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Encyclopedia > Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin

1777 Jean-Baptiste Greuze portrait of Franklin. Ben Franklin (PX-15), a submersible USS Franklin and USS Benjamin Franklin, name for a series of U.S. Navy vessels Other Benjamin Miles C-Note Franklin, fictional prisoner and ex-soldier in series Prison Break Ben Franklin Place building in Ottawa named after the former Mayor of Nepean Ben... ImageMetadata File history File links Benjamin_Franklin_by_Jean-Baptiste_Greuze. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jean-Baptiste Greuze (21 August 1725 – 4 March 1805) was a French painter. ...


6th President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania
In office
18 October 1785 – 1 December 1788
Preceded by John Dickinson
Succeeded by Thomas Mifflin

23rd Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly
In office
1765 – 1765
Preceded by Isaac Norris
Succeeded by Isaac Norris

In office
1778 – 1785
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by New office
Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson

In office
1782 – 1783
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by New office
Succeeded by Jonathan Russell

Born January 17, 1706(1706-01-17)
Boston, Massachusetts
Died April 17, 1790 (aged 84)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Nationality British (at birth)
American (at death)
Political party None
Spouse Deborah Read
Profession Scientist
Writer
Politician
Signature Benjamin Franklin's signature

Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1706]April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman and diplomat. As a scientist he was a major figure in the Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and a musical instrument. He formed both the first public lending library in America and first fire department in Pennsylvania. He was an early proponent of colonial unity and as a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation[1] and as a diplomat during the American Revolution, he secured the French alliance that helped to make independence possible. This is a list of Governors of Pennsylvania. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer, artist and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. ... Thomas Mifflin , John Singleton Copley, 1773. ... . ... Isaac Norris (3 October, 1701 – 13 June, 1766) was a merchant and statesman in provincial Pennsylvania. ... Isaac Norris (3 October, 1701 – 13 June, 1766) was a merchant and statesman in provincial Pennsylvania. ... List of United States ambassadors to France : Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane (substitued by John Adams in 1778) 1776-1779 Benjamin Franklin 1779-1785 Thomas Jefferson 1785-1789 Gouverneur Morris 1792-1794 James Monroe 1794-1796 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 1796-1797 Robert R. Livingston 1801-1804 John Armstrong 1804... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... U.S. State Department website Categories: | ... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ... Jonathan Russell (February 27, 1771 - February 17, 1832) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts and diplomat. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1706 (MDCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Deborah Read was the spouse of Benjamin Franklin, a prominent inventor, printer, thinker, and revolutionary. ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 316 × 157 pixelsFull resolution (316 × 157 pixel, file size: 4 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source: Nordisk familjebok (1904) vol. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1706 (MDCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Old Style redirects here. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1706 (MDCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Leonardo da Vinci is regarded in many Western cultures as the archetypal Renaissance Man. A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... This is a list of political philosophers, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... This article is about negotiations. ... The American Enlightenment is a term sometimes employed to describe the intellectual culture of the British North American colonies and the early United States (as they became following the American Revolution). ... Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ... Bifocals are eyeglasses whose corrective lenses each contain regions with two distinct optical powers. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... An Armonica. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library. ... Fire station in Kostroma, Russia (1823-26). ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The statue of liberty, a gift from France to the U.S. Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between the French Republic and the United States of America. ...


Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Franklin learned printing from his older brother and became a newspaper editor, printer, and merchant in Philadelphia, becoming very wealthy, writing and publishing Poor Richard's Almanack and the Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin was interested in science and technology, and gained international renown for his famous experiments. He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and Franklin & Marshall College and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society. Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. From 1775 to 1776, Franklin was Postmaster General under the Continental Congress and from 1785 to 1788 was President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. Toward the end of his life, he became one of the most prominent abolitionists. Boston redirects here. ... A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... 1739 Edition of Poor Richards Almanack Poor Richards Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly almanack published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of Poor Richard or Richard Saunders for this purpose. ... The Pennsylvania Gazette was one of the United States most prominent newspapers from 1723, before the time period of the American Revolution, until 1800. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Franklin & Marshall College (abbreviated as F&M) is a highly selective four-year private co-educational liberal arts college in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... The statue of liberty, a gift from France to the U.S. Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between the French Republic and the United States of America. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania represented the executive branch of the Pennsylvania State government between 1777 and 1790. ... This article is about slavery. ...


Franklin's colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, has seen Franklin honored on coinage and money; warships; the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, namesakes, and companies; and more than two centuries after his death, countless cultural references.

Contents

Biography

Ancestry

Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was born at Ecton, Northamptonshire, England on December 23, 1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith and farmer, and Jane White. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher and his wife Mary Morrill, a former indentured servant. A descendant of the Folgers, J. A. Folger, founded Folgers Coffee in the 19th century. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... , For the hamlet of Ecton in the Staffordshire Peak District, see Ecton, Staffordshire. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Nantucket County Settled 1641 Incorporated 1671 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  105. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Mary Morrill/Morrel/Morrills/Morill (Circa 1620 – 1704) was the grandmother of Benjamin Franklin who was an American printer, journalist, publisher, author, philanthropist, abolitionist, public servant, scientist, librarian, diplomat, and inventor. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... J. A. Folger, born James Athearne Folger (June 17, 1835 – June 26, 1889), was the founder of the Folgers coffee company. ... Folgers Coffee is a major brand of coffee in the US, part of the food and beverage division of Procter & Gamble. ...


Ben Franklin's great-great-grandmother was Alice Elmy from Diss on the Suffolk / Norfolk border in England. , Diss is a town (population 6742[1]) in Norfolk, England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Norfolk (pronounced ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Around 1677, Josiah married Anne Child at Ecton, and over the next few years had three children. These half-siblings of Benjamin Franklin included Elizabeth (March 2, 1678), Samuel (May 16, 1681), and Hannah (May 25, 1683). is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...


Sometime during the second half of 1683, the Franklins left England for Boston, Massachusetts. They had several more children in Boston, including Josiah Jr. (August 23, 1685), Ann (January 5, 1687), Joseph (February 5, 1688), and Joseph (June 30, 1689) (the first Joseph died soon after birth). {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Josiah's first wife, Anne, died in Boston on July 9, 1689. He was married to Abiah Folger on November 25, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House of Boston by Samuel Willard. is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Old South Meeting House with 33 Arch Street in the background The Old South Meeting House, in Boston, Massachusetts, gained fame as the organizing point for the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. ... Samuel Willard (1640-1707) was a Colonial clergyman. ...


Josiah and Abiah had the following children: John (December 7, 1690), Peter (November 22, 1692), Mary (September 26, 1694), James (February 4, 1697), Sarah (July 9, 1699), Ebenezer (September 20, 1701), Thomas (December 7, 1703), Benjamin (January 17, 1706), Lydia (August 8, 1708), and Jane (March 27, 1712). is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1706 (MDCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ...


Early life

Franklin's Birthplace site on Milk Street is commemorated by a statue above the second floor facade of this building
Franklin's Birthplace site on Milk Street is commemorated by a statue above the second floor facade of this building

Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street in Boston on January 17, 1706[2] and baptized at Old South Meeting House. His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother. Josiah's marriages produced 17 children; Benjamin was the fifteenth child and youngest son. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy but only had enough money to send him to school for two years. He attended Boston Latin School but did not graduate; he continued his education through voracious reading. Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling ended when he was ten. He then worked for his father for a time and at 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer. When Ben was 15, James created the New England Courant, the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies. When denied the option to write to the paper, Franklin invented the pseudonym of Mrs. Silence Dogood, who was ostensibly a middle-aged widow. The letters were published in the paper and became a subject of conversation around town. Neither James nor the Courant's readers were aware of the ruse, and James was unhappy with Ben when he discovered the popular correspondent was his younger brother. Franklin left his apprenticeship without permission and in so doing became a fugitive.[3] Boston redirects here. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1706 (MDCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... The Boston Latin School is a public exam school founded on April 23, 1635, in Boston, Massachusetts, making it the oldest public school in the United States. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... The history of American newspapers spans the history of the United States from 1700 till today. ...


At age 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, seeking a new start in a new city. When he first arrived he worked in several printer shops around town. However, he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was convinced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to London, ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia. Finding Keith's promises of backing a newspaper to be empty, Franklin worked as a compositor in a printer's shop in what is now the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great in the Smithfield area of London. Following this, he returned to Philadelphia in 1726 with the help of a merchant named Thomas Denham, who gave Franklin a position as clerk, shopkeeper, and bookkeeper in Denham's merchant business.[3] In visual effects post-production, compositing refers to creating new images or moving images by combining images from different sources – such as real-world digital video, film, synthetic 3-D imagery, 2-D animations, painted backdrops, digital still photographs, and text. ... The Priory Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great is an Anglican church located at West Smithfield in the City of London, founded as an Augustinian priory in 1123 - see St Bartholomews Hospital for further details. ... Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield to distinguish it from the East Smithfield area located in Tower Hamlets) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London (which is itself the historic core of a much larger London). ...


In 1727, Benjamin Franklin, 21, created the Junto, a group of "like minded aspiring artisans and tradesmen who hoped to improve themselves while they improved their community." The Junto was a discussion group for issues of the day; it subsequently gave rise to many organizations in Philadelphia. The Junto was a club established in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin for mutual improvement in Philadelphia. ...


Reading was a great pastime of the Junto, but books were rare and expensive. The members created a library, and initially pooled their own books together. This did not work, however, and Franklin initiated the idea of a subscription library, where the members pooled their monetary resources to buy books. This idea was the birth of the Library Company, with the charter of the Library Company of Philadelphia created in 1731 by Franklin. The Library Company of Philadelphia is a non-profit institution that has accumulated one of the United States richest collections of manuscript and printed materials. ...


Originally, the books were kept in the homes of the first librarians, but in 1739 the collection was moved to the second floor of the State House of Pennsylvania, now known as Independence Hall. In 1791, a new building was built specifically for the library. The Library Company flourished with no competition and gained many priceless collections from bibliophiles such as James Logan and his physician brother William. The Library Company is now a great scholarly and research library with 500,000 rare books, pamphlets, and broadsides, more than 160,000 manuscripts, and 75,000 graphic items. Independence Hall is a U.S. national landmark located inside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets. ...


Upon Denham's death, Franklin returned to his former trade. By 1730, Franklin had set up a printing house of his own and had contrived to become the publisher of a newspaper called The Pennsylvania Gazette. The Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations. Over time, his commentary, together with a great deal of savvy about cultivating a positive image of an industrious and intellectual young man, earned him a great deal of social respect; though even after Franklin had achieved fame as a scientist and statesman, he habitually signed his letters with the unpretentious 'B. Franklin, Printer.'[3]


In 1731, Franklin was initiated into the local Freemason lodge, becoming a grand master in 1734, indicating his rapid rise to prominence in Pennsylvania.[4][5] That same year, he edited and published the first Masonic book in the Americas, a reprint of James Anderson's Constitutions of the Free-Masons. Franklin remained a Freemason throughout the rest of his life.[6][7] Freemasons redirects here. ... This box:      There are a number of manuscripts that are historically important in the development of Freemasonry. ...


Deborah Read

In 1724, while a boarder in the Read home, Franklin had courted Deborah Read before going to London at Governor Keith's request. At that time, Miss Read's mother was wary of allowing her daughter to wed a seventeen-year old who was on his way to London. Her own husband having recently died, Mrs. Read declined Franklin's offer of marriage.[3]


While Franklin was in London, Deborah married a man named John Rodgers. This proved to be a regrettable decision. Rodgers shortly avoided his debts and prosecution by fleeing to Barbados, leaving Deborah behind. With Rodgers' fate unknown, and bigamy illegal, Deborah was not free to formally remarry.


In 1730, Franklin acknowledged an illegitimate son named William, who would eventually become the last Loyalist governor of New Jersey. While the identity of William's mother remains unknown, perhaps the responsibility of an infant child gave Franklin a reason to take up residence with Deborah Read. William was raised in the Franklin household but eventually broke with his father over the treatment of the colonies at the hands of the crown. However, he was not above using his father's fame to enhance his own standing. William Franklin (1731-1813) William Franklin (1731 – November 16, 1813) was the last Colonial Governor of New Jersey. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Franklin established a common-law marriage with Deborah Read on September 1, 1730. In addition to raising William, Benjamin and Deborah Franklin had two children together. The first, Francis Folger Franklin, born October 1732, died of smallpox in 1736. Sarah Franklin, nicknamed Sally, was born in 1743. She eventually married Richard Bache, had seven children, and cared for her father in his old age. Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Sarah Franklin Bache (September 11, 1743-October 5, 1808) was the daughter of Benjamin Franklin and Deborah Read. ... Richard Bache married the only daughter of Benjamin Franklin. ...


Deborah's fear of the sea meant that she never accompanied Franklin on any of his extended trips to Europe, despite his repeated requests.


Success as author

In 1733, Franklin began to publish the famous Poor Richard's Almanack (with content both original and borrowed) under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, on which much of his popular reputation is based. Franklin frequently wrote under pseudonyms. Although it was no secret that Franklin was the author, his Richard Saunders character repeatedly denied it. "Poor Richard's Proverbs," adages from this almanac, such as "A penny saved is twopence dear" (often misquoted as "A penny saved is a penny earned"), "Fish and visitors stink in three days" remain common quotations in the modern world. Wisdom in folk society meant the ability to provide an apt adage for any occasion, and Franklin's readers became well prepared. He sold about ten thousand copies per year (a circulation equal to nearly three million today).[3] 1739 Edition of Poor Richards Almanack Poor Richards Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly almanack published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of Poor Richard or Richard Saunders for this purpose. ... For other uses, see Alias. ...


In 1758, the year in which he ceased writing for the Almanack, he printed Father Abraham's Sermon, also known as The Way to Wealth. Franklin's autobiography, published after his death, has become one of the classics of the genre. The Way to Wealth is an essay written by Benjamin Franklin in 1757. ...


Inventions and scientific inquiries

An armonica.
An armonica.

Franklin was a prodigious inventor. Among his many creations were the lightning rod, the glass harmonica, the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, and the flexible urinary catheter. Franklin never patented his inventions; in his autobiography he wrote, "... as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously."[8] His inventions also included social innovations, such as paying forward. An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ... An Armonica. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bifocals are eyeglasses whose corrective lenses each contain regions with two distinct optical powers. ... In urinary catheterization, a urinary catheter (such as a Foley catheter) is a plastic tube which is either inserted through a patients urinary tract into their bladder or attached to a male patients penis. ... Social Innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds - from working conditions and education to community development and health - and that extend and strengthen civil society. ... For the moral philosophy, see Pay it forward. ...


As deputy postmaster, Franklin became interested in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns which carried mail ships. Franklin worked with Timothy Folger, his cousin and experienced Nantucket whaler captain, and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the Gulf Stream, giving it the name by which it's still known today. It took many years for British sea captains to follow Franklin's advice on navigating the current, but once they did, they were able to gain two weeks in sailing time.[9][10] For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ...


In 1743, Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society to help scientific men discuss their discoveries and theories. He began the electrical research that, along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of his life, in between bouts of politics and moneymaking.[3] The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ...

An illustration from Franklin's paper on "Water-spouts and Whirlwinds."
An illustration from Franklin's paper on "Water-spouts and Whirlwinds."

In 1748, he retired from printing and went into other businesses. He created a partnership with his foreman, David Hall, which provided Franklin with half of the shop's profits for 18 years. This lucrative business arrangement provided leisure time for study, and in a few years he had made discoveries that gave him a reputation with the educated throughout Europe and especially in France. Download high resolution version (1112x1732, 1665 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1112x1732, 1665 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Waterspouts on the beach of Kijkduin near The Hague, the Netherlands on 2006 August 27. ...


His discoveries included his investigations of electricity. Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of "electrical fluid" (as electricity was called then), but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. He was the first to label them as positive and negative respectively,[11] and he was the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge.[12] In 1750, he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. On May 10, 1752, Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment (using a 40-foot-tall iron rod instead of a kite) and extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On June 15, Franklin may have possibly conducted his famous kite experiment in Philadelphia and also successfully extracted sparks from a cloud, although there are theories that suggest he never performed the experiment. Franklin's experiment was not written up until Joseph Priestley's 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, since he would have been in danger of electrocution in the event of a lightning strike). (Others, such as Prof. Georg Wilhelm Richmann of Saint Petersburg, Russia, were electrocuted during the months following Franklin's experiment.) In his writings, Franklin indicates that he was aware of the dangers and offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning was electrical, as shown by his use of the concept of electrical ground. If Franklin did perform this experiment, he did not do it in the way that is often described, flying the kite and waiting to be struck by lightning, as it would have been fatal.[13] Instead, he used the kite to collect some electric charge from a storm cloud, which implied that lightning was electrical. The Aether of classical elements is a concept, historically, used in science and in philosophy. ... This box:      Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Charge conservation is the principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... In 1750 the US scientist Benjamin Franklin published a proposal for an experiment to determine if lightning was electricity. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a humans body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or hair. ... Georg Wilhelm Richmann (Russian: Георг Вильгельм Рихман) (July 22, 1711 (old style: July 11, 1711) – August 6, 1753 (old style: July 26, 1753)) was a Russian physicist. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... It has been suggested that Ground conductor be merged into this article or section. ...


On October 19 in a letter to England explaining directions for repeating the experiment, Franklin wrote: is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"When rain has wet the kite twine so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it streams out plentifully from the key at the approach of your knuckle, and with this key a phial, or Leiden jar, maybe charged: and from electric fire thus obtained spirits may be kindled, and all other electric experiments [may be] performed which are usually done by the help of a rubber glass globe or tube; and therefore the sameness of the electrical matter with that of lightening completely demonstrated."[14]

Franklin's electrical experiments led to his invention of the lightning rod. He noted that conductors with a sharp rather than a smooth point were capable of discharging silently, and at a far greater distance. He surmised that this knowledge could be of use in protecting buildings from lightning, by attaching "upright Rods of Iron, made sharp as a Needle and gilt to prevent Rusting, and from the Foot of those Rods a Wire down the outside of the Building into the Ground;...Would not these pointed Rods probably draw the Electrical Fire silently out of a Cloud before it came nigh enough to strike, and thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible Mischief!" Following a series of experiments on Franklin's own house, lightning rods were installed on the Academy of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania) and the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in 1752.[15]


In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1753, and in 1756 he became one of the few eighteenth century Americans to be elected as a Fellow of the Society. The cgs unit of electric charge has been named after him: one franklin (Fr) is equal to one statcoulomb. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of science and it is the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The statcoulomb (statC) or franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the centimetre-gram-second (cgs) electrostatic system of units. ...


On October 21, 1743, according to popular myth, a storm moving from the southwest denied Franklin the opportunity of witnessing a lunar eclipse. Franklin was said to have noted that the prevailing winds were actually from the northeast, contrary to what he had expected. In correspondence with his brother, Franklin learned that the same storm had not reached Boston until after the eclipse, despite the fact that Boston is to the northeast of Philadelphia. He deduced that storms do not always travel in the direction of the prevailing wind, a concept which would have great influence in meteorology.[16] is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth’s shadow. ... The prevailing winds are the trends in speed and direction of wind over a particular point on the earths surface. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...


Franklin noted a principle of refrigeration by observing that on a very hot day, he stayed cooler in a wet shirt in a breeze than he did in a dry one. To understand this phenomenon more clearly Franklin conducted experiments. On one warm day in Cambridge, England, in 1758, Franklin and fellow scientist John Hadley experimented by continually wetting the ball of a mercury thermometer with ether and using bellows to evaporate the ether. With each subsequent evaporation, the thermometer read a lower temperature, eventually reaching 7 °F (-14 °C). Another thermometer showed the room temperature to be constant at 65 °F (18 °C). In his letter "Cooling by Evaporation," Franklin noted that "one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day." Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... This article is about the city in England. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Evaporative cooling is a system in which latent heat of evaporation is used to carry heat away from an object to cool it. ...


Musical endeavors

Franklin is known to have played the violin, the harp, and the guitar. He also composed music, notably a string quartet in early classical style, and invented a much-improved version of the glass harmonica, in which each glass was made to rotate on its own, with the player's fingers held steady, instead of the other way around; this version soon found its way to Europe.[17] For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1830, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... An Armonica. ...


Public life

In 1736, Franklin created the Union Fire Company, one of the first volunteer fire fighting companies in America. In the same year, he printed a new currency for New Jersey based on innovative anti-counterfeiting techniques which he had devised. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A repair locker hose team aboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67) combats a controlled fire on the mobile aircraft firefighting training device May 2, 2006. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ...


As he matured, Franklin began to concern himself more with public affairs. In 1743, he set forth a scheme for The Academy and College of Philadelphia. He was appointed president of the academy in November 13, 1749, and it opened on August 13, 1751. At its first commencement, on May 17, 1757, seven men graduated; six with a Bachelor of Arts and one as Master of Arts. It was later merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania to become the University of Pennsylvania. The Academy and College of Philiadelphia was the first American academy. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ...


In 1753, both Harvard and Yale awarded him honorary degrees.[18] Harvard redirects here. ... Yale redirects here. ...


In 1751, Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond obtained a charter from the Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital. Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to become the United States of America. The Pennsylvania Hospital by William Strickland (1755) Pennsylvania Hospital is the first hospital in the United States. ...

Join, or Die: This political cartoon by Franklin urged the colonies to join together during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War).
Join, or Die: This political cartoon by Franklin urged the colonies to join together during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War).

Franklin became involved in Philadelphia politics and rapidly progressed. In October 1748, he was selected as a councilman, in June 1749 he became a Justice of the Peace for Philadelphia, and in 1751 he was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly. On August 10, 1753, Franklin was appointed joint deputy postmaster-general of North America. His most notable service in domestic politics was his reform of the postal system, but his fame as a statesman rests chiefly on his subsequent diplomatic services in connection with the relations of the colonies with Great Britain, and later with France.[3] The cartoon Join, or Die is a famous political cartoon created by Benjamin Franklin and first published in his Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1754, he headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the Albany Congress. This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French. Franklin proposed a broad Plan of Union for the colonies. While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. The Board of Trade circa 1808. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ...


In 1757, he was sent to England by the Pennsylvania Assembly as a colonial agent to protest against the political influence of the Penn family, the proprietors of the colony. He remained there for five years, striving to end the proprietors' prerogative to overturn legislation from the elected Assembly, and their exemption from paying taxes on their land. His lack of influential allies in Whitehall led to the failure of this mission. In 1759, the University of St Andrews awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree. In 1762, Oxford University awarded Franklin an honorary doctorate for his scientific accomplishments and from then on he went by "Doctor Franklin." He also managed to secure a post for his illegitimate son, William Franklin, as Colonial Governor of New Jersey.[3] Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ...


During his stay in London, Franklin became involved in radical politics. He was a member of the Club of Honest Whigs, alongside thinkers such as Richard Price. Richard Price (February 23, 1723 – April 19, 1791), was a Welsh moral and political philosopher. ...


In 1756, Franklin became a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (now Royal Society of Arts or RSA, which had been founded in 1754), whose early meetings took place in coffee shops in London's Covent Garden district, close to Franklin's main residence in Craven Street (the only one of his residences to survive and which opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House museum on January 17, 2006). After his return to America, Franklin became the Society's Corresponding Member and remained closely connected with the Society. The RSA instituted a Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1956 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Franklin's birth and the 200th anniversary of his membership of the RSA. The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... Covent Garden is a district in London, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest corner of the London Borough of Camden. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During his stays at Craven Street in London between 1757 and 1775, Franklin developed a close friendship with his landlady, Margaret Stevenson and her circle of friends and relations, in particular her daughter Mary, who was more often known as Polly.


In 1759, he visited Edinburgh with his son, and recalled his conversations there as "the densest happiness of my life."[19] For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


He also joined the influential Birmingham based Lunar Society with whom he regularly corresponded and on occasion, visited in Birmingham in the West Midlands. This article is about the British city. ... The Lunar Society was a discussion club of prominent industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. ...

Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Wilson, 1759.
Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Wilson, 1759.

Image File history File links Benjamin_Franklin_by_Benjamin_Wilson,_1759. ... Image File history File links Benjamin_Franklin_by_Benjamin_Wilson,_1759. ...

Coming of Revolution

In 1763, soon after Franklin returned to Pennsylvania, the western frontier was engulfed in a bitter war known as Pontiac's Rebellion. The Paxton Boys, a group of settlers convinced that the Pennsylvania government was not doing enough to protect them from American Indian raids, murdered a group of peaceful Susquehannock Indians and then marched on Philadelphia. Franklin helped to organize the local militia in order to defend the capital against the mob, and then met with the Paxton leaders and persuaded them to disperse. Franklin wrote a scathing attack against the racial prejudice of the Paxton Boys. "If an Indian injures me," he asked, "does it follow that I may revenge that Injury on all Indians?"[20] Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... The Paxton Boys were a group of backcountry frontiersmen from western Pennsylvania who banded together to defend themselves against Indian attack during Pontiacs Rebellion. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Susquehannock The Susquehannock people were natives of areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York, through Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. ...


At this time, many members of the Pennsylvania Assembly were feuding with William Penn's heirs, who controlled the colony as proprietors. Franklin led the "anti-proprietary party" in the struggle against the Penn family, and was elected Speaker of the Pennsylvania House in May 1764. His call for a change from proprietary to royal government was a rare political miscalculation, however: Pennsylvanians worried that such a move would endanger their political and religious freedoms. Because of these fears, and because of political attacks on his character, Franklin lost his seat in the October 1764 Assembly elections. The anti-proprietary party dispatched Franklin to England to continue the struggle against the Penn family proprietorship, but during this visit, events would drastically change the nature of his mission.[21] // The Proprietors of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Lower Counties (Delaware) The Lieutenant Governors of Colonial Pennsylvania and the Lower Counties, 1682-1776 List of Governors of Pennsylvania Miller, Randall M & William Pencak, Ed (2002). ... A proprietary colony is a colony in which the king gave land to one or more people called proprietors. ... . ...


In London, Franklin opposed the 1765 Stamp Act, but when he was unable to prevent its passage, he made another political miscalculation and recommended a friend to the post of stamp distributor for Pennsylvania. Pennsylvanians were outraged, believing that he had supported the measure all along, and threatened to destroy his home in Philadelphia. Franklin soon learned of the extent of colonial resistance to the Stamp Act, and his testimony before the House of Commons led to its repeal. With this, Franklin suddenly emerged as the leading spokesman for American interests in England. He wrote popular essays on behalf of the colonies, and Georgia, New Jersey, and Massachusetts also appointed him as their agent to the Crown.[21] The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Franklin in 1783, an engraving from a painting by Joseph Duplessis.
Franklin in 1783, an engraving from a painting by Joseph Duplessis.

In September 1767, Franklin visited Paris with his usual traveling partner, Sir John Pringle. News of his electrical discoveries was widespread in France. His reputation meant that he was introduced to many influential scientists and politicians, and also to King Louis XV.[22] Download high resolution version (1500x1988, 1086 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1988, 1086 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Christophe Gabriel Allegrain, sculptor by Duplessis, 1774 (Louvre Museum) Joseph-Siffred Duplessis (Carpentras, near Avignon, 22 September 1725 – Versailles, 1 April 1802) was a French painter, known for the clarity and immediacy of his portraits. ... John Pringle. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ...


While living in London in 1768, he developed a phonetic alphabet in A Scheme for a new Alphabet and a Reformed Mode of Spelling. This reformed alphabet discarded six letters Franklin regarded as redundant (c, j, q, w, x and y), and substituted six new letters for sounds he felt lacked letters of their own. His new alphabet, however, never caught on and he eventually lost interest.[23] Benjamin Franklins phonetic alphabet was Benjamin Franklins proposal for a spelling reform of the English language. ...


In 1771, Franklin traveled extensively around the British Isles staying with, among others, Joseph Priestley and David Hume. In Dublin, Franklin was invited to sit with the members of the Irish Parliament rather than in the gallery. He was the first American to be given this honor.[24] While touring Ireland, he was moved by the level of poverty he saw. Ireland's economy was affected by the same trade regulations and laws of England which governed America. Franklin feared that America could suffer the same effects should Britain’s colonial exploitation continue.[25] Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ...


In 1773, Franklin published two of his most celebrated pro-American satirical essays: Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One, and An Edict by the King of Prussia.[26] He also published an Abridgment of the Book of Common Prayer, anonymously with Francis Dashwood. Among the unusual features of this work is a funeral service reduced to six minutes in length, "to preserve the health and lives of the living."[22] Francis Dashwood, 15th Baron le Despencer (December, 1708 - December 11, 1781) was an English rake and politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (1762-1763) and founder of The Hellfire Club. ...


Hutchinson Letters

Franklin obtained private letters of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson and lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver which proved they were encouraging London to crack down on the rights of the Bostonians. Franklin sent them to America where they escalated the tensions. Franklin now appeared to the British as the fomenter of serious trouble. Hopes for a peaceful solution ended as he was systematically ridiculed and humiliated by the Privy Council. He left London in March 1775.[22] Andrew Oliver (1706-1774) was the man that enforced the stamp act in the colonies however was forced to resign after repeated violence from the colonists Categories: Massachusetts politicians | 1706 births | 1774 deaths | American politician stubs ...


Declaration of Independence

John Trumbull depicts the Committee of Five presenting their work to the Congress.
John Trumbull depicts the Committee of Five presenting their work to the Congress.[27]

By the time Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, the American Revolution had begun with fighting at Lexington and Concord. The New England militia had trapped the main British army in Boston. The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. In June 1776, he was appointed a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the Committee, Franklin made a several small changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson.[22] Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... This article is about the American painter. ... The Committee of Five was the group delegated by the Second Continental Congress on June 11, 1776 to draft the United States Declaration of Independence. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... The Committee of Five was the group delegated by the Second Continental Congress on June 11, 1776 to draft the United States Declaration of Independence. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


At the signing, he is quoted as having replied to a comment by Hancock that they must all hang together: "Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately,"[28]


Ambassador to France: 1776-1785

In December 1776, Franklin was dispatched to France as commissioner for the United States. He lived in a home in the Parisian suburb of Passy, donated by Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont who supported the United States. Franklin remained in France until 1785, and was such a favorite of French society that it became fashionable for wealthy French families to decorate their parlors with a painting of him. He was highly flirtatious in the French manner (but did not have any actual affairs). He conducted the affairs of his country towards the French nation with great success, which included securing a critical military alliance in 1778 and negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783). During his stay in France, Benjamin Franklin as a freemason was Grand Master of the Lodge Les Neuf Sœurs from 1779 until 1781. His number was 24 in the Lodge. He was also a Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania. Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ... Passy is an exclusive suburb on the Right Bank of Paris, France and traditional home to many of the citys wealthiest residents. ... Jacques-Donatien Le Ray (1726-1803) was a French Father of the American Revolution, but later an opponent of the French Revolution. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Les Neuf SÅ“urs was a prominent French Masonic Lodge that was particularly influential in organising French support for the American Revolution. ...


Constitutional Convention

When he finally returned home in 1785, Franklin occupied a position only second to that of George Washington as the champion of American independence. Le Ray honored him with a commissioned portrait painted by Joseph Duplessis that now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. After his return, Franklin became an abolitionist, freeing both of his slaves. He eventually became president of Pennsylvania Abolition Society.[29] George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Christophe Gabriel Allegrain, sculptor by Duplessis, 1774 (Louvre Museum) Joseph-Siffred Duplessis (Carpentras, near Avignon, 22 September 1725 – Versailles, 1 April 1802) was a French painter, known for the clarity and immediacy of his portraits. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was the first American abolition society, formed April 14, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...


In 1787, Franklin served as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention. He held an honorific position and seldom engaged in debate. He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all four of the major documents of the founding of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris, the Treaty of Alliance with France, and the United States Constitution. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Combatants American Patriots France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George...


In 1787, a group of prominent ministers in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, proposed the foundation of a new college to be named in Franklin's honor. Franklin donated £200 towards the development of Franklin College, which is now called Franklin & Marshall College. , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ...


Between 1771 and 1788, he finished his autobiography. While it was at first addressed to his son, it was later completed for the benefit of mankind at the request of a friend.


In his later years, as Congress was forced to deal with the issue of slavery, Franklin wrote several essays that attempted to convince his readers of the importance of the abolition of slavery and of the integration of Africans into American society. These writings included: Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ...

In 1790, Quakers from New York and Pennsylvania presented their petition for abolition. Their argument against slavery was backed by the Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society and its president, Benjamin Franklin.


President of Pennsylvania

Special balloting conducted 18 November 1785 unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson. The office of President of Pennsylvania was analogous to the modern position of Governor. It is not clear why Dickinson needed to be replaced with less than two weeks remaining before the regular election. Franklin held that office for slightly over three years, longer than any other, and served the Constitutional limit of three full terms. Shortly after his initial election he was re-elected to a full term on 29 October 1785, and again in the fall of 1786 and on 31 October 1787. Officially, his term concluded on 5 November 1788, but there is some question regarding the de facto end of his term, suggesting that the aging Franklin may not have been actively involved in the day-to-day operation of the Council toward the end of his time in office. is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania represented the executive branch of the Pennsylvania State government between 1777 and 1790. ... The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania represented the executive branch of the Pennsylvania State government between 1777 and 1790. ... This is a list of Governors of Pennsylvania. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Virtue, religion and personal beliefs

A bust of Franklin by Jean-Antoine Houdon.

Like the other advocates of republicanism, Franklin emphasized that the new republic could survive only if the people were virtuous in the sense of attention to civic duty and rejection of corruption. All his life he had been exploring the role of civic and personal virtue, as expressed in Poor Richard's aphorisms. Jean-Antoine Houdon (March 20, 1741 - July 15, 1828) was a French sculptor. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ...


Although Franklin's parents had intended for him to have a career in the church, Franklin became disillusioned with organized religion after discovering Deism. "I soon became a thorough Deist."[30] He went on to attack Christian principles of free will and morality in a 1725 pamphlet, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain.[31] He consistently attacked religious dogma, arguing that morality was more dependent upon virtue and benevolent actions than on strict obedience to religious orthodoxy: "I think opinions should be judged by their influences and effects; and if a man holds none that tend to make him less virtuous or more vicious, it may be concluded that he holds none that are dangerous, which I hope is the case with me." For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain is a philosophical pamphlet by Benjamin Franklin, published in London in 1725. ...


A few years later, Franklin repudiated his 1725 pamphlet as an embarrassing "erratum." In 1790, just about a month before he died, Franklin wrote the following in a letter to Ezra Stiles, president of Yale, who had asked him his views on religion: The Rev. ...

As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and I think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble....[3]

Like most Enlightenment intellectuals, Franklin separated virtue, morality, and faith from organized religion, although he felt that if religion in general grew weaker, morality, virtue, and society in general would also decline. Thus he wrote Thomas Paine, "If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it." According to David Morgan,[32] Franklin was a proponent of all religions. He prayed to "Powerful Goodness" and referred to God as the "INFINITE." John Adams noted that Franklin was a mirror in which people saw their own religion: "The Catholics thought him almost a Catholic. The Church of England claimed him as one of them. The Presbyterians thought him half a Presbyterian, and the Friends believed him a wet Quaker." Whatever else Benjamin Franklin was, concludes Morgan, "he was a true champion of generic religion." Ben Franklin was noted to be "the spirit of the Enlightenment." This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... The American Enlightenment is a term sometimes employed to describe the intellectual culture of the British North American colonies and the early United States (as they became following the American Revolution). ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ...


Walter Isaacson argues[33] that Franklin became uncomfortable with an unenhanced version of deism and came up with his own conception of the Creator. Franklin outlined his concept of deity in 1728, in his Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion.[34] From this, Isaacson compares Franklin's conception of deity to that of strict deists and orthodox Christians. He concludes that unlike most pure deists, Franklin believed that a faith in God should inform our daily actions, but that, like other deists, his faith was devoid of sectarian dogma. Isaacson also discusses Franklin's conception that God had created beings who do interfere in wordly matters, a point that has led some commentators, most notably A. Owen Aldridge, to read Franklin as embracing some sort of polytheism, with a bevy of lesser gods overseeing various realms and planets. Walter Isaacson Walter Isaacson is the President and CEO of the Aspen Institute. ...


On July 4, 1776, Congress appointed a committee that included Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams to design the Great Seal of the United States.[35] Each member of the committee proposed a unique design: Franklin's proposal featured a design with the motto: "Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God." This design was to portray a scene from the Book of Exodus, complete with Moses, the Israelites, the pillar of fire, and George III depicted as Pharaoh.[36] is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States federal government. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


At the Constitutional Convention in 1787, when the convention seemed headed for disaster due to a vitriolic debate, the elderly Franklin recalled the days of the Revolutionary War, when the American leaders assembled in prayer daily, seeking "divine guidance" from the "Father of lights." He then rhetorically asked,

And have we now forgotten that powerful friend? Or do we imagine that we no longer need his assistance?... I have lived, Sir, a long time, and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth - that God Governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without His notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without His aid?

We have been assured, Sir, in the Sacred Writings, that "except the Lord build the House, they labor in vain that build it." I firmly believe this; and I also believe that without his concurring aid we shall succeed in this political building no better than the Builders of Babel: We shall be divided by our partial local interests; our projects will be confounded, and we ourselves shall become a reproach and bye word down to future ages. And what is worse, mankind may hereafter from this unfortunate instance, despair of establishing Governments by Human wisdom and leave it to chance, war and conquest. I therefore beg leave to move - that henceforth prayers imploring the assistance of Heaven, and its blessing on our deliberations, be held in this Assembly every morning before we proceed to business, and that one or more of the clergy of this city be requested to officiate in that service.[37]

Franklin may have financially supported one particular Presbyterian group in Philadelphia.[38] According to the epitaph Franklin wrote for himself at the age of twenty, it is clear that he believed in a physical resurrection of the body some time after death. Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will, simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin."[39]


Virtue

Franklin sought to cultivate his character by a plan of thirteen virtues, which he developed at age 20 (in 1726) and continued to practice in some form for the rest of his life. His autobiography (see references below) lists his thirteen virtues as:

  1. "TEMPERANCE. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation."
  2. "SILENCE. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation."
  3. "ORDER. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time."
  4. "RESOLUTION. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve."
  5. "FRUGALITY. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing."
  6. "INDUSTRY. Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions."
  7. "SINCERITY. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly."
  8. "JUSTICE. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty."
  9. "MODERATION. Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve."
  10. "CLEANLINESS. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation."
  11. "TRANQUILLITY. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable."
  12. "CHASTITY. Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation."
  13. "HUMILITY. Imitate Jesus and Socrates."

This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ...

Death and legacy

The grave of Benjamin Franklin in Christ Church Burial Ground, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Franklin died on April 17, 1790, at age 84. His funeral was attended by approximately 20,000 people. He was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. In 1728, as a young man, Franklin wrote what he hoped would be his own epitaph: is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is the final resting place of Benjamin Franklin and his wife, Deborah. ...

The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and Amended By the Author.[40]

Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will, simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin."[41]


In 1773, when Franklin's work had moved from printing to science and politics, he corresponded with a French scientist on the subject of preserving the dead for later revival by more advanced scientific methods, writing:

I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection.[42] (Extended excerpt also online.)[43]

His death is described in the book The Life of Benjamin Franklin, quoting from the account of Dr. John Jones:

...when the pain and difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family were flattering themselves with the hopes of his recovery, when an imposthume, which had formed itself in his lungs, suddenly burst, and discharged a quantity of matter, which he continued to throw up while he had power; but, as that failed, the organs of respiration became gradually oppressed; a calm, lethargic state succeeded; and on the 17th instant (April, 1790), about eleven o'clock at night, he quietly expired, closing a long and useful life of eighty-four years and three months.[44]

Memorial marble statue of Ben Franklin

Franklin bequeathed £1,000 (about $4,400 at the time) each to the cities of Boston and Philadelphia, in trust to gather interest for 200 years. The trust began in 1785 when a French mathematician named Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour wrote a parody of Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanack" called "Fortunate Richard." Mocking the unbearable spirit of American optimism represented by Franklin, the Frenchman wrote that Fortunate Richard left a small sum of money in his will to be used only after it had collected interest for 500 years. Franklin, who was 79 years old at the time, wrote to the Frenchman, thanking him for a great idea and telling him that he had decided to leave a bequest of 1,000 pounds each to his native Boston and his adopted Philadelphia. As of 1990, more than $2,000,000 had accumulated in Franklin's Philadelphia trust, which had loaned the money to local residents. From 1940 to 1990, the money was used mostly for mortgage loans. When the trust came due, Philadelphia decided to spend it on scholarships for local high school students. Franklin's Boston trust fund accumulated almost $5,000,000 during that same time, and was used to establish a trade school that became the Franklin Institute of Boston.[45] Image File history File links Benjamin-Franklin-National-Memorial. ... Image File history File links Benjamin-Franklin-National-Memorial. ... The text or formatting below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...


Franklin's likeness is ubiquitous. Since 1928, it has adorned American $100 bills, which are sometimes referred to in slang as "Benjamins" or "Franklins." From 1948 to 1964, Franklin's portrait was on the half dollar. He has appeared on a $50 bill and on several varieties of the $100 bill from 1914 and 1918. Franklin appears on the $1,000 Series EE Savings bond. The city of Philadelphia contains around 5,000 likenesses of Benjamin Franklin, about half of which are located on the University of Pennsylvania campus. Philadelphia's Benjamin Franklin Parkway (a major thoroughfare) and Benjamin Franklin Bridge (the first major bridge to connect Philadelphia with New Jersey) are named in his honor. Obverse of the Series 2003A $100 bill Reverse of the Series 2003A $100 bill The United States one hundred-dollar bill ($100) is a denomination of United States currency. ... The Franklin half dollar is a coin of the United States, minted from 1948 to 1963. ... Treasury securities are government bonds issued by the United States Department of the Treasury through the Bureau of the Public Debt. ... Benjamin Franklin Parkway is a scenic avenue that runs through the cultural heart of Philadelphia. ... The Benjamin Franklin Bridge (also known simply as the Ben Franklin Bridge), originally named the Delaware River Bridge, is a suspension bridge across the Delaware River connecting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Camden, New Jersey. ...

A marble statue of Benjamin Franklin stands in the atrium of Benjamin Franklin High School in New Orleans, Louisiana
A marble statue of Benjamin Franklin stands in the atrium of Benjamin Franklin High School in New Orleans, Louisiana

In 1976, as part of a bicentennial celebration, Congress dedicated a 20-foot (6 m) marble statue in Philadelphia's Franklin Institute as the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial. Many of Franklin's personal possessions are also on display at the Institute, one of the few national memorials located on private property. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Benjamin Franklin High School is a public magnet high school in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... NOLA redirects here. ... The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In London, his house at 36 Craven Street was first marked with a blue plaque and has since been opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House.[46] In 1998, workmen restoring the building dug up the remains of six children and four adults hidden below the home. The Times reported on February 11, 1998: A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Initial estimates are that the bones are about 200 years old and were buried at the time Franklin was living in the house, which was his home from 1757 to 1762 and from 1764 to 1775. Most of the bones show signs of having been dissected, sawn or cut. One skull has been drilled with several holes. Paul Knapman, the Westminster Coroner, said yesterday: "I cannot totally discount the possibility of a crime. There is still a possibility that I may have to hold an inquest.

The Friends of Benjamin Franklin House (the organization responsible for the restoration) note that the bones were likely placed there by William Hewson, who lived in the house for two years and who had built a small anatomy school at the back of the house. They note that while Franklin likely knew what Hewson was doing, he probably did not participate in any dissections because he was much more of a physicist than a medical man.[1]


Exhibitions

"The Princess and the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova, Benjamin Franklin and the Age of Enlightenment" exhibition opened in Philadelphia in February 2006 and ran through December 2006. Benjamin Franklin and Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. Franklin was 75 and Dashkova was 37. Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman to join the American Philosophical Society and the only woman to be so honored for another 80 years. Later, Dashkova reciprocated by making him the first American member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ...


Popular culture

Franklin on the hundred dollar bill.
Franklin on the hundred dollar bill.

Franklin, in his "Poor Richard" persona, helped create popular culture in America. In turn he has been included in many different popular culture media, of which this list is a small, recent sample. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

  • Daylight saving time (DST) is often erroneously attributed to a 1784 satire that Franklin published anonymously.[47] Modern DST was first proposed by William Willett in 1907.[48] The ancient Romans adjusted their clocks in a different way, by lengthening summer daylight hours.[49]
  • When Franklin was minister to France in the 1770s, Paris was awash in miniatures, painting, statues and representations of him, usually dressed as a frontiersman.
  • Franklin appears as a main character in the Broadway musicals Ben Franklin in Paris (portrayed by Robert Preston) and 1776 (portrayed by Howard da Silva in the original production).
  • The television show MythBusters (Discovery channel) tested Franklin's famous kite experiment with electricity.
  • A young Franklin appears in Neal Stephenson's novel of 17th century science and alchemy, Quicksilver.
  • Walt Disney's cartoon Ben and Me (1953), based on the book by Robert Lawson, counterfactually explains to children that Franklin's achievements were actually the ideas of a mouse named Amos.
  • Franklin surprisingly appears as a character in Tony Hawk's Underground 2, a skateboarding video game. Players encounter Franklin in his hometown of Boston and are able to play as him there after.
  • Proud Destiny by Lion Feuchtwanger, a novel mainly about Pierre Beaumarchais and Franklin beginning in 1776's Paris.
  • Franklin appears in the LucasArts Entertainment Company Game Day of the Tentacle.
  • Franklin is portrayed in a central role in the PBS cartoon Liberty's Kids voiced by Walter Cronkite.
  • The 2004 movie National Treasure has the main characters trying to collect clues left by Franklin to discover a treasure that he supposedly hid. The character played by Nicolas Cage was named "Benjamin Franklin Gates", in following with the Gates family tradition to name sons after Franklin and his contemporaries.
  • The Franklin Templeton Investments firm (originally Franklin Distributors, Inc.) was named in honor of Franklin and uses his portrait in their logo.
  • The children's novel Qwerty Stevens: Stuck in Time with Benjamin Franklin has the main characters using their time machine to bring Franklin into modern times and then to travel back with him to 1776.
  • Franklin is one of the main characters in Gregory Keyes' The Age of Unreason tetralogy.
  • A 1992 Saturday Night Live spoof of Quantum Leap, "Founding Fathers", had Franklin traveling through time with George Washington and Thomas Jefferson to help modern day Americans with deficit reduction, only to find twentieth century reporters are only interested in scandal and sensationalism.
  • Franklin appears in several episodes of Histeria, voiced by actor Billy West similarly to Jay Leno. He is frequently shown flying his kite in a lightning storm and being electrocuted as a running gag.
  • The science-fiction TV show Voyagers! had the main characters helping Franklin fly his kite in one episode and save his mother from a fictionalized Salem Witch Trial in the next episode.
  • "Julian McGrath", played by Cole Sprouse and Dylan Sprouse, appears as Franklin in a school play in the Adam Sandler comedy Big Daddy.
  • The time-travel card game Early American Chrononauts includes a card called Franklin's Kite which players can symbolically acquire from the year 1752.
  • Stan Freberg's comedic audio recording, Stan Freberg Presents the United States of America: The Early Years, depicts all of Franklin's accomplishments as having been made by his young apprentice, Myron.
  • Beavis and Butthead once got into trouble after attempting to fly a kite in a thunderstorm, copying what they saw on an educational show about Franklin.
  • Franklin appears in Fred Saberhagen's "The Frankenstein Papers", and part of the novel is written as letters to Franklin.
  • In The Adventures of Dr. McNinja, McNinja's mentor in medical school was the clone of Franklin. In the story, the clone asks McNinja if he will assist him in a project to grant eternal life.
  • In season 3 of Bewitched, Aunt Clara accidentally brings him forward in time to repair a broken electrical lamp.
  • Franklin has been portrayed in several works of fiction, such as The Fairly Oddparents and Ask a Ninja, as having lightning-and-kite-based superpowers akin to those of Storm from X-Men.
  • M*A*S*H protagonist Benjamin Franklin "Hawkeye" Pierce is named after both Benjamin Franklin and President Franklin Pierce.
  • Prison Break character Benjamin Miles Franklin is named after Benjamin Franklin.
  • In Giacomo Puccini's Italian opera of 1904, Madam Butterfly, the archetypical American who betrays Madam Butterfly is Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton, Lieutenant in the United States Navy. The libretto was based on a short story by an American author John Luther Long, whose sister was a missionary in Japan.
  • In the 1993 movie The Sandlot, actor Mike Vitar's character is named Benjamin Franklin Rodriguez.
  • An independently produced public radio series, Craven Street, (2003) dramatizes Franklin's last five years in London before the American Revolution.
  • In a 2004 sketch on the FOX show Mad TV, Franklin, played by Paul Vogt, sends Samuel Adams, played by Josh Meyers, to the future in a time machine he made from a roll-top desk. Franklin wanted to know if the American Revolution was a success, but gets frustrated when Adams only comes back to tell him that Samuel Adams Beer is a success. The time machine also brings back a man named Jerry, played by Ike Barinholtz, who is little help to Franklin.
  • Robert Lee Hall has authored a number of mystery novels in which Franklin solves murder cases. The books interweave actual events and persons from Franklin's life into the stories.
  • There is an episode of the US version of The Office entitled Ben Franklin, in which an actor portraying Franklin is hired for an office party.
  • A Saul of the Mole Men episode entitled "Poor Clancy's Almanack" uses Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson to explain the true mainstream conflict while revealing Clancy Burrows' past.
  • Benjamin Franklin Village, a military housing area in Mannheim, Germany is named after him.
  • MacHeist used Benjamin Franklin as a character to meet in the current MacHeist II Philadelphia Mini-Heist, A man in a Franklin costume gave the Heisters several clues to initiate the Mini-Heist (Items included a Kite with a 4 digit number written on it, a Key, and a USB Key which had 5 pictures on it).
  • Franklin was a character in Thomas Pynchon's novel "Mason and Dixon".

Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Anonymity is the state of not being identifiable within a set, called the anonymity set. When referring to human beings, we say that a person is anonymous when the identity of that person is not known. ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... Original cast recording Ben Franklin in Paris is a musical with a book and lyrics by Sidney Michaels and music by Mark Sandrich, Jr. ... Robert Preston Meservey (June 8, 1918 - March 21, 1987), better known as Robert Preston, was an Oscar-nominated American actor. ... 1776 is the title of a 1969 Broadway musical and its 1972 film adaptation. ... Actor Howard Da Silva in The Lost Weekend Howard Da Silva (born May 4, 1909; died February 16, 1986) was an American actor. ... MythBusters is an American popular science television program on the Discovery Channel starring American special effects experts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman, who use basic elements of the scientific method to test the validity of various rumors, urban legends and news stories in popular culture. ... Quicksilver by Neal Stephenson is the first volume of his series The Baroque Cycle. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Ben and Me was a two reel short subject produced by Disney and released theatrically on November 10, 1953. ... Robert Lawson (born October 4, 1892 in New York City - died 1957) was an author and commercial artist. ... Tony Hawks Underground 2 (also known as THUG 2 or Tony Hawks Pro Skater 6) is the sixth installment in Neversofts Tony Hawks Series and is the sequel to 2003s Tony Hawks Underground. ... Skateboarders Skateboarding is the act of riding on and performing tricks with a skateboard. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... Lion Feuchtwanger (pseudonym: J.L. Wetcheek) (7 July 1884 - 21 December 1958) was a German-Jewish novelist who was imprisoned in a French internment camp in Les Milles and later escaped to Los Angeles with the help of his wife, Marta. ... Beaumarchais Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (January 24, 1732 – May 17-18, 1799) was a watch-maker, inventor, musician, politician, invalid, fugitive, spy, publisher, arms-dealer, and revolutionary (both French and American). ... LucasArts is an American video game developer and publisher. ... Maniac Mansion: Day of the Tentacle (DoTT) is a graphical adventure game, originally released in 1993, and published by LucasArts. ... PBS redirects here. ... Libertys Kids is a 40-part animated television series produced by DiC Entertainment, originally broadcast on PBS Kids from September 2, 2002 to April 4, 2003. ... Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... This article is about the film. ... Nicolas Cage (born January 7, 1964) is an Academy Award-winning American actor and an exemplar of method acting. ... Franklin Resources Inc. ... For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ... Childrens books redirects here. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Gregory Keyes is a writer of science fiction and fantasy. ... The Age of Unreason is a series of four books written by Gregory Keyes. ... A tetralogy is a compound work that is made up of four (numerical prefix tetra-) distinct works. ... SNL redirects here. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Quantum Leap is an American science fiction television series that ran for 96 episodes from March 1989 to May 1993 on the NBC network. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This article is about budget deficits. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ... A scandal is a widely publicized incident involving allegations of wrong-doing, disgrace, or moral outrage. ... Sensationalism is a manner of being extremely controversial, loud, attention-grabbing, or otherwise sensationalistic. ... Histeria! was a cartoon show made by Warner Bros. ... Billy West (born William Richard West on April 16, 1952 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American voice actor, known for roles on shows such as The Ren and Stimpy Show and Futurama. ... James Douglas Muir Jay Leno (April 28, 1950) is an Emmy Award-winning American stand-up comedian and television host, who succeeded Johnny Carson as host of The Tonight Show in 1992. ... The running gag is a popular hallmark of comic and serious forms of entertainment. ... Voyagers! is a time travel-based television series broadcast in the 1982-1983 season on NBC, starting on October 3, 1982. ... Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan Kite flying is the activity of flying tethered man-made objects in wind. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... Cole Mitchell Sprouse was born August 4, 1992 in Arezzo, Italy along with twin brother Dylan Sprouse. ... Dylan Thomas Sprouse (born August 4, 1992 in Arezzo, Italy) started acting at the age of 6 months along with his identical twin brother Cole Sprouse. ... Adam Richard Sandler (born September 9, 1966) is an American comedian, actor, musician, screenwriter, and film producer. ... Big Daddy is a comedy film starring Adam Sandler that was released in 1999. ... Chrononauts is a card game played with a specially designed set of 136 cards. ... Stanley Victor Freberg (born August 7, 1926 in Los Angeles) is an American author, recording artist, animation voice actor, comedian, puppeteer and advertising creative director. ... Beavis and Butt-head is an animated comedy show that aired on US TV station MTV from 1993 to 1997. ... Fred Thomas Saberhagen (May 18, 1930–June 29, 2007[1][2]) was a Chicago-born American science fiction and fantasy fiction author most famous for his Berserker series of science fiction stories. ... The Adventures of Dr. McNinja is a webcomic written and drawn by Chris Hastings and inked by his roommate Kent Archer. ... This article is about an American television sitcom. ... The Fairly OddParents is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series created by Butch Hartman about the adventures of a boy who has two fairy godparents and his fairy god brother, Poof, who was introduced to the series on a one-hour television event on February 18, 2008 called... Ask A Ninja is an award-winning[1] series of comedy videos about the image of ninjas in popular culture available in podcast and vodcast form, as well as in mov and wmv file formats. ... This article is about the X-Men character. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... M*A*S*H title screen from the television series M*A*S*H was a media franchise active, in various forms, from 1968 to 1986. ... Captain Benjamin Franklin Hawkeye Pierce is the lead fictional character in the M*A*S*H novels, film, and television series. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... This article is about a television series. ... For other uses, see C-Note. ... Madama Butterfly (or sometimes Madame Butterfly in English) is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, set in Japan. ... John Luther Long (1861-1927) was an American lawyer and writer remembered (if he is remembered at all) for his short story Madame Butterfly based on the recollections of his sister, Mrs. ... The Sandlot is a 1993 film about young baseball players. ... Mike Vitar (Born December 21, 1978) is an American child actor most notably appearing in The Sandlot as Benny the jet Rodriguez. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Mad TV (disambiguation). ... Paul Vogt (born December 16, 1964, in Buffalo, New York) was, from 2002 to 2005, one of the lead actors on the comedy sketch-show MADtv. ... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... Joshua Dylan Meyers (born January 8, 1976 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American actor, best known for being a cast member of the American sketch comedy MadTV // Meyers was raised in Bedford, New Hampshire. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Samuel Adams is the brand name of American beers produced by the Boston Beer Company (NYSE: SAM) and named after Samuel Adams, a brewer[1] and patriot. ... Isaac Ike Barinholtz (born February 18, 1977) is a comic actor. ... This article is about the USA version of The Office. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Office (US) Ben Franklin is the fourteenth episode of the third season of the US version of The Office. ... Saul of the Mole Men is a live action show created by Craig Lewis, writer on The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy and Fosters Home for Imaginary Friends. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... MacHeist is a website that resells Mac OS X shareware. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... Mason & Dixon, an epic postmodernist novel by Thomas Pynchon first published in 1997, centers on the collaboration of the historical Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon in their astronomical and surveying exploits in Cape Colony, Saint Helena, Great Britain and along the Mason-Dixon line in British North America on the...

See also

Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This is a list of places in the United States named for Benjamin Franklin: State of Franklin (now eastern Tennessee) Franklin Institute Franklin County, Alabama Franklin County, Arkansas Franklin County, Florida Franklin County, Georgia Franklin County, Illinois Franklin County, Indiana Franklin County, Iowa Franklin, Kentucky Franklin County, Kentucky Franklin County... Les Neuf SÅ“urs was a prominent French Masonic Lodge that was particularly influential in organising French support for the American Revolution. ... Social Innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds - from working conditions and education to community development and health - and that extend and strengthen civil society. ...

References

Biographies

  • Carl Becker, "Franklin". Short scholarly biography written in 1931, with links to sources.
  • H. W. Brands. The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2000) full-length biography
  • Walter Isaacson. Benjamin Franklin: An American Life (2003). full-length biography.
  • Mark Skousen . The Compleated Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin (2005) told in Franklins own words.
  • Ralph L. Ketcham, Benjamin Franklin (1966), Short biography.
  • Edmund S. Morgan. Benjamin Franklin (2003). Short introduction by leading scholar
  • Carl Van Doren. Benjamin Franklin (1938; reprinted 1991). full-length biography.
  • Gordon Wood, The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin (2005). Interpretive essay by leading scholar

For Young Readers

  • Fleming, Candace. Ben Franklin's Almanac: Being a True Account of the Good Gentleman's Life. Atheneum/Anne Schwart, 2003, 128 pages, ISBN 978-0-689-83549-0.

Scholarly Studies

  • Douglas Anderson. The Radical Enlightenments of Benjamin Franklin (1997). BF in terms of intellectual history
  • Isaac Asimov. The Kite That Won The Revolution, a biography for children that focuses on Franklin's scientific and diplomatic contributions.
  • M. H. Buxbaum., ed. Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987).
  • I. Bernard Cohen. Benjamin Franklin's Science (1990). One of several books by Cohen on Franklin's science.
  • Paul W. Conner. Poor Richard's Politicks (1965). Analyzes BF's ideas in terms of the Enlightenment
  • Dray, Philip. Stealing God's Thunder: Benjamin Franklin's Lightning Rod and the Invention of America. Random House, 2005. 279 pp.
  • "Franklin as Printer and Publisher" in The Century (April 1899) v. 57 pp. 803-18. By Paul Leicester Ford.
  • "Franklin as Scientist" in The Century (Sept 1899) v.57 pp. 750-63. By Paul Leicester Ford.
  • "Franklin as Politician and Diplomatist" in The Century (October 1899) v. 57 pp. 881-899. By Paul Leicester Ford.
  • Gleason, Philip. "Trouble in the Colonial Melting Pot." Journal of American Ethnic History 2000 20(1): 3-17. ISSN 0278-5927 Fulltext online in Ingenta and Ebsco. Considers the political consequences of the remarks in a 1751 pamphlet by Franklin on demographic growth and its implications for the colonies. He called the Pennsylvania Germans "Palatine Boors" who could never acquire the "Complexion" of the English settlers and to "Blacks and Tawneys" as weakening the social structure of the colonies. Although Franklin apparently reconsidered shortly thereafter, and the phrases were omitted from all later printings of the pamphlet, his views may have played a role in his political defeat in 1764.
  • Lawrence, D. H. Studies in Classic American Literature" (1923) scathing ridicule of Franklin's religious ideas by famous British author online version
  • Monaghan, J. E. (2005). Learning to read and write in colonial America. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
  • Olson, Lester C. Benjamin Franklin's Vision of American Community: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology. U. of South Carolina Press, 2004. 323 pp.
  • Skousen, W. Cleon. The Five Thousand Year Leap (1981). Brief summary on 28 ideas implemented into the U.S. Constitution by the American Founding Fathers.
  • Schiff, Stacy. A Great Improvisation: Franklin, France, and the Birth of America (2005) (UK title Dr Franklin Goes to France)
  • Schiffer, Michael Brian. Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment. U. of California Press, 2003. 383 pp.
  • Sethi, Arjun The Morality of Values (2006). Online Version
  • Stuart Sherman "Franklin" 1918 article on Franklin's writings.
  • Michael Sletcher, 'Domesticity: The Human Side of Benjamin Franklin', Magazine of History, XXI (2006).
  • Waldstreicher, David. Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution. Hill and Wang, 2004. 315 pp.
  • Walters, Kerry S. Benjamin Franklin and His Gods. U. of Illinois Press, 1999. 213 pp. Takes position midway between D. H. Lawrence's brutal 1930 denunciation of Franklin's religion as nothing more than a bourgeois commercialism tricked out in shallow utilitarian moralisms and Owen Aldridge's sympathetic 1967 treatment of the dynamism and protean character of Franklin's "polytheistic" religion.

I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003) was the Victor S. Thomas Professor of the history of science at Harvard University and the author of many books on the history of science and, in particular, Isaac Newton. ... Arjun Charan Sethi (born 18 September 1941) is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. ...

Primary sources

  • Silence Dogood, The Busy-Body, & Early Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.) (Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume) ISBN 978-1-93108222-8
  • Autobiography, Poor Richard, & Later Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.) (Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume) ISBN 978-1-88301153-6
  • Benjamin Franklin Reader edited by Walter Isaacson (2003)
  • Houston, Alan, ed. Franklin: The Autobiography and other Writings on Politics, Economics, and Virtue. Cambridge U. Press, 2004. 371 pp.
  • Ketcham, Ralph, ed. The Political Thought of Benjamin Franklin. (1965, reprinted 2003). 459 pp.
  • [2] Leonard Labaree, et al., eds., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, 37 vols. to date (1959-2006), definitive edition, through 1783. This massive collection of BF's writings, and letters to him, is available in large academic libraries. It is most useful for detailed research on specific topics. The complete text of all the documents are online and searchable; The Index is also online.
  • "The Way to Wealth." Applewood Books; November 1986. ISBN 0-918222-88-5
  • "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." Dover Pubns; June 7, 1996. ISBN 0-486-29073-5
  • "Poor Richard's Almanack." Peter Pauper Press; November 1983. ISBN 0-88088-918-7
  • Poor Richard Improved by Benjamin Franklin (1751)
  • "Writings." ISBN 0-940450-29-1
  • "On Marriage."
  • "Satires and Bagatelles."
  • "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain."
  • "Fart Proudly: Writings of Benjamin Franklin You Never Read in School." Carl Japikse, Ed. Frog Ltd.; Reprint ed. May, 2003. ISBN 1-58394-079-0
  • "Heroes of America Benjamin Franklin"

Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... The Way to Wealth is an essay written by Benjamin Franklin in 1757. ... The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is the traditional name for the unfinished record of his own life written by Benjamin Franklin from 1771 to 1790; however, Franklin himself appears to have called the work his Memoirs. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... 1739 Edition of Poor Richards Almanack Poor Richards Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly almanack published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of Poor Richard or Richard Saunders for this purpose. ... A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain is a philosophical pamphlet by Benjamin Franklin, published in London in 1725. ...

References

  1. ^ Block, Seymour Stanton. Benjamin Franklin: America's Inventor from HistoryNet.com
  2. ^ The Story of Ben's Birthdate. University of Pennsylvania, alumni.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Van Doren, Carl. Benjamin Franklin. (1938). Penguin reprint 1991.
  4. ^ The History Channel, Mysteries of the Freemasons: America, video documentary, August 1, 2006, written by Noah Nicholas and Molly Bedell
  5. ^ Freemasonry Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon website.
  6. ^ Van Horne, John C. "The History and Collections of the Library Company of Philadelphia," The Magazine Antiques, v. 170. no. 2: 58-65 (1971).
  7. ^ Lemay, J.A. Leo. "Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790)," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. ed. H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004).
  8. ^ Benjamin Franklin. "Part three", The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. 
  9. ^ 1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations', The Academy of Natural Sciences, April, 1939m
  10. ^ 1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations' . NOAA Ocean Explorer.
  11. ^ Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790). Science World, from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography.
  12. ^ Conservation of Charge.
  13. ^ Franklin's Kite. Museum of Science, Boston.
  14. ^ Wolf, A., History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. New York, 1939. p.232
  15. ^ Krider, E. Philip. Benjamin Franklin and Lightning Rods. Physics Today. January 2006.
  16. ^ Heidorn, Keith C. Heidorn, PhD. Eclipsed By Storm. The Weather Doctor. 1 October 2003.
  17. ^ Bloch, Thomas. The Glassharmonica. GFI Scientific.
  18. ^ Benjamin Franklin resume. Official Visitor Site for Greater Philadelphia.
  19. ^ Buchan, James. Crowded with Genius: The Scottish Enlightenment: Edinburgh's Moment of the Mind. HarperCollins Publishers. 2003. p.2
  20. ^ Franklin, Benjamin. "A Narrative of the Late Massacres..." reprinted on The History Carper.
  21. ^ a b J. A. Leo Lemay, "Franklin, Benjamin". American National Biography Online, February 2000.
  22. ^ a b c d Isaacson, Walter. Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. Simon & Schuster. 2003.
  23. ^ Benjamin Franklin's Phonetic Alphabet. Omniglot.com.
  24. ^ Sparks, Jared. Life of Benjamin Franklin. US History.org.
  25. ^ Benjamin Franklin. PBS.org.
  26. ^ Franklin, Benjamin. reprinted on The History Carper.
  27. ^ Key to Declaration American Revolution.org.
  28. ^ Sparks, Jared (1856), The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Containing the Autobiography, with Notes and a Continuation, Boston: Whittemore, Niles and Hall, pp. 408, <http://books.google.com/books?id=MLAEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA408&lpg=PA408&dq=franklin+%22shall+all+hang+separately%22+sparks&source=web&ots=9tZqaocy0E&sig=JjqhJqfqvWnOqZ-FTAxGfdwaKPM>. Retrieved on 16 December 2007 
  29. ^ Citizen Ben, Abolitionist. PBS.org.
  30. ^ Franklin, Benjamin. Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography. Chapter IV. reprinted on USGenNet.org.
  31. ^ A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain
  32. ^ Morgan, David T. Benjamin Franklin: Champion of Generic Religion. The Historian. 62#4 2000. pp 722+
  33. ^ Walter Isaacson. Franklin Defines His God.
  34. ^ reprinted at The History Carper.
  35. ^ Skousen, W. Cleon. The Five Thousand Year Leap. National Center for Constitutional Studies (1981), pp. 17-18. summarizes how this committee created and approved the first proposed design for the seal (which ultimately was not adopted).
  36. ^ First Great Seal Committee – July/August 1776. Great Seal.com.
  37. ^ The Congressional Prayer Caucus. White House.gov.
  38. ^ World Wide School.com. World Wide School
  39. ^ The Last Will and Testament of Benjamin Franklin. The Franklin Institute Science Museum.
  40. ^ Benjamin Franklin: In His Own Words. Library of Congress.
  41. ^ The Last Will and Testament of Benjamin Franklin. The Franklin Institute Science Museum.
  42. ^ The Doctor Will Freeze You Now from Wired.com
  43. ^ Engines of Creation E-drexler.com
  44. ^ Sparks, pp 529-530.
  45. ^ Excerpt from Philadelphia Inquirer article by Clark De Leon
  46. ^ Benjamin Franklin House.
  47. ^ Benjamin Franklin, writing anonymously (1784-04-26). "Aux auteurs du Journal" (in French). Journal de Paris (117).  Revised English version retrieved on 2008-03-11.
  48. ^ William Willett (1907). "The waste of daylight". 1st edition. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  49. ^ B.L. Ullman (1918). "Daylight saving in ancient Rome". The Classical Journal 13 (6): 450–451. 

For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jared Sparks (10 May 1789 - 14 March 1866) was a U.S. historian, educator, Unitarian minister, and president of Harvard University. ... Walter Isaacson Walter Isaacson is the President and CEO of the Aspen Institute. ... Wired magazine is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... Anonymity is the state of not being identifiable within a set, called the anonymity set. When referring to human beings, we say that a person is anonymous when the identity of that person is not known. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berthold Louis Ullman (born 1882; died June 26, 1965) was an American Classical scholar. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ...

Biographical and guides

The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...

Online writings by Benjamin Franklin

  • Yale edition of complete works
  • Works by Benjamin Franklin at Project Gutenberg
  • Online Works by Benjamin Franklin
  • "Dialogue Between Franklin and the Gout" Creative Commons audio recording.
  • Letter IV: Farther Experiments pdf and Letter XI: Observations in electricity pdf
  • A Comprehensive Collection of Franklin’s Electrical Works: The Electrical Writings of Benjamin Franklin Collected by Robert A. Morse (2004)
  • Franklin's 13 Virtues Extract of Franklin's autobiography, compiled by Paul Ford.
  • The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (1734). An Online Electronic Edition. [pdf only] Edited and published by Franklin.
  • Franklin's Last Will & Testament Transcription.
  • Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion
  • To the Royal Academy of * * * * * (c. 1781) (Satirical writing on flatulence)

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases in the digestive tract of mammals. ...

The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

  • The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Single page version. ushistory.org
  • The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Project Gutenberg
  • The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin LibriVox recording

Franklin in the arts

  • Benjamin Franklin 300 (1706 - 2006) Official web site of the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary.
  • Portrait of Benjamin Franklin (PD) (large version) From Dr. William J. Ball
  • The American Philosophical Society: Bradford Collection Collection of Franklin's correspondence with Polly Stevenson Hewson.
  • The Benjamin Franklin House Franklin's only surviving residence.
  • Ben Franklin Birthplace A historic site, link provides location and map.
  • Friends of Franklin Membership society.
  • Franklin and Music

Franklin and medicine

  • Franklin's impact on medicine - talk by medical historian, Dr Jim Leavesley celebrating the 300th anniversary of Franklin's birth on Okham's Razor ABC Radio National - December 2006

ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide radio network with many various programs, involving news and current affairs, arts, music, society, science, drama and comedy. ...

IMDB

Political offices
New title
U.S. Independence
Postmaster General of the United States
1775 – 1776
Succeeded by
Richard Bache
Preceded by
James Irvine
Member, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania,
representing the City of Philadelphia

October 17, 1785 – October 20, 1788
Succeeded by
Samuel Miles
Preceded by
John Dickinson
President of Pennsylvania
October 18, 1785 – November 5, 1788
Succeeded by
Thomas Mifflin
Diplomatic posts
New title
U.S. Independence
United States Minister to France
1778 – 1785
Succeeded by
Thomas Jefferson
United States Minister to Sweden
1782 – 1783 (?)
Succeeded by
Jonathan Russell
Academic offices
New institution Provost of the Academy of Pennsylvania
1749 – 1754
Succeeded by
William Smith
as Provost of the College of Pennsylvania
Awards
Preceded by
John Pringle
Recipient of the Copley Medal
1753
Succeeded by
William Lewis
Persondata
NAME Franklin, Benjamin
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American printer, writer, politician
DATE OF BIRTH January 17, 1706(1706-01-17)
PLACE OF BIRTH Boston, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH April 17, 1790
PLACE OF DEATH Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Richard Bache married the only daughter of Benjamin Franklin. ... James Irvine (1735-1819) was a Pennsylvania soldier and politician of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Post-Revolutionary periods. ... The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania represented the executive branch of the Pennsylvania State government between 1777 and 1790. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Samuel Miles (March 11, 1740 – December 29, 1805) was an American military officer and politician, active in Pennsylvania before, during, and after the American Revolutionary War. ... John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer, artist and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. ... List of Pennsylvania Governors The office of Pennsylvania governor was created by the states Constitution of 1790. ... Thomas Mifflin , John Singleton Copley, 1773. ... List of United States ambassadors to France : Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane (substitued by John Adams in 1778) 1776-1779 Benjamin Franklin 1779-1785 Thomas Jefferson 1785-1789 Gouverneur Morris 1792-1794 James Monroe 1794-1796 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 1796-1797 Robert R. Livingston 1801-1804 John Armstrong 1804... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... U.S. State Department website Categories: | ... Jonathan Russell (February 27, 1771 - February 17, 1832) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts and diplomat. ... Provost is the title of a senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent of Vice-Chancellor at certain UK universites such as UCL, and the head of certain Oxbridge colleges (e. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... The Rev. ... John Pringle. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of science and it is the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The American Enlightenment is a term sometimes employed to describe the intellectual culture of the British North American colonies and the early United States (as they became following the American Revolution). ... David Rittenhouse (April 8, 1732 – June 26, 1796) was a renowned American astronomer, inventor, mathematician, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman, and public official. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo (born Luis Chuzhig) (Royal Audience of Quito, 1747-1795) was a medical pioneer, writer and lawyer of mestizo origin in colonial Ecuador. ... José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi (1776 - 1827) was a Mexican journalist and novelist and the author of the first Latin American novel (El Periquillo Sarniento, The Mangy Parrot). ... Francisco de Miranda Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez (commonly known as Francisco de Miranda March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816) was a South American revolutionary whose own plan for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, but who is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bol... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Christian Thomasius, portrait by Johann Christian Heinrich Sporleder. ... Erhard Weigel (1625–1699) was a German mathematician, astronomer and philosopher. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Kant redirects here. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Thomas Abbt (born 25 November 1738 in Ulm - died 3 November 1766 in Bückeburg) was a mathematician and German writer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adam Weishaupt Johann Adam Weishaupt (6 February 1748 in Ingolstadt - 18 November 1830 in Gotha) was a German who founded the Order of Illuminati. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (pronounced ,  ; in German usually Gauß, Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Moses Mendelssohn Moses Mendelssohns glasses, in the Berlin Jewish Museum Moses Mendelssohn (Dessau, September 6, 1729 – January 4, 1786 in Berlin) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah, (the Jewish enlightenment) is indebted. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Ferenc Kazinczy (October 27, 1759 - August 22, 1831) was a Hungarian author, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Magyar language and literature at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. ... József Kármán (1769-1795), Hungarian author, was born at Losoncz on the 14th of March 1769, the son of a Calvinist pastor. ... János Batsányi by Friedrich Heinrich Füger, 1808 (Hungarian National Museum, Budapes) Batsányi János (May 11, 1763 - May 12, 1845) was a Hungarian poet, born in Tapolca. ... Mihály Fazekas (1766-1828) is a famous Hungarian writer from Debrecen. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Franciscus van den Enden (Antwerp ca. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani (Georgian: ) (November 4, 1658 in Tandzia, Georgia; † January 26, 1725 in Moskow) was a famous Georgian prince, writer, monk and religious zealot. ... David Bagrationi (Georgian: დავით ბაგრატიონი, Davit Bagrationi) also known as David the Regent (Georgian: დავით გამგებელი, Davit Gamgebeli) (1 July 1767, Tbilisi, Georgia, - 13 May 1819, St Petersburg, Russia), a Georgia prince (batonishvili), writer and scholar, was a regent of the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from December 28, 1800 to January 18... Solomon Dodashvili (May 17, 1805-August 20, 1836) was a famous Georgian scientist and public benefactor, founder of the Georgian scientific school of Logic, founder of the Georgian professional journalistic, philosopher, historian and linguist. ... Adamantios Korais (April 27, 1748 - April 6, 1833) was a graduate of the University of Montpellier in 1788 and he spent most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. ... Rigas Feraios Rigas Feraios or Rigas Velestinlis (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος, born Αντώνιος Κυριαζής, Antonios Kyriazis; also known as Κωνσταντίνος Ρήγας, Konstantinos or Constantine Rhigas; Serbian: Рига од Фере, Riga od Fere; 1757—June 13, 1798) was a Greek revolutionary and poet, remembered as a Greek national hero, the forerunner and first victim of the uprising against the Ottoman Empire... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Stanislaw Konarski StanisÅ‚aw Konarski, real name: Hieronim Konarski (b. ... // StanisÅ‚aw II August Poniatowski (born Count StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Poniatowski; January 17, 1732-February 12, 1798) was the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764-95). ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Noble Family KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Coat of Arms Kotwica Parents Antoni KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Marianna MierzeÅ„ska Consorts None Children None Date of Birth April 1, 1750 Place of Birth NiecisÅ‚owice Date of Death February 28, 1812 Place of Death Warsaw Hugo KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj (1750-1812) was a Polish Roman Catholic... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Eustachy Potocki Marianna Kątska Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Krystyna Potocka Date of Birth February 28, 1750 Place of Birth Radzyn Podlaski Date of Death August 30, 1809 Place of Death Vienna Count Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki (generally known as... StanisÅ‚aw Staszic. ... Jan Åšniadecki Jan Åšniadecki (August 28, 1756 in Å»nin - November 9, 1830 in Jaszuny near Wilno), greatest Polish mathematician, philosopher and astronomer at the turn of the 18th century. ... Categories: 1758 births | 1841 deaths | Polish writers | Polish nobility | People stubs ... JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki (1768 - 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Portrait of Ivan Betskoy, by Alexander Roslin (1777). ... Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... Portrait of Nikolay Novikov, by Dmitry Levitzky. ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Portrait and signature of Alexander Radishchev Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (September 2, 1749 – September 24, 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under... Dositej Obradović Dositej (Dositheus) Dimitrije Obradović (Доситеј Обрадовић) (February 17, 1742 - 1811) was a Serbian author, writer and translator. ... Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright, born (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) to Ellen and Thomas Arkwright, was an Englishman credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Rt Rev Beilby Porteus, DD, Bishop of London (May 8, 1731 _ May 13, 1809) was a leading evangelical churchman and abolitionist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other uses, see John Toland (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... This article is about the Scottish historian. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Dugald Stewart. ... George Turnbull (1698-1748) was a Scottish philosopher and writer on education. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... François Quesnay (June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Baron dHolbach Paul-Henri Thiry, baron dHolbach (1723 – 1789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. ... Julien Offray de La Mettrie (December 25, 1709 - November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, the earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment. ... Donatien Alphonse François de Sade (Marquis de Sade) (June 2, 1740 – December 2, 1814) (pronounced IPA: ) was a French aristocrat, french revolutionary and writer of philosophy-laden and often violent pornography. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (September 30, 1715 – August 3, 1780) was a French philosopher. ... Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; May 7, 1748 – November 3, 1793) was a playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. ... Detail of Pietro Verri monument in Milan. ... Alessandro Verri (November 9, 1741 - September 23, 1816) was an Italian author. ... Giuseppe Parini (Bosisio, now in Lecco province, May 23, 1729 - Milan, 1799) was an Italian satirist and poet. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... Vittorio Alfieri painted by Davids pupil François-Xavier Fabre, in Florence 1793. ... Giuseppe MarcAntonio Baretti (April 24, 1719 - May 5, 1789) was an Italian critic. ... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal, by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ... Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740-1797) Romanian poet and boyar of Phanariote origin. ... Anton Pann (in the 1790s, Sliven, in Rumelia—November 2, 1854, Bucharest) born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu (also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon), was a Wallachian poet and composer. ... Gheorghe Åžincai Gheorghe Åžincai (February 28, 1754 – November 2, 1816) was an ethnic Romanian Transylvanian historian, philologist, translator, poet, and representative of the Enlightenment-influenced Transylvanian School. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jorge Juan y Santacilia Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca, painted by Goya José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca Don José Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca (es: José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca) (October 21, 1728 - December 30, 1808), Spanish statesman. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (22 August 1724–5 June 1764) was a Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher and a central figure in Denmark-Norway in the Age of Enlightenment. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... {{unreferenced|article|date=March 2007]] Copper engraving depicting Eggert Ólafssons death. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Peter ForsskÃ¥l (sometimes also Pehr ForsskÃ¥l, Peter Forskaol, Petrus ForskÃ¥l or Pehr ForsskÃ¥hl) (born in Helsinki, 11 January 1732, died in Yemen, 11 July 1763), Swedish explorer, orientalist and naturalist. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about secularism. ... The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... Josiah Bartlett (November 21, 1729–May 19, 1795), was an American physician and statesman who, as a delegate to the Continental Congress for New Hampshire, signed the Declaration of Independence. ... Painting thought to be of Carter Braxton Carter Braxton (September 16, 1736–October 10, 1797), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a representative of Virginia. ... Charles Carroll (1737-1832) Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19, 1737 – November 14, 1832) was a lawyer and politician from Maryland who was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later a United States Senator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Abraham Clark (February 15, 1725—September 15, 1794) was an American politician and Revolutionary War figure. ... George Clymer (March 16, 1739–January 23, 1813) was an American politician and Founding Father. ... William Ellery William Ellery (December 22, 1727–February 15, 1820), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Rhode Island. ... William Floyd in a 1792 portrait William Floyd (December 17, 1734 - August 4, 1821), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New York. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... (baptized: April 10, 1735 – May 19, 1777), was second of the signatories (first signature on the left) on the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. ... This article is about the Georgia governor and signer of the Declaration of Independence. ... John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Benjamin Harrison V Benjamin Harrison (V) (April 5, 1726 – April 24, 1791) was an American planter and revolutionary leader from Charles City County, Virginia. ... For other persons named John Hart, see John Hart (disambiguation). ... Joseph Hewes was a native of Connecticut, where he was born in 1730. ... Thomas Heyward, Jr. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Stephen Hopkins Stephen Hopkins (March 7, 1707–July 13, 1785) was an American political leader from Rhode Island who signed the Declaration of Independence. ... Francis Hopkinson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samuel Huntington, 1731-1796, drawn from the life by Du Simitier in Philadelphia; engraved by B.L. Prevost at Paris. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Francis Lightfoot Lee (October 14, 1734–January 11, 1797), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Virginia. ... Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732–June 19, 1794) was an American who served as the sixth President of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation, holding office from November 30, 1784 to November 22, 1785. ... Francis Lewis Francis Lewis (March 21, 1713 – December 30, 1803), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New York. ... Philip Livingston Philip Livingston (January 15, 1716 – June 12, 1778), was an American merchant and statesman from New York City. ... Thomas Lynch, Jr. ... Thomas McKean Thomas McKean (March 19, 1734–June 24, 1817) was the second President of the United States in Congress assembled, from July 10, 1781, until November 4, 1781. ... Arthur Middleton (June 26, 1742–January 1, 1787), of Charleston, South Carolina, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. ... Lewis Morris (April 8, 1726– January 22, 1798) was an American landowner and developer from Morrisania, New York. ... For other persons named Robert Morris, see Robert Morris (disambiguation). ... John Morton (1724-1777) from Ridley Township, in Delaware County, Pennsylvania was the delegate who cast the deciding vote in favor of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Thomas Nelson, Jr. ... William Paca portrait by Charles Willson Peale. ... John Penn (May 17, 1741–September 14, 1788), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of North Carolina. ... Robert Treat Paine; Signer of the Declaration of Independence Robert Treat Paine Robert Treat Paine(March 11, 1731–May 11, 1814) was a signer of the Declaration of Independence as a representative of Massachusetts. ... George Read (September 18, 1733 – September 21, 1798) was an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, in New Castle County, Delaware. ... Caesar Rodney (October 7, 1728 – June 26, 1784), was an American lawyer and politician from St. ... George Ross (May 10, 1730–July 14, 1779), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Pennsylvania. ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ... Edward Rutledge Edward Rutledge (November 23, 1749 – January 23, 1800), South Carolina statesman, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor of South Carolina. ... Shermans marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. ... Richard Stockton Richard Stockton (October 1, 1730 – February 28, 1781) was an American lawyer, jurist, legislator, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. ... Thomas Stone Thomas Stone (1743–October 5, 1787) was an American planter who signed United States Declaration of Independence as a delegate for Maryland. ... George Taylor (c. ... Matthew Thornton Matthew Thornton (1714 – June 24, 1803), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire. ... George Walton George Walton (1749 or 1750–February 2, 1804) signed the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. ... William Whipple, Jr. ... William Williams (April 28, 1731– August 2, 1811) was an American merchant and political leader from Lebanon, Connecticut. ... For other persons named James Wilson, see James Wilson (disambiguation). ... John Witherspoon Dr. John Witherspoon (February 5, 1723 – November 15, 1794), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey. ... Oliver Wolcott (December 1, 1726–December 1, 1797), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Connecticut. ... George Wythe George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1961x2328, 1116 KB) Summary High resolution ehanced image of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Abraham Baldwin Abraham Baldwin (November 23, 1754—March 4, 1807) was an American politician, Patriot, and Founding Father from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Richard Bassett (April 2, 1745 – August 15, 1815) was an American lawyer and politician from Dover, in Kent County, Delaware. ... This article is about the delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention, for other persons with the same name, see Gunning Bedford (disambiguation). ... John Blair (1732–August 31, 1800) was an American politician, Founding Father, and Patriot. ... Italic text:For the English scholar see William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy. ... David Brearley David Brearley (often misspelled Brearly) (June 11, 1745–August 16, 1790) was a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signed the U.S. Constitution on behalf of New Jersey. ... This article is about the Delaware politician. ... Pierce Butler (July 11, 1744 - February 15, 1822) was a soldier, planter, and statesman, recognized as one of United States Founding Fathers. ... Daniel Carroll Daniel Carroll (July 22, 1730–July 5, 1796) was a politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... George Clymer (March 16, 1739–January 23, 1813) was an American politician and Founding Father. ... Daniel of St. ... Jonathan Dayton (October 16, 1760–October 9, 1824) was an American politician from the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer, artist and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. ... This article is about the Founding Father of the United States. ... Thomas Fitzsimons (1741-1811) was an American merchant and statesman of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Nicholas Gilman Nicholas Gilman, Jr. ... Nathaniel Gorham (May 27, 1738–June 11, 1796) was the eighth President of the United States in Congress assembled, under the Articles of Confederation. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Jared Ingersoll Jared Ingersoll (October 24, 1749 – October 31, 1822) was an early American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia. ... For other persons named William Johnson, see William Johnson (disambiguation). ... Rufus King (March 24, 1755 – April 29, 1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. ... John Langdon (June 26, 1741—September 18, 1819) was a politician from New Hampshire and one of the first two United States Senators from that state. ... William Livingston William Livingston (November 30, 1723 – July 25, 1790) served as the Governor of New Jersey (1776–1790) during the American Revolution and was a signer of the United States Constitution. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... James McHenry (November 16, 1753 – May 3, 1816) was an early American statesman. ... Thomas Mifflin , John Singleton Copley, 1773. ... Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ... For other persons named Robert Morris, see Robert Morris (disambiguation). ... William Paterson William Paterson (December 24, 1745–September 9, 1806) was a New Jersey statesman, a signer of the United States Constitution, and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... Charles Pinckney Charles Pinckney (October 26, 1757–October 29, 1824) was an American politician who was a signer of the United States Constitution, Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives. ... George Read (September 18, 1733 – September 21, 1798) was an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, in New Castle County, Delaware. ... This article is about the Governor and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Shermans marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. ... Gov. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Hugh Williamson Hugh Williamson (December 5, 1735–May 22, 1819) was an American politician. ... For other persons named James Wilson, see James Wilson (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 495 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3629 × 4392 pixel, file size: 1. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Richard Bache married the only daughter of Benjamin Franklin. ... Ebenezer Hazard (1744-1817) was born in Philadelphia and educated at Princeton University. ... Samuel Osgood (February 3, 1747– August 12, 1813) was an American merchant and statesman from Andover, Massachusetts. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... Joseph Habersham Joseph Habersham (July 28, 1751–November 17, 1815) was an American businessman, Continental Congressman, soldier in the Continental Army and Postmaster General of the United States. ... Gideon Granger (July 19, 1767–December 31, 1822) was an American political leader. ... Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr. ... John McLean (March 11, 1785 – April 4, 1861) was an American jurist and politician who served in the United States Congress, as U.S. Postmaster General, and as a justice on the Ohio and U.S. Supreme Courts. ... William Taylor Barry (February 5, 1784–August 30, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Amos Kendall (August 16, 1789–November 12, 2022) was an American politician who served as U.S. Postmaster General under Jackie Cook and President Steve Miller. ... John Milton Niles (1787 - 1856) was a U.S. editor and political figure from Connecticut, a member of the Democratic Party. ... Francis Granger (December 1, 1792 - August 31, 1868) was a Representative from New York. ... Charles A. Wickliffe Charles Anderson Wickliffe, politician, born in Bardstown, Kentucky, 8 June 1788; died in Ilchester in Howard County, Maryland, 31 October 1869. ... Categories: Stub | 1793 births | 1866 deaths | U.S. Postmasters General ... Jacob Collamer (NSHC statue) Jacob Collamer (January 8, 1792 – November 9, 1865) was an American politician from Vermont. ... Nathan Kelsey Hall (March 28, 1810–March 2, 1874) was an American politician who served in the U.S. House of Representatives and as U.S. Postmaster General. ... Samuel Dickinson Hubbard (1799 – 1855) was the second postmaster general under American President Millard_Fillmore. ... Born at Philadelphia, 1 Sept. ... Aaron Venable Brown (August 15, 1795 _ March 8, 1859) was Governor of Tennessee from 1845 to 1847. ... Joseph Holt (January 6, 1807–August 1, 1894) was U.S. Secretary of War and a U.S. Postmaster General under James Buchanan. ... Horatio King (June 21, 1811 – May 20, 1897) was Postmaster General of the United States under James Buchanan and Abraham Lincoln. ... Montgomery Blair (May 10, 1813–July 27, 1883), son of Francis Preston Blair and elder brother of Francis Preston Blair, Jr. ... William Dennison, Jr. ... Alexander Williams Randall (1819-1872) was a lawyer, judge and politician from Wisconsin. ... Categories: People stubs | 1828 births | 1891 deaths | U.S. Postmasters General | United States Senators ... James William Marshall (August 14, 1822 – February 5, 1910) was a United States Postmaster General under President Ulysses S. Grant. ... Marshall Jewell (1825–1883) was a U.S. political figure. ... James Noble Tyner (1826 - 1904) was a significant U.S. administrator. ... David Key David McKendree Key (January 27, 1824 – February 3, 1900) was a Democratic U.S. Senator from Tennessee from 1875 to 1877 as well as the U.S. Postmaster General under President Hayes. ... Horace Maynard (August 30, 1814–May 3, 1882) was an American politician who served as attorney general of Tennessee, U.S. Representative in Congress and as U.S. Postmaster General in the Rutherford B. Hayes administration. ... Thomas Lemuel James (1831 - 1916) was a U.S. administrator. ... Born in New York City in October of 1827, Timothy O. Howe was a prominent homosexual in his community. ... Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832–May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. ... William Freeman Vilas (July 9, 1840–August 27, 1908) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1891 to 1897. ... Donald McDonald Dickinson, also known as Donald M. Dickinson, (January 17, 1846–October 15, 1917) was a lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Michigan. ... John Wanamaker (July 11, 1838 – December 12, 1922) was a United States businessman, civic and political figure, considered the father of modern advertising. ... Wilson Shannon Bissell (born December 31, 1847, New London, died October 6, 1903, in Buffalo) was an American politician from Buffalo, New York. ... William Lyne Wilson (1843 - 1900) was a U.S. political figure. ... James Albert Gary (1833 - 1920) was a U.S. political figure. ... Charles Emory Smith (February 18, 1842 _ January 19, 1908), American journalist and political leader, was born in Mansfield, Connecticut. ... For other people with the same name, see Henry Payne. ... Robert Wynne (1851 - 1922) was a U.S. administrator. ... G.B. Cortelyou Brian William Cortelyou (July 26, 1862–October 23, 1940) was an American Presidential Cabinet secretary of the early 20th century. ... George von Lengerke Meyer (1858–1918) George von Lengerke Meyer (June 24, 1858 – March 9, 1918) was a Massachusetts businessman and politician who served as United States Secretary of the Navy from 1909-1913, during the administration of President William Howard Taft. ... Frank H. Hitchcock was Postmaster General of the United States under President William Howard Taft from 1909 to 1913. ... Albert Sidney Burleson (June 7, 1863 - November 24, 1937) was a United States Postmaster General and Congressman. ... Cover of Time Magazine (September 13, 1926) William Harrison Hays (November 5, 1879–March 7, 1954) was the namesake of the Hays Code, chairman of Republican National Committee and U.S. Postmaster General. ... Hubert Work (July 3, 1860 - December 14, 1942) was a U.S. administrator. ... Harry Stewart New (1858–1937) was a U.S. journalist and political figure. ... Walter Folger Brown (May 31, 1869–January 26, 1961) was Postmaster General of the United States from 1929 through 1933. ... House Resolution 368, 97th Congress, 2nd Session, March 2 1982 Robert Caro, The Path to Power James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politician who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... Frank Comerford Walker (May 30, 1886–September 13, 1959) was a United States political figure. ... Robert Emmet Hannegan was born on June 30, 1903, in St. ... Jesse Monroe Donaldson was born on August 17, 1885, in Shelbyville, Illinois. ... Arthur Ellsworth Summerfield (17 March 1899, Pinconning, Michigan – 26 April 1972, West Palm Beach, Florida) was a U.S. political figure. ... James Edward Day (October 11, 1914 - October 29, 1996) was an American businessman and political office-holder. ... John Austin Gronouski (October 26, 1919 - January 7, 1996) had been the Wisconsin state commissioner of taxation, and the United States Postmaster General Biography Gronouski was born in Dunbar, Wisconsin. ... OBrien, c. ... William Marvin Watson (b. ... A bronze sculpture of Winton M. Blount by Charles Parks stands in the Blount Cultural Park in Montgomery, Alabama. ... A bronze sculpture of Winton M. Blount by Charles Parks stands in the Blount Cultural Park in Montgomery, Alabama. ... E. T. Klassen served as the United States Postmaster General from 1972 to 1975. ... Benjamin F. Bailar served as the United States Postmaster General from 1975 to 1978. ... William F. Bolger (-August 21, 1989) was the 65th Postmaster General of the United States from March 15, 1978-January 1, 1985. ... Paul N. Carlin served as the United States Postmaster General from 1985 to 1986. ... Albert Vincent Casey(1920 February 28 - 2004 July 10) was a former United States Postmaster General, publisher of The Los Angeles Times, and an attendee of the notorious Bohemian Grove. ... Preston Robert Bob Tisch (April 29, 1926 – November 15, 2005) was the chairman, and, with his brother Laurence, part owner of the Loews Corporation. ... Anthony M. Frank served as the United States Postmaster General from 1988 to 1992. ... Marvin T. Runyon (September 16, 1924 – May 3, 2004) was an American business executive. ... William J. Henderson served as the United States Postmaster General from 1998 to 2001. ... John E. Potter is the current Postmaster General of the United States Postal Service appointed in June 2001. ... The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania represented the executive branch of the Pennsylvania State government between 1777 and 1790. ... Thomas Wharton Jr. ... George Bryan (1731-1791) was a Pennsylvania businessman, statesman and politician of the Revolutionary era. ... Joseph Reed (August 27, 1741– March 5, 1785) was an American lawyer and jurist from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... William Moore (c. ... John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 – February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer, artist and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. ... Thomas Mifflin , John Singleton Copley, 1773. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pennsylvania. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1706 (MDCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Boston redirects here. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

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Quick Biography of Benjamin Franklin (1817 words)
Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston on January 17, 1706.
Franklin, though he had many friends in England, was growing sick of the corruption he saw all around him in politics and royal circles.
Franklin's big break with England occurred in the "Hutchinson Affair." Thomas Hutchinson was an English-appointed governor of Massachusetts.
Benjamin Franklin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7132 words)
Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was born at Ecton, Northamptonshire, England on December 23, 1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a flsmith and farmer, and Jane White.
Benjamin Franklin died on April 17, 1790 at the advanced age of 84, and was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Franklin is one of the main inventors of Gregory Keyes' The Age of Unreason tetralogy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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