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Encyclopedia > Benjamin Hawkins
Sen. Benjamin Hawkins
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Sen. Benjamin Hawkins

Benjamin Hawkins (15 August 1754 - 6 June 1818), usually known as Colonel Hawkins, was an American farmer, statesman, and Indian agent from North Carolina. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress and a United States Senator, as well as a long term diplomat and agent to the Creek Indians. Hawkins County in Tennessee is named in his honor. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... State nickname: Tar Heel State; Old North State Other U.S. States Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley (D) Senators Elizabeth Dole (R) Richard Burr (R) Official language(s) English Area 139,509 km² (28th)  - Land 126,256 km²  - Water 13,227 km² (9. ... The Continental Congress was the legislature of the Thirteen Colonies and later of the United States from 1774 to 1789, a period that included the American Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The Creeks are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... Hawkins County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Official language(s) English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ...


Benjamin was born to Philemon and Delia Martin Hawkins on August 15, 1754, the third of four sons. The family farmed and operated a plantation in what was then Granville County, North Carolina, but is now Warren County. He attended Princeton in New Jersey but left in his last year to join the Continental Army. He was commissioned a Colonel and served for several years on George Washington's staff as his main interpreter for French. Granville County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Princeton University, located in Princeton, New Jersey, is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. ... State nickname: The Garden State Official languages None defined Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (D) Acting, Outgoing Jon Corzine (D) (Governor-Elect) Senators Jon Corzine (D) (Outgoing) Frank Lautenberg (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 14. ... The Continental Army was the unified command structure of the thirteen colonies fighting Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the father of the country to the United States, and its first military and political leader. ...


Hawkins was released from federal service late in 1777 as Washington learned to rely on Lafayettte for dealing with the French. He returned home, and was elected to the North Carolina House of Representatives in 1778. He served there until 1779, and again in 1784. The Carolina Assembly sent him to the Continental Congress as their delegate from 1781 to 1783, and again in 1787. Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757–May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Continental Congress was the legislature of the Thirteen Colonies and later of the United States from 1774 to 1789, a period that included the American Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation. ...


In 1789 he was a delegate in the North Carolina convention that ratified the United States Constitution. He was then elected to the first U.S. Senate, and served from 1789 to 1795. Although the Senate did not have organized political parties at the time, his views shifted during his term. Early in his Senate career, he was counted in the ranks of those Senators viewed as Pro-Administration, but by the third congress, he generally sided with Senators of the Republican or Anti-Administration Party. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pro-Administration Party is a term used by historians to describe the supporters of the policies of George Washingtons administration — especially Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamiltons financial policies — prior to the formation of the Federalist and Republican Parties; it is also sometimes used to describe the supporters of the... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Anti-Administration Party is a term used by historians to describe the opponents of the policies of George Washingtons administration — especially Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamiltons financial policies — prior to the formation of the Federalist and Republican Parties; it is also sometimes used to describe the opponents of the...


Indian Agent

In 1785 Hawkins had served as a representative for the Congress in negotiations with the Creek Indians. He was generally successful, and convinced that tribe to lessen their raids for several years, although he couldn't conclude a formal treaty. The Creek wanted to deal with the head man, and finally signed the Treaty of New York after Hawkins convinced Washington to become involved. 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1796 Washington appointed Benjamin Hawkins as General Superintendent of Indian Affairs dealing with all tribes south of the Ohio River. He personally assumed the role of principle agent to the Creek tribe. He moved to the area that is now Crawford County in Georgia. He was adopted by the Creeks, and took one of their women as his common-law wife. 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Carl D. Perkins Bridge in Portsmouth, Ohio with Ohio River and Scioto River tributary on right. ... The Creeks are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... Crawford County is a county located in the state of Georgia. ...


He began to teach agricultural practices to the tribe, starting a farm at his home on the Flint River. In time he brought in slaves and workers, cleared several hundred acres, and established mills and a trading post as well as his farm. His operation expanded until he had over 1,000 cattle and a large number of hogs. For years he would meet with chiefs on his porch and discuss matters while churning butter. His personal hard work and open-handed generosity won him such respect that reports say that he never lost an animal to Indian raiders.


He was responsible for the longest period of peace between the settlers and the tribe, overseeing 19 years of peace. When a fort was built in 1806 to protect expanding settlements, just west of modern Macon, Georgia, it was named Fort Benjamin Hawkins. Macon is a city located in Bibb County, Georgia. ... History Fort Hawkins was built in 1806 by the United States government under the administration of President Thomas Jefferson. ...


Hawkins saw much of his work toward building a peace destroyed in 1812. A group of Creeks, led by Tecumseh were encouraged by British agents to resistance against increasing settlement by whites. Although he personally was never attacked, he was forced to watch an internal civil war among the Creeks, the war with a faction known as the Red Sticks, and their eventual defeat by Andrew Jackson. 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... The Creek War of 1813-1814 began as a civil war within the Creek Nation. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), one of the founders of the Democratic Party, was the seventh President of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. ...


During the Creek War of 1813-1814, Hawkins organized the friendly Creeks under Major William McIntosh to aid the Georgia and Tennessee militias during their forays against the Red Sticks. After the Red Stick defeat at Horseshoe Bend, activities in Georgia and Tennessee prevented Hawkins from moderating the Treaty of Fort Jackson in August 1814. Hawkins later organized friendly Creeks against a British force on the Apalachicola River that threatened to rally the scattered Red Sticks and reignite the war on the Georgia frontier. After the British withdrew in 1815 Hawkins began organizing a force to secure the area when he died from a sudden illness in June 1816 William McIntosh William McIntosh, also known as White Warrior, was the son of Captain William McIntosh, a member of a prominent Savannah, Georgia family sent into the Creek Nation to recruit them to fight for the British during the Revolutionary War. ... View of the Apalachicola River near Fort Gadsden, Florida. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Benjamin never recovered from the shock of the civil war. He had tried to resign his post, and return from the Georgia wilderness, but his resignation was refused by every president after Washington. He remained Superintendent until his death on June 6, 1818. On his death bed he married the women who had given him four children over the years. Benjamin Hawkins was buried at the Creek Agency, on the Flint River near Roberta, Georgia. The modern Ocmulgee National Monument includes the site of the original Fort Hawkins. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Roberta is a city located in Crawford County, Georgia. ... The earthlodge at Ocmulgee Ocmulgee National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located just east of Macon, Georgia. ...


External links

Benjamin Hawkins Biography of first "Indian Agent" in the Southeast United States

Further reading

  • C. L. Grant (editor); "Benjamin Hawkins: Letters, Journals and Writings" (2 volumes); 1980, Beehive Press, volume 1: ISBN 9992115432, volume 2: ISBN 9993828289.
  • Florette Henri; "The Southern Indians and Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1816"; 1986, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 0806119683.
  • Thomas Foster (editor); "The Collected Works of Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1810"; 2003, University of Alabama Press, ISBN 0817350403.
Preceded by:
none
Senators from North Carolina Succeeded by:
Timothy Bloodworth
Served alongside: Samuel Johnston, Alexander Martin

  Results from FactBites:
 
Benjamin Hawkins (524 words)
Benjamin Hawkins, the oldest descendant of the North Carolina Hawkins in Mississippi, was born June 3
Benjamin was a state assemblyman representing Randolph County in 1833 and 1834.
Benjamin was a businessman and both he and his sons did a bit of traveling to the state capital and other business centers including one trip to Illinois where he spoke before the legislature.
New Georgia Encyclopedia: Benjamin Hawkins (1754-1816) (943 words)
Although Hawkins was agent to all Indians in the South, he chose to live among the Creek Indians, who resided in present-day Georgia and Alabama.
Hawkins was born on August 15, 1754, in present-day Warren County, North Carolina, to a wealthy family.
Hawkins reported later that he was "struck forcibly" by the unfairness of the treaty, as were the Creeks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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