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Encyclopedia > Benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepine
IUPAC name 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one
Identifiers
CAS number
PubChem 76175
SMILES O=C1N([H])c2ccccc2C(c3ccccc3)=NC1
Properties
Molecular formula C15H12N2O
Molar mass 236.26858
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

The benzodiazepines (pronounced [ˌbɛnzoː.daɪˈæzəˌpiːn], often abbreviated to "benzos") are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system.[1] Benzodiazepines are useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, and muscle spasms, as well as alcohol withdrawal. They can also be used before certain medical procedures such as endoscopies or dental work where tension and anxiety are present, and prior to some unpleasant medical procedures in order to induce sedation and amnesia[2] for the procedure. Another use is to counteract anxiety-related symptoms upon initial use of SSRIs and other antidepressants, or as an adjunctive treatment. Recreational stimulant users often use benzodiazepines as a means of "coming down" (see: Drug abuse). Benzodiazepines are also used to treat the panic that can be caused by hallucinogen intoxication.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 484 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1265 × 1568 pixels, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/png) Created myself using Cambridgesoft ChemDraw I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... Anterograde amnesia is a form of amnesia, or memory loss, in which new events are not transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer A flexible endoscope. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Sedation is a medical procedure involving administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure, such as endoscopy, vasectomy, or minor surgery with local anaesthesia. ... For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... This article is about state anxiety. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... Hallucinogenic drug - drugs that can alter sensory perceptions. ...


The long-term use of benzodiazapines can cause physical dependence. The use of benzodiazepines should therefore commence only after medical consultation and benzodiazepines should be prescribed the smallest dosage possible to provide an acceptable level of symptom relief. Dependence varies with the benzodiazepine used and with the user. Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ...

Contents

History

The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium) was discovered serendipitously in 1954 by the Austrian scientist Leo Sternbach (1908–2005), working for the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann–La Roche. Chlordiazepoxide was synthesised from work on a chemical dye, quinazolone-3-oxides. Initially, he discontinued his work on the compound Ro-5-0690, but he "rediscovered" it in 1957 when an assistant was cleaning up the laboratory. Although initially discouraged by his employer, Sternbach conducted further research that revealed the compound was a very effective tranquilizer. Tests revealed that the compound had hypnotic, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant effects. Three years later chlordiazepoxide was marketed as a therapeutic benzodiazepine medication under the brand name Librium. Following chlordiazepoxide in 1963 diazepam hit the market under the brand name Valium, followed by many further benzodiazepine compounds which were introduced over the subsequent years and decades.[4] Chlordiazepoxide (pronounced [ˈklɔːrËŒdaɪəzepˈoksaɪd], marketed under the trade name Librium®) is a sedative/hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Look up Serendipity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dr Leo Henryk Sternbach (May 7, 1908 – September 28, 2005) was a Polish-Jewish chemist who is credited with inventing the benzodiazepine, a class of tranquilizers. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... F. Hoffmann–La Roche, Ltd. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ...


The original chemical name of chlordiazepoxide was methaminodiazepoxide but it was changed to chlordiazepoxide. It was marketed under the trade name Librium, derived from the final syllables of equilibrium. In 1959 it was used by over 2,000 physicians and more than 20,000 patients. It was described as "chemically and clinically different from any of the tranquilizers, psychic energizers or other psychotherapeutic drugs now available." During studies, chlordiazepoxide induced muscle relaxation and a quieting effect on laboratory animals like mice, rats, cats, and dogs. Fear and aggression were eliminated in much smaller doses than those necessary to produce hypnosis. Chlordiazepoxide is similar to phenobarbital in its anticonvulsant properties. However, it lacks the hypnotic effects of barbiturates. Animal tests were conducted in the Boston Zoo and the San Diego Zoo. Forty-two hospital patients admitted for acute and chronic alcoholism, and various psychoses and neuroses were treated with chlordiazepoxide. In a majority of the patients, anxiety, tension, and motor excitement were "effectively reduced." The most positive results were observed among alcoholic patients. It was reported that ulcers and dermatologic problems, both of which involve emotional factors, were reduced by chlordiazepoxide.[5] Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... The world-famous San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California is one of the largest, most progressive zoos in the world with over 4,000 animals of more than 800 species. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested was caused by emotions from past experience overwhelming or interfering with present experience. ...


Chlordiazepoxide enabled the treatment of emotional disturbances without a loss of mental acuity or alertness. It assisted persons burdened by compulsive reactions like one that felt compelled to count the slats on venetian blinds upon entering a room.[6] Venetian blind detail, showing how slats are connected Cat tangled in miniblinds A window blind is a covering for a window, usually attached to the interior side of a window. ...


Dr. Carl F. Essig of the Addiction Research Center of the National Institute of Mental Health spoke at a symposium on drug abuse at an annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in December 1963. He named meprobamate, glutethimide, ethinamate, ethchlorvynol, methyprylon, and chlordiazepoxide as drugs whose usefulness can hardly be questioned. However, Essig labeled these newer products as drugs of addiction, like barbiturates, whose habit-forming qualities were more widely-known. He mentioned a 90-day study of chlordiazepoxide, which concluded that the automobile accident rate among 68 users was ten times higher than normal. Participants' daily dosage ranged from 5 to 100 milligrams.[7] The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Meprobamate (marketed under the brand names Miltown® by Wallace Laboratories, Equanil® by Wyeth, and Meprospan®) is a carbamate derivative which is used as an anxiolytic drug. ... Glutethimide is a hypnotic sedative that was introduced in 1954 as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia. ... Ethinamate (Valamin®, Valmid®) is a short-acting sedative-hypnotic medication used to treat insomnia. ... Ethchlorvynol is a sedative and hypnotic drug. ... Methyprylon is a sedative of the piperidinedione derivative family. ...


In 1963, approval for use was given to diazepam (Valium), a "simplified" version of chlordiazepoxide, primarily to counteract anxiety symptoms. Sleep-related problems were treated with nitrazepam (Mogadon), which was introduced in 1965, temazepam (Restoril), which was introduced in 1969, and flurazepam (Dalmane), which was introduced in 1973.[8] Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Nitrazepam (marketed under the trade names Mogadon®, Nitredon®, Nilandron®) is a powerful hypnotic drug, which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ...


Common benzodiazepines

The core chemical structure of "classical" benzodiazepine drugs is a fusion between the benzene and diazepine ring systems. Many of these drugs contain the 5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one substructure (see figure to the above right). Benzodiazepines are molecularly similar to several groups of drugs, some of which share similar pharmacological properties, including the quinazolinones, hydantoines, succinimides, oxazolidinediones, barbiturates and glutarimides.[9][10] The various benzodiazepines and their respective trade-names, half-lives, and primary uses are listed in the following table. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the formula C6H6. ... Diazepine is a seven-membered heterocyclic compound with two nitrogen atoms (e. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Succinimides are drugs that can be used as anticonvulsants. ... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ...


Most benzodiazepines are administered orally; however, administration can also occur intravenously, intramuscularly, sublingually or as a suppository. Well-known benzodiazepines and their primary trade names include: Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Sublingual, literally under the tongue, from Latin, refers to a pharmacological route of administration in which certain drugs are entered directly into the bloodstream via absorption under the tongue. ... Suppository casting mould A suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository) where it dissolves. ...


Classical benzodiazepines

Bromazepam (marketed under brand names Calmepam, Compendium, Creosedin, Durazanil, Lectopam, Lexaurin, Lexilium, Lexomil, Lexotan, Lexotanil, Normoc, Somalium)[1] is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril in Europe, South America, Canada, India, and Australia) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene® and Tranxilium®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Chlordiazepoxide (pronounced [ˈklɔːrˌdaɪəzepˈoksaɪd], marketed under the trade name Librium®) is a sedative/hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ... Nitrazepam (marketed under the trade names Mogadon®, Nitredon®, Nilandron®) is a powerful hypnotic drug, which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Oxazepam (marketed under brand names Alepam, Murelax, Oxascand, Serax, Serepax, Seresta, Sobril) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Tetrazepam, (Clinoxan, Myolastan, Musaril) is a benzodiazepine derivative with anxiolytic and muscle relaxant properties. ...

Other benzodiazepines

A related class of drugs that also work on the benzodiazepine receptors, the nonbenzodiazepines, has recently been introduced.[11] Nonbenzodiazepines are molecularly distinct from benzodiazepines and have less addictive potential, while still offering benefits very similar to those of benzodiazepines. Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... Estazolam (ProSom®) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for short-term treatment of insomnia. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Lormetazepam (Noctamid®, Ergocalm®, Loramet®, also known as methyllorazepam, is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Mexazolam (marketed under brand name Somelin) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Triazolam (Halcion®, Novodorm®, Songar®) belongs to benzodiazepine group of drugs. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ...


Pharmacology

Duration of action

Benzodiazepines are commonly divided into three groups by their half-lives: Short-acting compounds have a half-life of less than 12 hours, and have few residual effects if taken before bedtime, but rebound insomnia may occur and they might cause wake-time anxiety. Intermediate-acting compounds have a half-life of 12–24 hours, may have residual effects in the first half of the day. Rebound insomnia however is more common upon discontinuation of short-acting benzodiazepines. Daytime withdrawal symptoms are also a problem with prolonged usage of short-acting benzodiazepines, including daytime anxiety. Long-acting compounds have a half-life greater than 24 hours.[12][13] Strong sedative effects typically persist throughout the next day if long-acting preparations are used for insomnia. Accumulation of the compounds in the body may occur. The elimination half-life may greatly vary between individuals, especially the elderly. Shorter-acting compounds are usually best for their hypnotic effects, whereas longer-acting compounds are usually better for their anxiolytic effects. Benzodiazepines with shorter half-lives tend to be able to produce tolerance and addiction quicker, as the drug does not last in the system for as long, with resultant interdose withdrawal phenomenon and next-dose craving. Although short-acting drugs are more commonly prescribed for insomnia, there are exceptions to the rules, such as alprazolam being prescribed as an anxiolytic more than a hypnotic, despite possessing a short half-life. The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ...


Mechanism of action

Benzodiazepines produce a range of effects from depressing to stimulating the central nervous system via modulating the GABAA receptor, the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain. The GABAA receptor is made up from 5 subunits out of a possible 19, and GABAA receptors made up of different combinations of subunits have different properties, different locations within the brain, and different activities relative to pharmacological and clinical effects. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The GABAA receptor is one of two ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. ...


Benzodiazepines bind at the interface of the α and γ subunits on the GABA A receptor. Benzodiazepine binding also requires that alpha subunits contain a histidine amino acid residue, (i.e., α1, α2, α3 and α5 containing GABAA receptors). For this reason, benzodiazepines show no affinity for α4 and α6 subunits containing GABAA receptors, which contain an arginine instead of a histidine residue. Other sites on the GABAA receptor also bind neurosteroids, barbiturates and certain anesthetics.[14] Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Apart from exerting effects on the genome via intracellular steroid receptors, neuroactive steroids (or neurosteroids) rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ...


In order for GABAA receptors to be sensitive to the action of benzodiazepines, they need to contain both an α and a γ subunit, where the benzodiazepine binds at the interface. Once bound, the benzodiazepine locks the GABAA receptor into a conformation where the neurotransmitter GABA has much higher affinity for the GABAA receptor, increasing the frequency of opening of the associated chloride ion channel and hyperpolarizing the membrane. This potentiates the inhibitory effect of the available GABA, leading to sedatory and anxiolytic effects. As mentioned above, different benzodiazepines can have different affinities for GABAA receptors made up of different collection of subunits. For instance, benzodiazepines with high activity at the α1 are associated with sedation, whereas those with higher affinity for GABAA receptors containing α2 and/or α3 subunits have good anti-anxiety activity.[15] Benzodiazepines also bind to glial cell membranes.[16] Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Hyperpolarization has several meanings: In biology, hyperpolarization (biology) occurs when the strength of the electric field across the width of a cell membrane increases. ... Neuroglia of the brain shown by Golgis method. ...


Benzodiazepines are full agonists at the benzodiazepine receptor producing anxiolytic and sedating properties. Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ...


Compounds that bind to the benzodiazepine receptor and enhance the GABA receptor function are termed benzodiazepine receptor agonists and display sedative/hypnotic properties. Compounds that, in the absence of agonist, have no apparent activity but that competitively inhibit the binding of agonists to the receptor are called benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. Ligands that decrease GABA function are termed benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonists. Full inverse agonists have potent convulsant activities. Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... In pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent which binds to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist for that receptor but exerts the opposite pharmacological effect. ...


Some compounds lie somewhere between being full agonists or full antagonists, and are termed either partial agonists or partial antagonists. There has been interest in partial agonists for the benzodiazepine receptor with evidence that complete tolerance may not occur with chronic use, with partial agonists demonstrating continued anxiolytic properties with reduced sedation, dependence, and withdrawal problems.[17]


The anticonvulsant properties of benzodiazepines may be in part or entirely due to binding to voltage-dependent sodium channels rather than benzodiazepine receptors. Sustained repetitive firing seems to be limited by benzodiazepines effect of slowing recovery of sodium channels from inactivation.[18]


Therapeutic uses

Benzodiazepines have a number of therapeutic uses, are well-tolerated, and are very safe and effective drugs in the short term for a wide range of conditions.


Use as anticonvulsants

Benzodiazepines are potent anticonvulsants and have life-saving properties in the acute management of status epilepticus. The most commonly-used benzodiazepines for seizure control are lorazepam and diazepam. A meta-analysis of 11 clinical trials concluded that lorazepam was superior to diazepam in treating persistent seizures.[19] Although diazepam is much longer-acting than lorazepam, lorazepam has a more prolonged anticonvulsant effect. This is because diazepam is very lipid-soluble and highly protein-bound, and has a very large distribution of unbound drug, resulting in diazepam's having only a 20– to 30-minute duration of action against status epilepticus. Lorazepam, however, has a much smaller volume of distribution of unbound drug, which results in a more prolonged duration of action against status epilepticus. Lorazepam can therefore be considered superior to diazepam, at least in the initial stages of treatment of status epilepticus.[20] The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...


Use as anxiolytics

Benzodiazepines possess anti-anxiety properties and can be useful for the short-term treatment of severe anxiety. Benzodiazepines are usually administered orally for the treatment of anxiety; however, occasionally lorazepam or diazepam may be given intravenously for the treatment of panic attacks.[1] A panic attack is a period of intense fear or discomfort, typically with an abrupt onset and usually lasting no more than 30 minutes. ...


A panel of over 50 peer-nominated internationally recognized experts in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety and depression judged the benzodiazepines, especially combined with an antidepressant, as the mainstays of pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders.[21][22][23][24]


Despite increasing focus on the use of antidepressants and other agents for the treatment of anxiety, benzodiazepines have remained a mainstay of anxiolytic pharmacotherapy due to their robust efficacy, rapid onset of therapeutic effect, and generally favorable side effect profile.[25] Treatment patterns for psychotropic drugs appear to have remained stable over the past decade, with benzodiazepines being the most commonly used medication for panic disorder.[26]


Use for insomnia

Hypnotic benzodiazepines have strong sedative effects, and certain benzodiazepines therefore are often prescribed for the management of insomnia. Longer-acting benzodiazepines, such as nitrazepam, have side-effects that may persist into the next day, whereas the more intermediate-acting benzodiazepines (for example, temazepam) may have less "hangover" effects the next day.[2] Benzodiazepine hypnotics should be reserved for short-term courses to treat acute conditions, as tolerance and dependence may occur if these benzodiazepines are taken regularly for more than a few weeks. Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ...


Use as a premedication before procedures

Benzodiazepines can be very beneficial as premedication before surgery, especially in those that are anxious. Usually administered a couple of hours before surgery, benzodiazepines will bring about anxiety relief and also produce amnesia. Amnesia can be useful in this situation, as patients will not be able to remember any unpleasantness from surgery.[3] Lorazepam can be utilized in patients who are particularly anxious about dental procedures.[4] Alternatively nitrous oxide can be administered in dental phobia due to its sedative and dissociative effects, its fast onset of action, and its extremely short duration of action. For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Dental phobia is a fear, or phobia, traditionally defined as an irrational and exaggerated fear of dentists and dental procedures. ...


Use in intensive care

Benzodiazepines can be very useful in intensive care to sedate patients receiving mechanical ventilation, or those in extreme distress or severe pain. Caution should be exercised in this situation due to the occasional scenario of respiratory depression, and benzodiazepine overdose treatment facilities should be available.[5] mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ...


Use in alcohol dependence

In the management of alcohol withdrawal, benzodiazepines can have potentially life-saving effects by ameliorating the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Delirium tremens, which can be potentially fatal, can be effectively treated by benzodiazepines and often prevented from occurring in the first place. The usual benzodiazepines used in the management of alcohol withdrawal are Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) or diazepam (Valium). Chlormethiazole is an alternative, but is not as well-tolerated as benzodiazepines, and, because it may have more risks associated with it, should only be used in an inpatient setting.[6] For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ... Chlordiazepoxide (pronounced [ˈklɔːrˌdaɪəzepˈoksaɪd], marketed under the trade name Librium®) is a sedative/hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Chlormethiazole is a sedative and hypnotic that is widely used in treating and preventing symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. ...


Use in muscular disorders

Benzodiazepines are well known for their strong muscle-relaxing properties, and can be useful in the treatment of muscle spasms, for example, Tetanus or spastic disorders [7] and Restless legs syndrome. Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... The word spastic is used differently depending on location, which has led to some controversy and misunderstanding. ... Restless legs syndrome (RLS, Wittmaack-Ekboms syndrome, or sometimes, but inaccurately, referred to as Nocturnal myoclonus) is a condition that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move ones legs (occasionally arms or torso). ...


Use in acute mania

Mania, a mood disorder, is a state of extreme mood elevation and is a diagnosable serious psychiatric disorder. Benzodiazepines can be very useful in the short-term treatment of acute mania, until the effects of Lithium or neuroleptics take effect. Benzodiazepines bring about rapid tranquillisation and sedation of the manic individual, therefore benzodiazepines are a very important tool in the management of mania. Both clonazepam and lorazepam are used for the treatment, with some evidence that clonazepam may be superior in the treatment of acute mania.[27][28] This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril in Europe, South America, Canada, India, and Australia) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ...


Therapeutic uses in veterinary practice

As in humans, benzodiazepines have a wide range of uses in veterinary practice in the treatment of various disorders and scenarios involving animals. Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...


Midazolam and diazepam are utilized for their anesthetic properties in veterinary practice in combination with other general anesthetic drugs such as ketamine.[29][30] Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Veterinary anesthesia is anesthesia performed on animals (excluding humans) performed by a veterinarian. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ...


Midazolam or diazepam can also be used as a sedative anxiolytic to quell anxiety and agitation experienced by animals in veterinary practice, for example, during transport. [31][32] Diazepam has also been found to have tranquillising effects on various animals tested with the following properties; myorelaxation, stress reduction and aggression inhibition.[33] Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. ...


Benzodiazepines are also commonly used for the control of muscular conditions in animals. Diazepam has been prescribed for the effective treatment and control of tremors by veterinarians in animals. Corticosteroids and or Diazepam have been found to be effective for the control of tremors in veterinarian practice.[34][35] Diazepam has also been used in to control muscle spasms that were the result of tetanus in cats.[36] Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... In American and Canadian English, a veterinarian (from Latin veterinae, draught animals) is an animal doctor, a practitioner of veterinary medicine. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... A Spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ...


Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, are used in the treatment of various forms of epilepsy in dogs.[37] Benzodiazepines have potent anticonvulsant properties and are very effective in the short term in managing seizure disorders in animals. However, with prolonged usage, benzodiazepines tend to lose their anticonvulsant properties. Partial benzodiazepine receptor agonists have shown some promise, with continued efficacy being demonstrated with benzodiazepine receptor partial agonists and also displaying mild withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation, which may make them superior to benzodiazepines in the long-term management of epilepsy in animals.[38] Phenobarbital is the drug of choice and potassium bromide is the drug of second choice in the treatment of epilepsy in dogs and diazepam is recommended for the treatment at home of cluster seizures.[39] The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... Agonists In pharmacology an agonist is a substance that binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ...


Lorazepam has been found to be an effective premedication before general anesthesia in bringing about adequate muscular relaxation for veterinary surgery.[40] Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ... Premedication refers to a drug treatment given to a patient before a (surgical or invasive) medical procedure. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians. ...


Midazolam can also be used along with other drugs in the sedation and capture of wild animals.[41] Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ...


Side-effects

The following list summarises the side effects which may occur from use of benzodiazepines.[42]

Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). When the chest pain is not... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A paradoxical reaction is the result of a medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally-expected results. ...

Paradoxical reactions

Severe behavioral changes resulting from benzodiazepines have been reported including mania, schizophrenia, anger, impulsivity, and hypomania.[44] Individuals with borderline personality disorder appear to have a greater risk of experiencing severe behavioral or psychiatric disturbances from benzodiazepines. Aggression and violent outbursts can also occur with benzodiazepines, particularly when they are combined with alcohol. Recreational abusers and patients on high-dosage regimes may be at an even greater risk of experiencing paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines.[45] Paradoxical reactions may occur in any individual on commencement of therapy and initial monitoring should take into account the risk of increase in anxiety or suicidal thoughts.[46] This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Hypomania is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301. ... A paradoxical reaction is the result of a medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally-expected results. ...


When benzodiazepines are used as an adjunct in the treatment of seizures, an increase in dosage of the primary agent may be required. The concomitant administration of benzodiazepines and anti-convulsants may precipitate an increase in certain seizure activity, specifically tonic-clonic seizures.


In a letter to the British Medical Journal, it was reported that a high proportion of parents referred for actual or threatened child abuse were taking drugs at the time, often a combination of benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants. Many mothers described that instead of feeling less anxious or depressed, they became more hostile and openly aggressive towards the child as well as to other family members while consuming tranquilizers. The author warned that environmental or social stresses such as difficulty coping with a crying baby combined with the effects of tranquilizers may precipitate a child abuse event.[47] The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Child abuse is the physical, emotional or sexual abuse or neglect of children. ... It has been suggested that anxiety disorder be merged into this article or section. ...


Paradoxical rage reactions from benzodiazepines are thought to be due to partial deterioration from consciousness, generating automatic behaviors, fixation amnesia, and aggressiveness from disinhibition with a possible serotonergic mechanism playing a role.[48]


Physical dependence and withdrawal

Main article: Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Long-term benzodiazepine usage, in general, leads to some form of tolerance and/or dependence with the appearance of a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome when the benzodiazepines are stopped or the dose is reduced. However, it is important to distinguish between addiction to and normal physical dependence on benzodiazepines. Intentional abusers of benzodiazepines usually have other substance abuse problems. Benzodiazepines are usually a secondary drug of abuse-used mainly to augment the high received from another drug or to offset the adverse effects of other drugs. Few cases of addiction arise from legitimate use of benzodiazepines.[49] Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ... Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ...


Regular use of benzodiazepines at prescribed levels for six weeks was found to produce a significant risk of dependence, with resultant withdrawal symptoms appearing on abrupt discontinuation in a study assessing diazepam and buspirone. However, with abrupt withdrawal after six weeks of treatment with buspirone, no withdrawal symptoms developed.[50] Various studies have shown between 20–100% of patients prescribed benzodiazepines at therapeutic dosages long term are physically dependent and will experience withdrawal symptoms.[51]


Benzodiazepine dependence is a frequent complication when they are prescribed for or taken for longer than four weeks, with physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms being the most common problem, but also occasionally drug-seeking behavior. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, perceptual disturbances, distortion of all the senses, dysphoria, and, in rare cases, psychosis, and epileptic seizures. The risk factors for benzodiazepine dependence are long-term use beyond four weeks, use of high doses, and use of potent short-acting benzodiazepines among those with certain pre-existing personality characteristics such as dependent personalities, and those prone to drug abuse.[52]


Previously, physical dependence on benzodiazepines was largely thought to occur only in people on high-therapeutic-dose ranges, and low- or normal-dose dependence was not suspected until the 1970s; and it wasn't until the early 1980s that it was confirmed.[53] However, low-dose dependence is now a recognized clinical disadvantage of benzodiazepines, and severe withdrawal syndromes can occur from these low doses of benzodiazepines even after gradual dose reduction.[54][55] Low dose dependence has now been clearly demonstrated in both animal studies and human studies.[56][57] See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ...


In an animal study of four baboons on low-dose benzodiazepine treatment, three out of the four baboons demonstrated physical dependence and developed flumazenil-precipitated withdrawal symptoms after only two weeks of low-dose benzodiazepine treatment. Furthermore, the baboons on low-dose therapy did not develop more severe flumazenil-precipitated withdrawal symptoms because low-dose benzodiazepine therapy was continued over a period of 6–10 months, suggesting rapid onset of dependence with benzodiazepines and suggesting that physical dependence was complete after two weeks of chronic, low-dose benzodiazepine treatment.[58] In another animal study, physical dependence was demonstrated with withdrawal signs appearing after only seven days of low-dose benzodiazepine treatment, and withdrawal signs appeared after only three days after high-dose treatment, which demonstrated the extremely rapid development of tolerance and dependence on benzodiazepines, at least in baboons. It was also found that previous exposure to benzodiazepines sensitized baboons to the development of physical dependence.[59] Species Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio ursinus The Baboon is the largest non-hominid member of the primate order. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Flumazenil (flumazepil, Anexate®, Lanexat®, Mazicon®, Romazicon®) is a benzodiazepine antagonist, used as an antidote in the treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. ...


In humans, chronic, low-therapeutic-dose dependence was clearly demonstrated using flumazenil to show physical dependence and withdrawal signs. Withdrawal symptoms experienced by the chronic therapeutic low-dose subjects included increased ratings of dizziness, blurred vision, heart pounding, feelings of unreality, pins and needles, nausea, sweatiness, noises louder than usual, jitteriness, things moving, sensitivity to touch.[60] In another study of 34 low-dose benzodiazepine users, physiological dependence was demonstrated by the appearance of withdrawal symptoms in 100% of those who received flumazenil whereas those receiving placebo experienced no withdrawal signs. It was also found that those dependent on low doses of benzodiazepines with a history of panic attacks were at an increased risk of suffering panic attacks due to flumazenil precipitated benzodiazepine withdrawal.[61] It has been estimated that 30–45% of chronic low dose benzodiazepine users are dependent and it has been recommended that benzodiazepines even at low dosage be prescribed for a maximum of 7–14 days to avoid dependence.[62] Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... Paresthesia (paraesthesia in British) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin with no apparent physical cause, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ...


Some controversy remains, however, in the medical literature as to the exact nature of low-dose dependence and the difficulty in getting patients to discontinue their benzodiazepines, with some papers attributing the problem to predominantly drug-seeking behavior and drug craving, whereas other papers have found the opposite, attributing the problem to a problem of physical dependence with drug-seeking and craving not being typical of low-dose benzodiazepine users.[63][64] For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ...


Cross tolerance

Benzodiazepines share a similar mechanism of action with various sedative compounds that act by enhancing the GABAA receptor. Cross tolerance means that one drug will alleviate the withdrawal effects of another. It also means that tolerance of one drug will result in tolerance of another similarly-acting drug. Benzodiazepines are often used for this reason to detoxify alcohol-dependent patients, and can have life-saving properties in preventing and/or treating severe life-threatening withdrawal syndromes from alcohol, such as delirium tremens. However, although benzodiazepines can be very useful in the acute detoxification of alcoholics, benzodiazepines in themselves act as positive reinforcers in alcoholics, by increasing the desire for alcohol. Low doses of benzodiazepines were found to significantly increase the level of alcohol consumed in alcoholics.[65] However, alcoholics dependent on benzodiazepines should not be abruptly withdrawn but be very slowly withdrawn from benzodiazepines as over-rapid withdrawal is likely to produce severe anxiety or panic, which is well known for being a relapse risk factor in alcoholics. See (benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome). For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ...


There is also cross tolerance between alcohol, the benzodiazepines, the barbiturates, and the nonbenzodiazepine drugs, which all act by enhancing the GABAA receptor's function via modulating the chloride ion channel function of the GABAA receptor.[66][67][68][69] Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ...


The Committee on the Review of Medicines

The Committee on the Review of Medicines (UK) carried out a review into benzodiazepines due to significant concerns of tolerance, drug dependence, and benzodiazepine withdrawal problems and other adverse effects. The committee found that benzodiazepines do not have any antidepressant or analgesic properties, and are therefore unsuitable treatments for conditions such as depression, tension headaches, and dysmenorrhoea. Benzodiazepines are also not beneficial in the treatment of psychosis due to a lack of efficacy. The committee also recommended against benzodiazepines being used in the treatment of anxiety or insomnia in children. The committee was in agreement with the Institute of Medicine (USA) and the conclusions of a study carried out by the White House Office of Drug Policy and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (USA) that there was little evidence that long-term use of benzodiazepine hypnotics are beneficial in the treatment of insomnia due to the development of tolerance. Benzodiazepines tended to lose their sleep-promoting properties within 3–14 days of continuous use, and, in the treatment of anxiety, the committee found that there was little convincing evidence that benzodiazepines retain efficacy in the treatment of anxiety after 4 months of continuous use due to the development of tolerance. Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Tension headaches, which were recently renamed tension type headaches by the International Headache Society, are the most common type of headaches. ... Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea), cramps or painful menstruation, involves menstrual periods that are accompanied by either sharp, intermittent pain or dull, aching pain, usually in the pelvis or lower abdomen. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... This article is about state anxiety. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ...


The committee found that regular use of benzodiazepines may cause dependence characterized by tolerance to the therapeutic effects and the development of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, which includes symptoms such as anxiety, apprehension, tremor, insomnia, nausea, and vomiting upon cessation of benzodiazepine use. Withdrawal symptoms tended to develop within 24 hours after the cessation of a short-acting benzodiazepine and within 3–10 days after intermediate-acting benzodiazepines. Withdrawal effects could occur, however, after treatment lasting only 2 weeks at therapeutic-dose levels, but with a higher tendency with habitual use beyond 2 weeks and more likely at higher doses. The withdrawal symptoms may appear to be similar to the original condition before treatment. The committee reported that all benzodiazepine therapy should be withdrawn gradually, that therapy be limited to short-term use only and only in carefully-selected patients. This article is about state anxiety. ... For the film see Tremors (film). ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ...


It was noted in the review that alcohol can potentiate the central nervous system depressant effects of benzodiazepines and should be avoided concomitantly. These effects may affect an individual's ability to drive or operate machinery, with the elderly being more prone to these adverse effects. In the neonate, high single doses or repeated low doses have been reported to produce hypotonia, poor sucking, and hypothermia, along with irregularities in the fetal heart. Benzodiazepines should also be avoided during lactation. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... Fetus at eight weeks A fetus (alternatively foetus or fœtus) is an embryo in later stages of development, from the third month of pregnancy until birth in humans. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ...


Taken together, withdrawal from benzodiazepines should be gradual, as abrupt withdrawal from high doses may cause confusion, toxic psychosis, convulsions, or a condition resembling delirium tremens. Abrupt withdrawal from lower doses may cause depression, nervousness, rebound insomnia, irritability, sweating, and diarrhoea.[70] Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... Psychosis (not to be confused with psychopathy) is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ... Anxiety is a complex combination of the feeling of fear, apprehension and worry often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. ... Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Diarrhoea is the correct way to spell the word Diarrhoea. ...


Withdrawal management

See also Benzodiazepine withdrawal management Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ...


Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms occur when benzodiazepine dosage is reduced in people who are physically dependent on benzodiazepines. Abrupt or over-rapid dosage reduction can produce severe withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms can even occur during a very gradual and slow dosage reduction but are usually not serious. Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ...


Benzodiazepine withdrawal is best managed by transferring the physically-dependent patient to an equivalent dose of diazepam because it has the longest half-life of all of the benzodiazepines and is available in low-potency, 2-mg tablets, which can be quartered for small dose reductions.[71] The speed of benzodiazepine reduction regimes varies from person to person, but is usually 10% every 2–4 weeks. A slow withdrawal, preferably under medical supervision by a physician that is knowledgeable about the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, with the patient in control of dosage reductions coupled with reassurance that withdrawal symptoms are temporary, have been found to produce the highest success rates. The withdrawal syndrome can usually be avoided or minimized by use of a long half-life benzodiazepine such as diazepam (Valium) or chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and a very gradually tapering off the drug over a period of months, or even up to a year or more, depending on the dosage and degree of dependency of the individual. A slower withdrawal rate significantly reduces the symptoms. In fact, some people feel better and more clear-headed as the dose gradually gets lower, so withdrawal from benzodiazepines is not necessarily an unpleasant event. People that report severe experiences from benzodiazepine withdrawal have almost invariably withdrawn or been withdrawn too quickly.[72] The various benzodiazepines and their respective trade-names, half-lives, and primary uses are listed in the following table. ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ... Diazepam, brand names: Valium, Seduxen, in Europe Apozepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative, which possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. ... Chlordiazepoxide (Trade name: Librium) was the first benzodiazepine to be made commercially available. ...


Non-medical use

Benzodiazepines are used/abused recreationally and activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in the central nervous system.[73] Misusers of benzodiazepines develop a high degree of tolerance, coupled with dosage escalation, often increasing their dosage to very high levels. Long-term use of benzodiazepines has the potential to cause both physical and psychological dependence, and are at risk of severe withdrawal symptoms. Tolerance and dependence to benzodiazepines develop rapidly with users of benzodiazepines, demonstrating benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome after as little as 3 weeks of continuous use. Benzodiazepines, and in particular temazepam, are sometimes used intravenously, which can lead to medical complications including abscesses, cellulitis, thrombophlebitis, arterial puncture, deep vein thrombosis, hepatitis B and C, HIV or AIDS, overdose and gangrene. Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, caused by withdrawal or dosage reduction of benzodiazepines, is the symptoms which appear when a patient who has taken the drug for a period of time stops taking the drug. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into deep vein thrombosis. ... This article is about Deep-vein thrombosis. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A drug overdose occurs when a chemical substance (i. ... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ...


Benzodiazepine use is widespread among amphetamine users, and those that have used amphetamines and benzodiazepines have greater levels of mental health problems, social deterioration, and poorer general health. Benzodiazepine injectors are almost four times more likely to inject using a shared needle than non-benzodiazepine-using injectors. It has been concluded in various studies that benzodiazepine use causes greater levels of risk and psycho-social dysfunction among drug users.[74] Those who use stimulants and depressant drugs are more likely to report adverse reactions from stimulant use, more likely to be injecting stimulants, and more likely to have been treated for a drug problem than those using stimulants but not depressant drugs.[75]


Once benzodiazepine dependence has been established a clinician should first establish the average daily consumption of benzodiazepines and then convert the patient to an equivalent dose of diazepam before beginning a gradual reduction program, starting initially with 2mg-size reductions. Additional drugs, such as antidepressants like buspirone, β blockers, and carbamazepine, should not be added into the withdrawal program unless there is a specific indication for their use.[76] Buspirone (brand-names Ansial, Ansiced, Anxiron, Axoren, Bespar, BuSpar, Buspimen, Buspinol, Buspisal, Narol, Spitomin, Sorbon) is an anxiolytic agent and a serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. ... Look up beta, Beta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ...


A six-year study on 51 Vietnam veterans who were drug abusers of either mainly stimulants (11 people), mainly opiates (26 people), or mainly benzodiazepines (14 people), was carried out to assess psychiatric symptoms related to the specific drugs of abuse. After six years, opiate abusers had little change in psychiatric symptomatology; 5 of the stimulant users had developed psychosis, and 8 of the benzodiazepine users had developed depression. Therefore, long-term benzodiazepine abuse and dependence seems to carry a negative effect on mental health, with a significant risk of causing depression.[77] The Vietnam Veterans was a French psychedelic group, who in the 80s released six records. ... A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ...


Increased mortality was found in drug misusers that also used benzodiazepines against those that did not. Heavy alcohol misuse was also found to increase mortality among multiple-drug users.[78]


Neuropsychological function can be permanently affected by abuse of sedative hypnotic benzodiazepines, with brain damage similar to alcoholic brain damage, as was shown in a 4– to 6-year follow-up study of hypnotic abusers by Borg and others of the Karolinska Institute. The CT scan abnormalities showed dilatation of the ventricular system. However, unlike alcoholics, hypnotic abusers showed no evidence of widened cortical sulci. The study concluded that, when cerebral disorder is diagnosed in hypnotic benzodiazepine abusers, it is often permanent.[79] An earlier study by Borg et al. found evidence of cerebral disorder in those that exclusively abused hypnotic benzodiazepines, suggesting that cerebral disorder was not the result of other substances of abuse. Anxiolytic benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam and lorazepam were not found to have the same toxic properties of most of the hypnotics.[80] Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes. ... The Karolinska Institute or Karolinska institutet is a medical university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ...


Crime

In a survey of police detainees carried out by the Australian Government, both legal and illegal users of benzodiazepines were found to be more likely to have lived on the streets, less likely to have been in full time work, and more likely to have used heroin or methamphetamines in the past 30 days from the date of taking part in the survey. Benzodiazepine users were also more likely to be receiving illegal incomes and more likely to have been arrested or imprisoned in the previous year. Benzodiazepines were sometimes reported to be abused alone, but most often formed part of a poly drug-using problem. Female users of benzodiazepines were more likely than men to be using heroin, whereas male users of benzodiazepines were more likely to report amphetamine use. Benzodiazepine users were more likely than non-users to claim government financial benefits, and benzodiazepine users who were also poly-drug users were the most likely to be claiming government financial benefits. Problem benzodiazepine use can be associated with crime. Those who reported using benzodiazepines alone were found to be in the mid range when compared to other drug using patterns in terms of property crimes and criminal breaches. Of the detainees reporting benzodiazepine use, one in five reported injection use, mostly of illicit temazepam, but some reported injecting prescribed temazepam or more rarely, other benzodiazepines. Injection was a concern in this survey due to increased health risks. The main problems highlighted in this survey were concerns of dependence, the potential for overdose of benzodiazepines in combination with opiates and the health problems associated with injection of benzodiazepines. The most consequential, and by far most commonly-abused benzodiazepine, was temazepam.[81] In the U.S. several jurisdictions have reported that benzodiazepine abuse by criminal detainees has surpassed that of opiates.[82] For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Benzodiazepines have also been used as a tool of murder by serial killers, murderers, and as a murder weapon by those with the condition Munchausen syndrome by proxy.[83][84][85] Benzodiazepines have also been used to facilitate rape or robbery crimes, and benzodiazepine dependence has been linked to shoplifting due to the fugue state induced by the drug.[86][87] When benzodiazepines are used for criminal purposes against a victim they are often mixed with food or drink.[88] Flunitrazepam, temazepam, and midazolam are the most common benzodiazepines used to facilitate date rape.[89] Alprazolam has been abused for the purpose of carrying out acts of incest and for the corruption of adolescent girls.[90] However, alcohol remains the most common drug involved in cases of drug rape.[91] Although benzodiazepines and ethanol are the most frequent drugs used in sexual assaults, GHB is another potential date rape drug which has received increased media focus.[92] Some benzodiazepines are more associated with crime than others especially when abused or taken in combination with alcohol. The potent benzodiazepine flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which has strong amnesia producing effects can cause abusers to become cold blooded and ruthless and also cause feelings of being invincible. This has led to some acts of extreme violence to others, often leaving abusers with no recollection of what they have done in their drug-induced state. It has been proposed that criminal and violent acts brought on by benzodiazepine abuse may be related to lowered serotonin levels via enhanced GABAergic effects.[93] Flunitrazepam has been implicated as the cause of one serial killers violent rampage, triggering off extreme aggression with anterograde amnesia.[94] A study on forensic psychiatric patients who had abused Flunitrazepam at the time of their crimes found that the patients displayed extreme violence, lacked the ability to think clearly and experienced a loss of empathy for their victims while under the influence of flunitrazepam, and it was found that the abuse of alcohol or other drugs in combination with Flunitrazepam compounded the problem. Their behaviour under the influence of Flunitrazepam was in contrast to their normal psychological state.[95] Munchausen syndrome is a form of psychological disorder known as a factitious disorder. ... For the New York City-based publisher, see Fugue State Press. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... The title Date Rape is a very general term which has come to represent some very different situations. ... Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Sexual assault is any physical contact of a sexual nature without voluntary consent. ... Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C4H8O3), commonly abbreviated GHB, is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries[1], and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. ... Date rape drug refers to any drug that can be used to assist in the commission of a sexual assault (date rape). ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Anterograde amnesia is a form of amnesia, or memory loss, in which new events are not transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory. ...


Patients reporting to two emergency rooms in Canada with violence-related injuries were most often found to be intoxicated with alcohol and were significantly more likely to test positive for benzodiazepines (most commonly temazepam) than other groups of individuals, whereas other drugs were found to be insignificant in relation to violent injuries.[96]


Overdose

Overdosage of benzodiazepines, particularly when combined with alcohol or opiates, may lead to coma.[97] The antidote for all benzodiazepines is flumazenil (Anexate), a benzodiazepine antagonist, which is occasionally used empirically in patients presenting with unexplained loss of consciousness in an emergency room setting. As with all overdose situations, the care provider must be aware of the possibility that multiple substances were utilized by the patient. Supportive measures should be put in place prior to administration of any benzodiazepine antagonist in order to protect the patient from both the withdrawal effects and possible complications arising from simultaneous utilization of chemically-unrelated pharmaceutical compounds. A determination of possible deliberate overdose should be considered with appropriate scrutiny, and precautions taken to prevent any attempt by patient to commit further bodily harm.[98][99] Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Flumazenil (flumazepil, Anexate®, Lanexat®, Mazicon®, Romazicon®) is a benzodiazepine antagonist, used as an antidote in the treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. ... The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ...


Flumazenil should be administered only by physicians that are familiar and suitably trained in the use of flumazenil in benzodiazepine overdose. Treating benzodiazepine overdose with flumazenil may reduce the chance of the patient being admitted to intensive care; however, caution should be exercised in the administration of flumazenil. The treating physician should bear in mind the possibility of mixed overdoses, especially mixed overdoses of other drugs or substances, as cocktails of drugs are often taken in overdose situations with their own overdose risks. A drug overdose occurs when a chemical substance (i. ... Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ...


Patients suspected of overdosing on benzodiazepines that are showing significant impairment of consciousness and respiratory depression and that are likely to need endotracheal intubation and be admitted to intensive care should be considered for flumazenil therapeutic treatment to avoid intubation and artificial ventilation. The decision to administer flumazenil to a suspected benzodiazepine-overdosed patient should be made after a comprehensive clinical evaluation including a complete clinical and biochemical evaluation of the respiratory status and the patient's ability to protect his or her own airway. Flumazenil, however, should be avoided in patients suspected of taking proconvulsant drugs, e.g., tricyclic antidepressants, and patients with a history of epilepsy. Flumazenil should also be avoided in patients that have a physical dependency on benzodiazepines, as flumazenil may precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome due to rapidly displacing benzodiazepines from the benzodiazepine receptor, thus potentially triggering severe seizures. Flumazenil should be administrated gradually and carefully to avoid any potentially serious adverse reactions associated with flumazenil usage. The minimum effective dose should be given to patients to avoid the common unpleasant psychological effects of flumazenil administration, and also to avoid potentially serious side-effects. Patients may become agitated after awakening from flumazenil and may try to leave the treatment environment. In these cases clinicians should warn the patient that leaving the facility may result in re-sedation. Flumazenil should be used only where full resuscitation equipment is immediately available.[100] Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... In medicine, hypoventilation exists when ventilation is inadequate to perform gas exchange. ... Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s. ... For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ...


Benzodiazepine overdose can either be intentional, accidental, or iatrogenic in nature. Flumazenil can reverse all the effects of benzodiazepines due to its specific competitive benzodiazepine receptor antagonist properties. The initial treatment, as well as diagnosis of benzodiazepine overdose, can be achieved via incremental intravenous bolus injections of flumazenil in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 mg. These dose ranges are generally well tolerated and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. Many benzodiazepines are longer-acting than flumazenil, and therefore there is a significant risk of relapse into coma or respiratory depression as the flumazenil wears off. Additional boluses of flumazenil or else an infusion (0.3 to 0.5 mg/h) therefore may need to be given, depending on the half-life of the benzodiazepine. Careful monitoring after flumazenil therapy has been discontinued is warranted in order to avoid relapse of the clinical condition. In neonates and small children, intravenous flumazenil of 10 to 20 μg/kg is an effective dose range for benzodiazepine overdose. Alternative routes of administration are intramuscular, oral (20 to 25 mg three times daily or as required), and rectal, which may be used as alternatives in long-term regimens. Flumazenil can precipitate seizures in patients that have taken mixed overdoses of carbamazepine or tricyclic antidepressants; flumazenil can also precipitate benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms; however these complications of flumazenil administration can be avoided via a careful flumazenil dose titration. Flumazenil therefore is a relatively safe and very effective treatment of benzodiazepine overdose, provided it is carried out by an experienced and knowledgeable physician in a suitable clinical environment.[101] Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise blood concentration to an effective level. ... In the metric system, a microgram is 1/1,000,000 of a gram, or 1/1000 of a milligram, is one of the smallest units of weight/mass commonly used. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


From a research perspective, there are some data suggesting that temazepam may be more frequently involved in drug-related deaths than are some other benzodiazepines. Temazepam produced more sedation than did other benzodiazepines, in overdose situations. Thus, there is some reason to think that temazepam (once taken in overdose) may have greater toxicity than other benzodiazepines. [102] Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ...


Pregnancy

In the united states the FDA has categorised benzodiazepines into either category D or category X benzodiazepines.[103] International statistics show that 3.5% of women consume psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and of that 3.5% up to 85% report using benzodiazepines during pregnancy making benzodiazepines the most commonly prescribed psychotropic drug consumed during pregnancy. Approximately 0.4% of all pregnancies are to women who have used benzodiazepines chronically throughout their pregnancy.[104] Neurodevelopmental and clinical symptoms are commonly found in babies exposed to benzodiazepines in utero. Benzodiazepine exposed babies have a low birth weight but catch up to normal babies at an early age but smaller head circumferences found in benzo babies persists. Other adverse effects of benzodiazepines taken during pregnancy are deviating neurodevelopmental and clinical symptoms including craniofacial anomalies, delayed development of pincer grasp, deviations in muscle tone and pattern of movements. Motor impairments in the babies are impeded for up to 1 year after birth. Gross motor development impairments takes 18 months to return to normal but fine motor function impairments persist.[105] In addition to the smaller head circumference found in benzodiazepine exposed babies mental retardation and lower intelligence occurs.[106]


Legal status

All medically-used benzodiazepines are Schedule IV in the USA under the Federal Controlled Substances Act. In Canada benzodiazepines are also Schedule IV.[107] This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) and Temazepam (Restoril) are treated more severely under Federal law than other benzodiazepines. For example, despite being Schedule IV like any other benzodiazepine, flunitrazepam is not commercially available in the United States. It also carries tougher Federal penalties for trafficking and possession than other Schedule IV drugs. With the exception of cases involving 5 grams or more of cocaine or morphine, flunitrazepam is the only controlled substance whose first-offense simple possession is a federal felony. In Europe, especially in the United Kingdom, temazepam and flunitrazepam also carry tougher penalties for trafficking and possession.[108] In Ireland, temazepam and flunitrazepam are both Schedule 3 drugs under the Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations, (1993), while all other benzodiazepines are Schedule 4. Similar laws apply for the trafficking and possession of temazepam in Australia and Asia. In the United States, temazepam is the only benzodiazepine that requires specially-coded prescriptions in some states. In Hong Kong, temazepam and nimetazepam are regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. All other benzodiazepines are regulated under a much less restrictive Schedule category. For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ...


Various other countries limit the availability of benzodiazepines legally. Even though it is a commonly-prescribed class of drugs, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act specifically states that insurance companies that provide Medicare Part D plans are not allowed to cover benzodiazepines. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (Public Law No. ... Medicare Part D is a federal program to subsidize the costs of prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries in the United States. ...


All benzodiazepines are List 2 of the Opium Law in the Netherlands.


See also

Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ...

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Andreoli , Carpenter , Griggs , Benjamin , Cecil Essential Medicine 7th Edition, 2007 , Saunders Elsevier A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

  • Benzodiazepine Equivalence Table
  • Drugs.com - Benzodiazepines (advanced consumer information)
  • Inchem.org - Benzodiazepines
  • The Eaton T. Fores Research Center - An Overview of the History, Chemistry, and Pharmacodynamics of Benzodiazepines
  • Flash animation about how benzodiazepines work (mechanism of action)
  • Benzodiazepines: How they work and how to withdraw
There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox®, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epileptic seizures, benign intracranial hypertension and altitude sickness. ... Ethoxzolamide (6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-sulfonamide, alternatively known as Ethoxyzolamide) is a sulfonamide medication that functions as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. ... Sultiame (rINN, also known as sulthiame) is a sulfonamide and inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. ... Zonisamide (brand name Zonegran®) is an anticonvulsant used as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. ... The propionate (also propanoate) ion is C2H5COO− (propionic acid minus one hydrogen ion). ... Beclamide (marketed as Chloracon, Hibicon, Posedrine, Nydrane, Seclar, and other names) is a propionate and was used as a sedative and as an anticonvulsant. ... An aldehyde. ... Paraldehyde is the cyclic form of three acetaldehyde molecules (a trimer). ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ... Sodium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula NaBr. ... In pharmacology, a psycholeptic is a medication which produces a calming effect upon the patient. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Adinazolam is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax and Niravam, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class used to treat severe anxiety disorders and as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with clinical depression. ... Bretazenil was originally developed as an anti-anxiety drug, but never commercialised. ... Bromazepam (marketed under brand names Calmepam, Compendium, Creosedin, Durazanil, Lectopam, Lexaurin, Lexilium, Lexomil, Lexotan, Lexotanil, Normoc, Somalium)[1] is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Camazepam (marketed under the brand name Albego) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Chlordiazepoxide (pronounced [ˈklɔːrËŒdaɪəzepˈoksaɪd], marketed under the trade name Librium®) is a sedative/hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clobazam is triazolobenzodiazepine, also known as a 1,5-benzodiazepine, meaning that its diazepine ring has its nitrogen atoms at the 1 and 5 positions instead of the usual 1 and 4. ... Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene® and Tranxilium®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril in Europe, South America, Canada, India, and Australia) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Clotiazepam (marketed under brand name Trecalmo) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Cloxazolam (marketed under brand name Sepazon) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... Ethyl loflazepate (marketed under brand name Meilax®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Etizolam (marketed under brand name Sedekopan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Fludiazepam (marketed under the brand name Erispan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Halazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Imidazenil is an anxiolytic drug which is derived from the benzodiazepine family, and is most closely related to other imidazobenzodiazepines such as midazolam, flumazenil and bretazenil. ... Ketazolam (marketed under brand names Anseren, Anxon, Contamex, Loftran, Marcen, Sedotime, Solatran, Unakalm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine tranquilizer with short to medium duration of action. ... Medazepam is a drug of the Benzodiazepine family. ... Nordazepam (Calmday®, Stilny®, Madar®), formerly known as nordiazepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative. ... Oxazepam (marketed under brand names Alepam, Murelax, Oxascand, Serax, Serepax, Seresta, Sobril) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Pinazepam (marketed under the brand name Domar®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Parazepam belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system depressants (medicines that slow down the nervous system). ... Tofisopam (marketed under brand name Emandaxin) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... Alpidem is a prescription drug used for the treatment of moderate to severe anxiety. ... Etifoxine (or etafenoxine) is an anxiolytic. ... Ocinaplon is an anxiolytic drug in the pyrazolopyrimidine family of drugs. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panadiplon (U-78875) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure that is not closely related to other drugs of this type. ... Pipequaline (PK-8165) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure that is not closely related to other drugs of this type. ... Diphenylmethane is a compound consisting of two phenyl groups joined to a single carbon. ... Hydroxyzine (pronounced ) is a first-generation antihistamine, of the piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist. ... Captodiame (INN, also known as captodiamine) is an anxiolytic. ... Carbamates are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure -NH(CO)O-. More precisely the carbamate group is considered an amide group with an alkoxy or hydroxy functional group next to the carbonyl group. ... Emylcamate (marketed as Striatran® by Merck) is an anxiolytic and muscle relaxant. ... Carisoprodol is a centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose active metabolite is meprobamate. ... Mebutamate is an anxiolytic. ... Meprobamate (marketed under the brand names Miltown® by Wallace Laboratories, Equanil® by Wyeth, and Meprospan®) is a carbamate derivative which is used as an anxiolytic drug. ... Phenprobamate is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. ... Tybamate is an anxiolytic. ... β-Carboline (9H-pyrid-[3,4-b]-indole) is an organic amine that is the prototype of a class of compounds known as β-Carbolines. ... Abecarnil (ZK-112119) is an anxiolytic drug from the β-Carboline family. ... Gedocarnil is an anxiolytic. ... Benzoctamine is an anxiolytic. ... Azaspirodecanediones are a class of drugs with anxiolytic effects used in the treatment of anxiety. ... A serotonin receptor agonist is a compound that activates serotonin receptors, mimicking the effect of the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... Buspirone (brand-names Ansial, Ansiced, Anxiron, Axoren, Bespar, BuSpar, Buspimen, Buspinol, Buspisal, Narol, Spitomin, Sorbon) is an anxiolytic agent and a serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. ... Gepirone (BMY 13805, MJ 13805, ORG 13011, Ariza®, Variza) is a pyridinyl piperazine partial 5-HT1A agonist that has anxiolytic effects. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Mephenoxalone is an anxiolytic. ... In pharmacology, a psycholeptic is a medication which produces a calming effect upon the patient. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An aldehyde. ... Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate is a hypnotic/sedative. ... Chloral hydrate, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethanediol, and under the tradenames Aquachloral, Novo-Chlorhydrate, Somnos, Noctec, and Somnote, is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. ... Chloralodol is a hypnotic/sedative. ... Dichloralphenazone is a 1:2 mixture of antipyrine with chloral hydrate. ... Paraldehyde is the cyclic form of three acetaldehyde molecules (a trimer). ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... Ethchlorvynol is a sedative and hypnotic drug. ... Ethinamate (Valamin®, Valmid®) is a short-acting sedative-hypnotic medication used to treat insomnia. ... Hexapropymate is a hypnotic/sedative. ... Methylpentynol is a hypnotic/sedative. ... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Allobarbital is a barbiturate derivative invented in 1912 by Ernst Preiswerk and Ernst Grether working for CIBA. It was used primarily as an anticonvulsant [1] although it has now been replaced by newer drugs with improved safety profiles. ... Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Barbital (marketed under the brand name Veronal), also called barbitone, was the first commercially marketed barbiturate. ... Butobarbital (also known as Soneryl) is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Cyclobarbital, also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Ethallobarbital is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Heptabarbital is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Hexobarbital is a barbiturate derivative having hypnotic and sedative effects. ... Methohexital is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic induction agent, that is, used to commence anaesthesia. ... Pentobarbital is a short acting barbiturate that is available as both a free acid and a sodium salt, the former of which is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol. ... Phenobarbital (INN) or phenobarbitone (former BAN) is a barbiturate, first marketed as Luminal by Friedr. ... Proxibarbital (Ipronal) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1970s. ... Reposal is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1960s in Denmark. ... Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. ... Talbutal (Lotusate®), also called 5-allyl-5-sec-butylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate with a short to intermediate duration of action. ... Sodium thiopental, better known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or trapanal, is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anaesthetic. ... Vinylbital, also known as butylvinyl, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Vinbarbital is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative. ... Brotizolam (marketed under brand name Lendormin) is a drug which is thienobenzodiazepine (a benzodiazepine derivative). ... Cinolazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Doxefazepam (marketed under brand name Doxans) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Estazolam (ProSom®) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for short-term treatment of insomnia. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Flutoprazepam (Restas, KB-509) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Loprazolam (Triazulenone) marketed under the brand names Dormonoct®, Havlane®, Sonin®, Somnovit®, is a drug which is an imidazole benzodiazepine derivative. ... Lormetazepam (Noctamid®, Ergocalm®, Loramet®, also known as methyllorazepam, is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Nitrazepam (marketed under the trade names Mogadon®, Nitredon®, Nilandron®) is a powerful hypnotic drug, which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin®) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Quazepam (brand names Doral®, Dormalin®) is a long-acting benzodiazepine used to treat insomnia. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Triazolam (Halcion®, Novodorm®, Songar®) belongs to benzodiazepine group of drugs. ... Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C4H8O3), commonly abbreviated GHB, is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries[1], and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. ... Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C4H8O3), commonly abbreviated GHB, is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries[1], and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. ... gamma-Butyrolactone, also known as GBL, butyrolactone, 1,4-lactone, 4-butyrolactone, 4-hydroxybutyric acid lactone, and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone, is a hygroscopic colorless oily liquid with a weak characteristic odor and is soluble in water. ... (Redirected from 1,4 Butanediol) Chemical structure of 1,4-butanediol 1,4-Butanediol (C4H10O2, molecular weight 90. ... A melatonin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds melatonin. ... Agomelatine (Valdoxan®) is chemical compound that is structurally closely related to melatonin. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, is the first in a new class of sleep agents that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), versus binding to GABA-A receptors, such as with drugs like Ambien CR, Lunesta, and Sonata. ... Apart from exerting effects on the genome via intracellular steroid receptors, neuroactive steroids (or neurosteroids) rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. ... Minaxolone is a general anaesthetic. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... Eszopiclone, marketed by Sepracorand marco under the brand-name Lunesta®, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent (viz. ... Indiplon (INN and USAN) is a nonbenzodiazepine, hypnotic sedative being developed in 2 formulations - an immediate release product for sleep onset and a modified-release version for sleep maintenance. ... Pazinaclone (DN-2327) is a sedative and anxiolytic drug in the cyclopyrrolone family of drugs. ... Saripidem is a sedative and anxiolytic drug in the imidazopyridine family, which is related to the better known drugs zolpidem and alpidem. ... Suproclone is a sedative and anxiolytic drug in the cyclopyrrolone family of drugs, developed by the French pharmaceutical company Rhône-Poulenc. ... Suriclone (Suril) is a sedative and anxiolytic drug in the cyclopyrrolone family of drugs. ... Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata and Starnoc) is a sedative/hypnotic, mainly used for insomnia. ... Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. ... Zopiclone (trade names: Imovaneâ„¢ and Zimovaneâ„¢) is a novel hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. ... The chemical structure of 2,6-piperidinedione, the most common isomer Piperidinediones are a derivatives of piperidine with two ketone functional groups. ... Glutethimide is a hypnotic sedative that was introduced in 1954 as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia. ... Methyprylon is a sedative of the piperidinedione derivative family. ... Pyrithyldione is a hypnotic/sedative. ... Afloqualone (Arofuto) is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the 1980s in Japan. ... Cloroqualone is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the 1980s and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries. ... Diproqualone is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the 1980s and marketed mainly in France and some other european countries. ... Etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone) is an analogue of methaqualone which was developed in the 1960s and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries. ... Mebroqualone is an analogue of mecloqualone which presumably has similar sedative and hypnotic properties to its parent compound. ... Mecloqualone (Nubarene) is an analogue of methaqualone which was first made in 1960 [1] and marketed mainly in France and some other european countries. ... Methaqualone tablets and capsules. ... Methylmethaqualone is an analogue of methaqualone which presumably has similar sedative and hypnotic properties to its parent compound. ... Apronal (or apronalide) is a hypnotic/sedative. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... Bromisoval (or bromisovalum) is a hypnotic/sedative. ... Carbromal is a hypnotic/sedative. ... Clomethiazole (also called Chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic that is widely used in treating and preventing symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. ... Dexmedetomidine is a sedative medication used by intensive care units and anesthesiologists. ... Niaprazine (Nopron) is a piperazine derivative drug which acts as a sedating antihistamine. ... Propiomazine (brand names: Largon, Propavan, Indorm) is an atypical antipsychotic, which is used to treat negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, acute mania with bipolar disorder, agitation and psychotic symptoms in dementia. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... Sulfonmethane is a chemical compound used as a hypnotic drug. ... 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol is an organic compound related to ethanol, except the hydrogen atoms at position 2 are replaced with chlorine atoms. ... Triclofos is a sedative drug used rarely for treating insomnia, usually as a second-line treatment after other drugs have failed. ... Binomial name L. & Maillefer Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a hardy perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers. ... Valnoctamide has been used in France as a tranquilizer and muscle relaxant since 1964[3] and as an anticonvulsant since starting in 1969 in Portugal. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
DEA Briefs & Background, Drugs and Drug Abuse, Drug Descriptions, Benzodiazepines (605 words)
The benzodiazepine family of depressants is used therapeutically to produce sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and to prevent seizures.
Benzodiazepines with a longer duration of action are utilized to treat insomnia in patients with daytime anxiety.
Repeated use of large doses or; in some cases, daily use of therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines is associated with amnesia, hostility, irritability, and vivid or disturbing dreams, as well as tolerance and physical dependence.
benzodiazepine - Encyclopedia.com (1179 words)
Introduced in the early 1960s with chlordiazepoxide (Librium), benzodiazepines were heralded as a safer alternative to barbiturates and meprobamate because they were relatively non-habit forming and were less lethal in overdose.
In this group benzodiazepines, especially diazepam and alprazolam (Xanax), are used, sometimes nasally, to ameliorate the unwanted effects of street drugs, such as cocaine.
Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a prescription benzodiazepine sedative not approved in the United States, is increasingly being abused by teen-agers in some areas of the country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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