 1968
  • Donaldson, E. Talbot, and Nicholas Howe. Beowulf : A Prose Translation : Backgrounds and Contexts, Criticism. A Norton Critical Edition. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2002.
  • Garmonsway, George Norman, et al. Beowulf and Its Analogues. (Revised 1980). ed. London: Dent, 1980.
  • Gummere, Frances. 'Beowulf'. St Petersburg, Florida:Red and Black Publishers, 2007. ISBN 978-0-979-1813-1-3.
  • Heaney, Seamus Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001. ISBN 0-393-32097-9
  • Lehmann, Ruth. Beowulf : An Imitative Translation. 1st ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1988.
  • R. M. Liuzza. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press, 2000.
  • Osborn, Marijane. Annotated List of Beowulf Translations.
  • Raffel, Burton. Beowulf. New York: Signet Classic, 1999.
  • Ringler, Dick. Beowulf: A New Translation For Oral Delivery. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2007. ISBN 978-0-87220-893-3
  • Swanton, Michael (ed.). Beowulf (Manchester Medieval Studies). Manchester: University, 1997.
  • Szobody, Michelle L. & Justin Gerard (Illustrator) Beowulf, Book I: Grendel the Ghastly. Greenville, SC: Portland Studios, 2007. ISBN-13 9780979718304
  • Breeden, David. [This rendition] [44] is not a literal translation but rather tells the story in an engrossing way, appropriate for comparison in a classroom study.

Old English and modern English: Michael Joseph Alexander is a British academic. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... Burton Raffel is a translator, a poet and a teacher. ...

Old English with glossaries: Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ...

  • Alexander, Michael. Beowulf: A Glossed Text. Second ed. Penguin: London, 2000.
  • Jack, George. Beowulf : A Student Edition. Oxford University Press: New York, 1997.
  • Klaeber, Frederick, ed. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. Third ed. Boston: Heath, 1950.
  • Mitchell, Bruce, et al. Beowulf: An Edition with Relevant Shorter Texts. Oxford, UK: Malden Ma., 1998.
  • Porter, John. Beowulf: text and translation. Anglo-Saxon Books, 1991.
  • Rebsamen, Frederick R. Beowulf : A Verse Translation. 1st ed. New York, NY: Icon Editions, 1991.
  • Wrenn, C.L., ed. Beowulf with the Finnesburg Fragment. 3rd ed. London: Harrap, 1973.

Audio: Michael Joseph Alexander is a British academic. ... Frederick Klaeber (01 October 1863 - 04 October 1954) was a professor of Old and Middle English at the University of Minnesota. ... Charles Leslie Wrenn was a British scholar. ...

Film:

  • Beowulf, 2007. Directed by Robert Zemeckis and starring Anthony Hopkins, Ray Winston, Angelina Jolie and John Malkovic.

Scholarship

  • M.H. Abrams and Stephen Greenblatt. Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages (Vol 1), Beowulf. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000. 29-32.
  • Alfano, Christine. "The Issue of Feminine Monstrosity: A Re-evaluation of Grendel's Mother." Comitatus 23 (1992): 1-16.
  • Battaglia, Frank. "The Germanic Earth Goddess in Beowulf." Mankind Quarterly 31.4 (Summer 1991): 415-46.
  • Chadwick, Nora K. "The Monsters and Beowulf." The Anglo-Saxons: Studies in Some Aspects of Their History. Ed. Peter ed Clemoes. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959. 171-203.
  • Chance, Jane. "The Structural Unity of Beowulf: The Problem of Grendel's Mother." New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Eds. Helen Damico and Alexandra Hennessey Olsen. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. 248-61.
  • Creed, Robert P. Reconstructing the Rhythm of Beowulf.
  • Damico, Helen. Beowulf's Wealhtheow and the Valkyrie Tradition. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.
  • Drout, Michael. Beowulf and the Critics.
  • Gillam, Doreen M. "The Use of the Term 'Aeglaeca' in Beowulf at Lines 893 and 2592." Studia Germanica Gandensia 3 (1961): 145-69.
  • Grigsby, John. Beowulf & Grendel: The Truth Behind England's Oldest Legend. Watkins Publishing. London, 2005. (2006 reprint edition distributed by Sterling Publishing).
  • The Heroic Age, Issue 5. "Anthropological and Cultural Approaches to Beowulf." Summer/Autumn 2001.
  • Horner, Shari. The Discourse of Enclosure: Representing Women in Old English Literature. New York: SUNY Press, 2001.
  • Nicholson, Lewis E. (Ed.). An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism. (1963), Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-00006-9
  • North, Richard. Origins of Beowulf: From Vergil to Wiglaf. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Orchard, Andy. A Critical Companion to Beowulf. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2003.
  • ---. Pride and Prodigies: Studies in the Monsters of the Beowulf-Manuscript. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.
  • Owen-Crocker, Gale (2000). The Four Funerals in Beowulf: And the Structure of the Poem. New York: Manchester University Press. 
  • Stanley, E.G. "Did Beowulf Commit 'Feaxfeng' against Grendel's Mother." Notes and Queries 23 (1976): 339-40.
  • Tolkien, J.R.R.. Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics (1983). London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-0480-9019-0
  • Trask, Richard M. "Preface to the Poems: Beowulf and Judith: Epic Companions." Beowulf and Judith : Two Heroes. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1998. 11-14.

Meyer (Mike) Howard Abrams (born July 23, 1912) is an American literary critic, known for works on Romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is a literary critic, theorist and scholar. ... The Norton Anthology of English Literature is a well-known English Literary studies supplement for many tertiary level students. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company. ... Nora Kershaw Chadwick was a twentieth century British scholar of traditional literature. ... Michael D. C. Drout (1968- ) is the Prentice Associate Professor of English at Wheaton College and an author and editor specialzing in Anglo-Saxon and medieval literature, science fiction and fantasy, especially the works of J. R. R. Tolkien and Ursula K. LeGuin. ... Beowulf and the Critics by J. R. R. Tolkien is a book edited by Michael D. C. Drout that presents scholary editions of the two manuscript versions of Tolkiens essays or lecture series Beowulf and the Critics, which served as the basis for the much shorter 1936 lecture Beowulf... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Tolkien redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Tolkien, J.R.R. (1958). Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics. London: Oxford University Press, 127. 
  2. ^ Beowulf: sole surviving manuscript. The British Library. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  3. ^ a b c Kiernan, Kevin S. (1997). Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08412-8. 
  4. ^ The Question of genre in byliny and Beowulf by Shannon Meyerhoff, 2006.
  5. ^ Mitchell, Bruce (1986). "Diphthongs", A Guide to Old English. Blackwell, 14-15. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Kiernan, Kevin (1996). Beowulf and the Beowulf manuscript. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, footnote 69 pg 162, 90, 258, 257,171, xix-xx, xix, 3 , 4 , 277-278 , 23-34, 29, 29, 60, 62, footnote 69 162. 
  7. ^ Electronic Beowulf. The University of Kentucky. Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  8. ^ a b c d Joy, Eileen A (2005). Thomas Smith, Humfrey Wanley, and the Little-Known Country of the Cotton Library. Electronic British Library Journal. Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
  9. ^ Heaney, Seamus (2000). Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York: Norton. 
  10. ^ Abrams, M.H. & Greenblatt, Stephen (2000), The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages (Vol 1), Beowulf., New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 29 
  11. ^ Müllenhoff, ZfdA., Vol.7, (1849), p. 420 : "Aber Brecas name bedeutet innerhalb dieses mythus gerade den kräftigen schwimmer durch die wildbewegten fluten."
  12. ^ a b Classical Names and Stories in the Bēowulf. Sivert N. Hagen. Modern Language Notes, Vol. 19, No. 3/4. (Mar. - Apr., 1904), pp. 65-74.
  13. ^ Lord, Albert. The Singer of Tales. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960. p. 200
  14. ^ Crowne, D.K. 'The Hero on the Beach: An Example of Composition by Theme in Anglo-Saxon Poetry', Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 61 (1960)
  15. ^ Benson, Larry. "The Originality of Beowulf" The Interpretation of Narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970. pp 1-44
  16. ^ a b c d Foley, John M. Oral-Formulaic Theory and Research: An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1985. p.126
  17. ^ Watts, Ann C. The Lyre and the Harp: A Comparative Reconsideration of Oral Tradition in Homer and Old English Epic Poetry. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1969. p. 124, et al.
  18. ^ Gardner, Thomas. "How Free Was the Beowulf Poet?" Modern Philology. 1973. p. 111-27.
  19. ^ (1986) The Norton Anthology of English Literature. W. W. Norton and Co., Ltd, 19. ISBN 0393954722. 
  20. ^ (1977) Beowulf: a Dual-Language Edition. New York, NY: Doubleday. 
  21. ^ Newton, Sam (1993). The Origins of Beowulf and the Pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia. Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Boydell & Brewer Ltd.. ISBN 0 85991 361 9. 
  22. ^ Shippey, T. A. (Summer 2001). "Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulf and Elsewhere, Notes and Bibliography". In The Heroic Age (5). 
  23. ^ a b Klingmark, Elisabeth. Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59 (in Swedish). Riksantikvarieämbetet. 
  24. ^ a b Nerman, Birger (1925). Det svenska rikets uppkomst. 
  25. ^ Ottar's Mound (English). Swedish National Heritage Board. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  26. ^ a b Niles, John D. (October 2006). "Beowulf's Great Hall". History Today 56 (10). 
  27. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia (Ph.D. thesis) p. 115. University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English). Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  28. ^ a b c Chance, Jane (1990). in Helen Damico and Alexandra Hennessey Olsen: The Structural Unity of Beowulf: The Problem of Grendel's Mother. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 248. 
  29. ^ Jack, George. Beowulf: A Student Edition. Oxford University Press, USA, 123. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Owen-Crocker, Gale (2000). The Four Funerals in Beowulf: And the Structure of the Poem. New York: Manchester University Press, 1-5, 23, 31, 34, 44, 52, 65-69, 84-86, 104-105. 
  31. ^ Tarzia, Wade (1989). The Hoarding Ritual in Germanic Epic Tradition.. The Journal of Folklore Research 26:2, 99-121. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Greenblatt, Stephen; M.H. Abrahams (2006). The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Volume A: Middle Ages. New York: Norton & Company, 34-35, 57-58, 81, 99-100. 
  33. ^ a b Abrams, M.H. & Greenblatt, Stephen (2000), The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages (Vol 1), Beowulf., New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 30 
  34. ^ Greenfield, Stanley. (1989) Hero and Exile. London: Hambleton Press, 59
  35. ^ Greenfield, Stanley. (1989) Hero and Exile. London: Hambleton Press, 61
  36. ^ Richard North, "The King's Soul: Danish Mythology in Beowulf," in the Origins of Beowulf: From Vergil to Wiglaf, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 195
  37. ^ Williams, David:"Cain and Beowulf: A Study in Secular Allegory. University of Toronto Press, 1982
  38. ^ Cabaniss, A: "Liturgy and Literature", page 101. University of Alabama Press, 1970
  39. ^ Cabaniss, A: "Liturgy and Literature", page 102. University of Alabama Press, 1970
  40. ^ Cabaniss, A: "Liturgy and Literature", page 102. University of Alabama Press, 1970
  41. ^ Yeager, Robert F.. Why Read Beowulf?. National Endowement For The Humanities. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  42. ^ a b c d e f Osborn, Marijane, Annotated List of Beowulf Translations, <http://www.asu.edu/clas/acmrs/web_pages/online_resources/online_resources_annotated_beowulf_bib.html>. Retrieved on 21 November 2007 
  43. ^ Ewald, Gustav (1950). "Är Skalunda hög kung Beowulfs grav?" (in Swedish). Västgöta-Bygden 1. (Om *Birger Nermans och °Carl Otto Fasts idéer angående hednatima kungars gravplats.)
  44. ^ The Adventures of Beowulf

J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is a literary critic, theorist and scholar. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Beowulf
  • Comparison of various English translations
  • Resources for the Study of Beowulf - University of Nevada
  • Beowulf resources
  • Beowulf manuscript in The British Library's Online Gallery
  • Beowulf Full text and audio.
  • Full summary of Beowulf
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The phrase University of Nevada by itself usually refers to the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), because that was the name by which it was known from the time of its founding in 1874 until its name was changed to University of Nevada, Reno in 1969, at the same time... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Beowulf fights the dragon Beowulf (IPA: ) is the legendary hero and king of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of the same name. ... For other uses, see Grendel (disambiguation). ... The first page of Beowulf Grendels mother (Old English: Grendles modor) is one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... Hroðgar (Proto-Norse *Hrōþigaizaz [1], Hrothgar, Hróar, Ro, Roar), legendary Danish king. ... Ecgþeow (Proto-Norse *Agiþewaz) is a character in the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf. ... Hygelac, Proto-Norse *Hugilaikaz [1], Latin Chlochilaicus, Old Norse Hugleikr (d. ... Heardred (d. ... Hrothgars most trusted warrior, killed by Grendels mother. ... Onela was according to Beowulf a Swedish king during the first half the 6th century. ... Queen Wealhtheow as the hostess of the banquet Wealhþeow is the queen of the Daner, in Beowulf. ... Wiglaf is a young well-regarded Swedish warrior of the Waegmunding clan, in Beowulf. ... Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem composed around 1100 AD. At 3,183 lines, the poem is notable for its length. ... Heorot is the stronghold of king Hrothgar in the epic poem Beowulf. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... he joost hoestie, wat loop je ons nou uit te schelden, je stinkt zelf, want je bent een nep japanner ... Meyer (Mike) Howard Abrams (born July 23, 1912) is an American literary critic, known for works on Romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp. ... Michael Joseph Alexander is a British academic. ... Nora Kershaw Chadwick was a twentieth century British scholar of traditional literature. ... Michael D. C. Drout (1968- ) is the Prentice Associate Professor of English at Wheaton College and an author and editor specialzing in Anglo-Saxon and medieval literature, science fiction and fantasy, especially the works of J. R. R. Tolkien and Ursula K. LeGuin. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is a literary critic, theorist and scholar. ... Frederick Klaeber (01 October 1863 - 04 October 1954) was a professor of Old and Middle English at the University of Minnesota. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... Burton Raffel is a translator, a poet and a teacher. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Charles Leslie Wrenn was a British scholar. ... Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship. ... Grendel is a 1971 parallel novel by American author John Gardner. ... Grendel, Grendel, Grendel is an animated film based on John Gardners novel and starring Peter Ustinov made in 1981. ... Eaters of the Dead: The Manuscript of Ibn Fadlan Relating His Experiences with the Northmen in A.D. 922 is a 1976 novel by Michael Crichton. ... The Legacy of Heorot is a science fiction novel written in 1987 by Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle and Steven Barnes. ... Beowulfs Children is a science fiction novel written by Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle and Steven Barnes. ... Beowulf DVD cover Beowulf is a 1999 action movie loosely based on the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf. ... The 13th Warrior is a 1999 action film based on Michael Crichtons novel Eaters of the Dead, directed by John McTiernan and an uncredited Crichton, and starring Antonio Banderas as Ahmad ibn Fadlan and Vladimir Kulich as Buliwyf (Beowulf). ... Beowulf & Grendel is a 2005 film loosely based on the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf. ... Wrath Of Gods is a documentary directed by Jon Gustafsson. ... The movie Grendel is a modern motion picture adaptation of the epic story of Beowulf and Grendel, as told in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf. ... Beowulf is a 2007 animated film adaptation of the Old English epic poem of the same name. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beowulf - Rotten Tomatoes (993 words)
In a legendary time of heroes, the mighty warrior Beowulf battles the demon Grendel and incurs the hellish wrath of the beast’s ruthlessly seductive mother.
Beowulf aspires to epic realm of 300 and the fantasy of Lord of the Rings but falls short of both.
Beowulf may contain all the modern movie magic at Zemeckis’ disposal, but it plays like something Cecil B. DeMille could have churned out in his sleep...
Beowulf (0 words)
Beowulf is the earliest known narrative poem in English, and one of the most famous works of Anglo-Saxon poetry.
Beowulf kills the monster, and is celebrated as a great hero - but joy turns to horror when Grendel's mother arrives to avenge the killing of her son.
Beowulf is much admired for the richness of its poetry - for the beautiful sounds of the words and the imaginative quality of the description.
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