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Encyclopedia > Benjamin Spock
Dr. Spock with his grand-daughter Susannah in 1967
Dr. Spock with his grand-daughter Susannah in 1967

Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 - March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Its revolutionary message to mothers was that "you know more than you think you do." Spock was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals, whereas the previous conventional wisdom had been that child rearing should focus on building discipline, and that, e.g., babies should not be "spoiled" by picking them up when they cried. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 760 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1516 × 1196 pixel, file size: 574 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Look Magazine Photograph Collection. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 760 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1516 × 1196 pixel, file size: 574 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Look Magazine Photograph Collection. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Clinical Examination Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country). ... The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (often refered to simply as Baby and Child Care), written by Dr. Benjamin Spock, was first published in 1946, and is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...

Contents

Life

Medal record
Olympic Games
Men's Rowing
Gold 1924 Paris Eight

Born in New Haven, Connecticut, Spock was expected by his parents to help with the care of his five younger siblings. Spock's father was a lawyer for a railroad company. His family were considered "Boston Brahmins." Spock received his undergraduate education from Yale University, where he became a member of Scroll and Key and the Zeta Psi fraternity, and was a rower. As member of the American eight crew, he won a gold medal at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, rowing an all-Yale eight, along with James Stillman Rockefeller, with whom he shared a Scroll and Key membership. (The 1924 Olympic Games were immortalized in the movie "Chariots of Fire", which, however, did not cover rowing) Rowing has been contested since the 1900 Summer Olympics. ... The Games of the VIII Olympiad were held in 1924 in Paris, France. ... Rowing at the 1924 Summer Olympics featured 7 events, for men only. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: NECTA New Haven Region South Central Region Settled 1638 Incorporated (city) 1784 Consolidated 1895 Government  - Type Mayor-board of aldermen  - Mayor John DeStefano, Jr. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... The Scroll and Key Society is a secret society established by John Addison Porter and others at Yale University in 1842. ... The Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America Inc. ... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... The Games of the VIII Olympiad were held in 1924 in Paris, France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... James Stillman Rockefeller (June 8, 1902 - August 10, 2004) was a member of the prominent U.S. Rockefeller family. ... Chariots of Fire is a British film released in 1981. ...


Dr. Spock attended medical school at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, where he graduated first in his class in 1929. He did residency training in pediatrics at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University in Manhattan and then in psychiatry at Cornell's Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic. Seal of the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, abbreviated P&S, is a graduate school of Columbia University located on the health sciences campus in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan. ... NY redirects here. ... Clinical Examination Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country). ... The Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College is the medical school and biomedical research unit of Cornell University. ... Cornell University is a private university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Psychiatry is a medical specialty dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... At his death in 1929, Payne Whitney bestowed the funds to build and endow the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic (PWC) on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. ...


He married his first wife, Jane Cheney, and they raised children. Jane also helped him with his books. She later claimed that she received insufficient credit.


During World War II, he served as a psychiatrist in the U.S. Navy Reserve Medical Corps, ending with the rank of lieutenant commander. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... The United States Navy Reserve is the reserve component of the United States Navy. ...


Spocks's baby book was a perennial bestseller. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, it outsold all other books in the Nonfiction category except the Bible. The royalties made him a wealthy man. The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


Spock was an ardent sailor: he kept one sailboat, named "Carapace", in the British Virgin Islands, where he frequently visited the Peter Island Yacht Club; he kept a smaller boat in Maine. Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


He owned a summer home in Maine and an apartment on Madison Avenue, in Manhattan. Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Madison Avenue is a north-south avenue in the borough of Manhattan in New York City which carries northbound one-way traffic. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ...


In 1976, Dr. Spock married a second time, to Mary Morgan, who had formerly arranged speeches and workshops for him. They built a home near Rogers, Arkansas, on a lake, where Ben would row his scull early in the morning. Mary, the ex-wife of an Arkansas physician, quickly adapted to Ben's life of travel political activism, and she was arrested with him several times for civil disobedience. She also introduced Ben to massage, yoga, and a macrobiotic diet, which reportedly improved his health. Mary helped him revise Baby and Child Care in 1976, incorporating non-sexist language and making other substantive changes. For the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area see Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers metropolitan area Rogers is a city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. ... Anti-war activist Midge Potts is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... Gender-neutral language (gender-generic, gender-inclusive, non-sexist, or sex-neutral language) is language that attempts to refer neither to males nor females when discussing an abstract or hypothetical person whose sex cannot otherwise be determined, as opposed to more traditional language forms, which may use male or female...


For most of his life, Spock wore Brooks Brothers suits and shirts (with separate collars), but Mary Morgan got him to try blue jeans, at 75, for the first time in his life. She introduced him to Transactional Analysis therapists and other people in the Human Potential Movement. He adapted to her lifestyle, as she did to his. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Transactional analysis, commonly known as TA to its adherents, is a psychoanalytic theory of psychology developed by psychiatrist Eric Berne during the late 1950s. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


He learned a great deal about life as a step-parent from Mary's daughter Ginger (Virginia) Councille, who was 11 when they met. Years later, he walked her down the aisle, as illustrated in biographies.


Spock died at his rented home in La Jolla, California after a long battle with cancer. The expenses of his treatment consumed most of his wealth. One of the beaches at La Jolla Cove La Jolla, California, is a seaside resort community comprised of 42,808[1] residents within the city of San Diego. ...


Books

In 1946, Spock published his book The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, which became a bestseller. By 1998 it had sold more than 50 million copies. It has been translated into 39 languages. Later he wrote three more books about parenting. The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (often refered to simply as Baby and Child Care), written by Dr. Benjamin Spock, was first published in 1946, and is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. ...


Spock advocated ideas about parenting that were at the time, considered out of the mainstream. Over time, his books helped to bring about a major change, if not a reversal, in the opinions of those who considered themselves to be the experts. Previously, experts had told parents that babies needed to learn to sleep on a regular schedule, and that picking them up and holding them whenever they cried would only teach them to cry more and not to sleep through the night (a notion that borrows from behaviorism). They were told to feed their children on a regular schedule, and that they should not pick them up, kiss them, or hug them, because that would not prepare them to be strong and independent individuals in a harsh world. Spock encouraged parents to see their children as individuals, and not to apply a one-size-fits all philosophy to them. The First Edition of Baby and Child Care followed the conventional wisdom on circumcision: he recommended it, although he was not circumcised himself (oddly enough, circumcision of gentile babies had first became fashionable in "Boston Brahmin" families like Spock's). In "The Sixth Edition" (1985) he wrote about circumcising healthy children, "There is no excuse for the operation — except as a religious rite. So I strongly recommend leaving the foreskin alone. Parents should insist on convincing reasons for circumcision — and there are no convincing reasons that I know of." Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Later in life Spock wrote a book entitled "Dr. Spock on Vietnam" and co-wrote an autobiography entitled "Spock on Spock" (with Mary Morgan Spock), in which he stated his attitude toward aging: "Delay and Deny".


Other writers, such as Lynn Bloom and Thomas Maier, have written biographies of Dr. Spock.


Claims that Dr. Spock advocated permissiveness

Some have seen Spock as the leader in the move toward more permissive parenting in general, and have blamed him for what they saw as the negative results. Norman Vincent Peale claimed in the late 1960s that "the U.S. was paying the price of two generations that followed the Dr. Spock baby plan of instant gratification of needs."[citation needed] Vice President Spiro Agnew denounced him as the "father of permissiveness," claiming that Dr. Spock's child rearing principles encouraged lawlessness among young people in the 1960s.[citation needed] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the 55th Governor of Maryland. ...


Spock's supporters believed that these criticisms betrayed an ignorance of what Spock had actually written, and/or a political bias against Spock's left-wing political activities. Spock himself, in his autobiography, pointed out that he had never advocated permissiveness;[citation needed] also, that the attacks and claims that he had ruined American youth only arose after his public opposition to the Vietnam war. He regarded these claims as ad hominem attacks, whose political motivation and nature was clear. [1] It has been suggested that Personal attack be merged into this article or section. ...


Sleeping position and sudden infant death syndrome

Spock advocated that infants should be placed on their front when sleeping, commenting in his 1958 edition that "if [an infant] vomits, he's more likely to choke on the vomitus." This advice was extremely influential on health-care providers, with nearly unanimous support through to the 1990s.[1] Later empirical studies, however, found that there is a significantly increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) associated with sleeping in this position. Advocates of evidence-based medicine have used this as an example of the importance of basing health-care recommendations on statistical evidence, with one researcher estimating that as many as 50,000 infant deaths in Europe, Australia, and the US could have been prevented if this advice was altered in 1970 when such statistical evidence was available.[2] For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an attempt to more uniformly apply the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method, to certain aspects of medical practice. ...


Politics

In 1957, Spock was one of the founders of The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. Spock was politically outspoken and active in the movement to end the Vietnam War. In 1968 he was prosecuted by then Attorney General Ramsey Clark, alongside four other men, on charges of conspiracy to counsel, aid, and abet resistance to the draft. Spock and three of his alleged co-conspirators were convicted although the five had never been in the same room together. His two-year prison sentence was never served, as the case was appealed and in 1969 a federal court set aside his conviction. Look up sane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... William Ramsey Clark (born December 18, 1927) is a lawyer and activist. ...


In 1967, Spock was to be nominated as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s vice-presidential running mate at the National Conference for New Politics over Labor Day weekend in Chicago. However, according to William F. Pepper's Orders to Kill, the conference was broken up by agents provocateurs working for the government. “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Dr. William F. Pepper, an international lawyer, was the attorney for James Earl Ray, the supposed killer of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Spock was the People's Party candidate in the 1972 United States presidential election with a platform that called for free medical care, the repeal of "victimless crime" laws, including the legalization of abortion, homosexuality, and marijuana, a guaranteed minimum income for families and the immediate withdrawal of all American troops from foreign countries. [2] In the 1970s and 1980s, Spock demonstrated and gave lectures against nuclear weapons and cuts in social welfare programs. The Peoples Party was a political party in the United States, founded in 1971 by various individuals and local groups, including the Peace and Freedom Party, Commongood Peoples Party, Country Peoples Caucus, Human Rights Party, Liberal Union, New American Party, New Party and No Party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Consensual crime. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Spock embraced women's and girls' equality relatively early. Editions of Baby and Child Care issued in the mid-1970s were edited to refer to babies and children as "she" about half the time. This was a departure from the norm at that time. Especially among established authors of Spock's age, there was still a strong school of thought claiming that the pronoun "he" was correct for all persons unless speaking of a specific female or female matters. Spock's book was the first major/mainstream book to abandon that view and usage.[citation needed] Baby and Child Care may refer to: The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care by Dr. Benjamin Spock. ...


In 1972, Spock, Julius Hobson (his Vice Presidential candidate), Linda Jenness (Socialist Workers Party Presidential candidate), and Socialist Workers Party Vice Presidential candidate Andrew Pulley wrote to Major General Bert A. David, commanding officer of Fort Dix, asking for permission to distribute campaign literature and to hold an election-related campaign meeting. Based on Fort Dix regulations 210-26 and 210-27, General David refused the request. Spock, Hobson, Jenness, Pulley, and others then filed a case that ultimately made its way to the United States Supreme Court (424 U.S. 828 -- Greer, Commander, Fort Dix Military Reservation, et al., v. Spock et al), which ruled against the plaintiffs. Peoples Party Vice Presidential candidate in 1972. ... Socialist Workers Party candidate for president in 1972. ... Andrew Pulley is an American politician who ran as Socialist Workers Party (SWP) candidate for Vice President of the United States in 1972. ... A plaintiff, also known as a claimant or complainer, is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. ...


424 U.S. 828: [3]


Election results: [4]


See also an interview in Libertarian Forum, December 1972. http://www.mises.org/journals/lf/1972/1972_12.pdf Libertarian Forum was a libertarian magazine published about twice a month between 1969 and 1984. ...


Public misconceptions

Contrary to popular rumor, Dr. Spock's son did not commit suicide. Spock had two children: Michael, formerly the director of the Boston Children's Museum and since retired from the museum profession. However, Spock's grandson Peter did commit suicide on December 25, 1983 at the age of 22 by jumping from the roof of the Boston Children's Museum. He had long struggled with mental illness. The Boston Childrens Museum is a museum in Boston, Massachusetts dedicated to the education of children. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It is common to see "Dr. Spock" confused with the fictional character "Mr. Spock" of Star Trek fame, particularly in references from people unfamiliar with the field of science fiction. Reportedly, Trek creator Gene Roddenberry did not intentionally name the character after Dr. Spock; this was a coincidence. For other uses, see Spock (disambiguation). ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Gene Roddenberry Eugene Wesley Roddenberry (August 19, 1921 – October 24, 1991) was an American scriptwriter and producer. ...


Dr. Spock in popular culture

  • Several Peanuts comic strips from the 1950s refer to him admiringly.
  • He is mentioned in passing by Kirstie Alley's character in the 1989 film Look Who's Talking (John Travolta's character thinks of Mr. Spock from Star Trek). Coincidentally, Alley played the Vulcan's protégé Saavik in the 1982 movie Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan.
  • He is also mentioned in Antonia S. Byatt's 1985 novel Still Life.
  • In the Star Trek novel Strangers from the Sky a time-traveling Mr. Spock is befriended by one of his human mother's ancestors, Dr. Grayson, who wonders if he's related to Benjamin Spock. Spock decides to allow Grayson to call him Ben.
  • The character Dr. Lipschitz in the animated series Rugrats may be a reference to or parody of Dr. Spock.
  • Dr. Spock was mentioned in a Gilmore Girls episode when G.G. (Chris' child) was behaving wildly.
  • His book Baby and Child Care is featured in Raising Arizona, where it is humorously referred to as "the manual".
  • On the "Rock the Cradle" episode of MacGyver, when MacGyver (played by Richard Dean Anderson) and Jack find a baby left at Jack's hangar, and Jack asks MacGyver a question about babies, MacGyver answers with: "Who do I look like? Dr. Spock?"
  • Towards the end of Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72 Hunter S. Thompson tells ex-presidential candidate George McGovern that he "might have voted for Dr. Spock" had McGovern accepted Hubert Humphrey as his running mate. He actually could have: Spock appeared on the ballot in some states.
  • In the movie Daddy Day Care Steve Zahn's character, "Marvin", has the line, "I read Dr. Spock's book, 'Baby and Child Care'... it's not about Star Trek".
  • In one episode of The Golden Girls, while the women are taking care of a baby, Blanche mentions what Dr. Spock said about, to which Rose replies: "What does he know about kids? Besides, babies are raised in an incubator on Vulcan", a reference to the Star Trek character.
  • In Farscape episode 01x10, "They've got a secret", after the living spaceship on which much of the series is set becomes pregnant, American astronaut John Crichton wonders jokingly: "Is there some kind of What to Expect When You're Expecting Baby Leviathan book? Dr. Spock, Mr. Spock..."
  • In an episode of Alien Nation, George Francisco tells Matthew Sikes: "I don't need to learn about child care from your Mr. Spock." Sikes retorts: "Dr. Spock. Mr. Spock is one of you."
  • In an episode from the fifth season of the BBC Comedy Absolutely Fabulous, Saffy comments that all Eddy knows about child rearing is from Dr. Spock, to which Eddy takes great offense (more to the allusion of her being old rather than a bad mother).
  • In the movie, "Big Momma's House 2", with actor Martin Lawrence playing an undercover detective disguised as a black female nanny, he can be seen reading Dr. Spock's Baby Care Book and his FBI cohorts call him crazy. Lawrence's character is also an expecting father.

Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000 (the day after Schulzs death). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Kirstie Louise Alley (born January 12, 1951 in Wichita, Kansas) is an American actress best known for her role in the TV show Cheers. ... Look Whos Talking is a 1989 comedy film which stars John Travolta (James Ubriacco) and Kirstie Alley (Mollie). ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, singer and entertainer. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Lieutenant Saavik is a fictional character in the Star Trek universe. ... Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (Paramount Pictures, 1982; see also 1982 in film) is the second feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... A still life is a work of art which represents a subject composed of inanimate objects. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series. ... Strangers from the Sky a novel by Margaret Wander Bonanno This novel is an adventure involving the original Star Trek series cast and journeys through many eras of the trek timeline. ... A rugrat may also be a pejorative term for a toddler. ... Gilmore Girls is an hour-long American television drama/comedy that began on October 5, 2000. ... The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (often refered to simply as Baby and Child Care), written by Dr. Benjamin Spock, was first published in 1946, and is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. ... Raising Arizona is a 1987 Coen Brothers comedy film starring Nicolas Cage, Holly Hunter, William Forsythe, John Goodman, Frances McDormand, and Randall Tex Cobb. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Richard Dean Anderson as Colonel Jack ONeill in Stargate SG-1 Richard Dean Anderson (born January 23, 1950 in Minneapolis, Minnesota) is an American actor, possibly best known for his role in the tv-series MacGyver // Biography Early Life Anderson was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota to Stuart Jay Anderson... Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail 1972 is a collection of articles covering the 1972 presidential campaign serialized in Rolling Stone magazine and later released as a book, written by gonzo journalist Hunter S Thompson and illustrated by Ralph Steadman. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Daddy Day Care is a 2003 comedy film, starring Eddie Murphy. ... Steve Zahn (born November 13, 1967) is an American comedic actor who has appeared in more than 30 films. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series. ... The Golden Girls is an American sitcom that originally aired Saturday nights on NBC from September 14, 1985 to May 9, 1992. ... Farscape (1999–2003) is a science fiction television series, featuring a present-day astronaut who accidentally travels through a wormhole to a distant part of the galaxy. ... John Robert Crichton, Jr. ... Leviathans are a fictional alien race in the Farscape universe. ... Alien Nation may refer to: Alien Nation (film), the 1988 motion picture Alien Nation (TV series), the 1989–1990 television series Alien Nation (TV series episode), the 1989 pilot episode of the television series Alien Nation (Comic Books), a 1990s series of comic books based on the Tenctonese. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Martin Fitzgerald Lawrence (born April 16, 1965, in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany) is an American actor, comedian, director and producer. ...

Further reading

  • Bloom, Lynn Z. Doctor Spock; biography of a conservative radical. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis. 1972.
  • Maier, Thomas Doctor Spock; An American Life. Harcourt Brace, New York. 1998.

References

  1. ^ Ruth Gilbert, Georgia Salanti, Melissa Harden and Sarah See (2005). "Infant sleeping position and the sudden infant death syndrome: systematic review of observational studies and historical review of recommendations from 1940 to 2002", International Journal of Epidemiology, Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Health Report", September 11, 2006. Radio program. Transcript

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Benjamin Spock - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1458 words)
Spock was politically outspoken and active in the movement to end the Vietnam War.
Spock was the People's Party candidate in the 1972 United States presidential election with a platform that called for free medical care, the repeal of "victimless crime" laws, including the legalization of abortion, homosexuality and marijuana, a guaranteed minimum income for families and the immediate withdrawal of all American troops from foreign countries.
Spock had two children: Michael, formerly the director of the Boston Children's Museum and since retired from the museum profession, and John, a construction general contractor, both of whom are still alive.
Benjamin Spock - MSN Encarta (371 words)
Benjamin McLane Spock was born in New Haven, Connecticut.
Spock’s guidebook on child rearing broke dramatically from accepted practices that favored rigid feeding habits and considered hugging children inappropriate.
Spock encouraged parents to be flexible with their children and to show them greater affection.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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