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Encyclopedia > Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield
The Rt Hon Benjamin Disraeli
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield

In office
February 27, 1868 – December 1, 1868
Preceded by The Earl of Derby
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone
In office
February 20, 1874 – April 21, 1880
Preceded by William Ewart Gladstone
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone

In office
February 27, 1852 – December 17, 1852
Preceded by Charles Wood
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone
In office
February 26, 1858 – June 11, 1859
Preceded by George Cornewall Lewis
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone
In office
July 6, 1866 – February 29, 1868
Preceded by William Ewart Gladstone
Succeeded by George Ward Hunt

Born December 21, 1804
London, England
Died April 19, 1881 (age 76)
London, England
Political party Conservative

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804April 19, 1881), born Benjamin D'Israeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. He served in government for three decades, twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – the first and thus far only person of Jewish parentage to do so (although Disraeli was baptised in the Anglican Church at an early age). Disraeli's most lasting achievement was the creation of the modern Conservative Party after the Corn Laws schism of 1846. The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt Hon. ... Download high resolution version (500x605, 87 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax (1800–1885), known between 1846 and 1866 as Sir Charles Wood, Bt, was an English politician. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 2nd Baronet (1806-1863), British statesman and man of letters, was born in London on 21 April 1806. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... February 29th, or bissextile day, is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... The Rt Hon. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ...


Although a major figure in the protectionist wing of the Conservative Party after 1844, Disraeli's relations with the other leading figures in the party, particularly Lord Derby, the overall leader, were often strained. Not until the 1860s would Derby and Disraeli be on easy terms, and the latter's succession of the former assured. From 1852 onwards, Disraeli's career would also be marked by his often intense rivalry with William Ewart Gladstone, who eventually rose to become leader of the Liberal Party. In this duel, Disraeli was aided by his warm friendship with Queen Victoria, who came to detest Gladstone during the latter's first premiership in the 1870s. In 1876 Disraeli was raised to the peerage as the Earl of Beaconsfield, capping nearly four decades in the House of Commons. Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


Before and during his political career, Disraeli was well-known as a literary and social figure, although his novels are not generally regarded as belonging to the first rank of Victorian literature. He mainly wrote romances, of which Sybil and Vivian Grey are perhaps the best-known today. He was and is unusual among British Prime Ministers for having gained equal social and political renown. Sybil, or The Two Nations Published in the same year as Frederick Engelss The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, Sybil (1845) traces the plight of the working classes of England. ... Benjamin Disraelis first novel, published in 1827. ...

Contents

Early life

Isaac D'IsraeliFather of Benjamin Disraeli
Isaac D'Israeli
Father of Benjamin Disraeli

Disraeli was descended from Italian Sephardic Jews on both sides of his family, although he claimed Spanish ancestry. With this he may have just been referring to the fact that all Sephardim ultimately originate in Spain. [1] His father was the literary critic and historian Isaac D'Israeli who, though Jewish, in 1817 had Benjamin baptised in the Church of England, following a dispute with their synagogue. The elder D'Israeli (Benjamin changed the spelling in the 1820s by dropping the foreign-looking apostrophe) himself was content to remain outside organized religion. [2] Benjamin at first attended a small school, the Reverend John Potticary's school at Blackheath[3] (later to evolve into St Piran's School). Beginning in 1817, Benjamin attended Higham Hall, in Walthamstow. His younger brothers, in contrast, attended the superior Winchester College, a fact which apparently grated on Disraeli and may explain his dislike of his mother, Maria D'Israeli. Scanned from an 1867 edition of `Curiosities of Literature: based on a 1797 engraving This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Scanned from an 1867 edition of `Curiosities of Literature: based on a 1797 engraving This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... Isaac DIsraeli in a portrait from 1797. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Blackheath is a suburb of London, divided between the London Borough of Lewisham and the London Borough of Greenwich. ... St. ... Walthamstow is a town in the London Borough of Waltham Forest, northeast London. ... Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of a British public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ...


His father groomed him for a career in law, and Disraeli was articled to a solicitor in 1821. Law was, however, uncongenial, and by 1825 he had given it up. Disraeli, determined to obtain independent means, speculated on the stock exchange as early as 1824 on various South American mining companies. The recognition of the new South American republics on the recommendation of George Canning had led to a considerable boom, encouraged by various promoters. In this connexion, Disraeli became involved with the financier J. D. Powles, one such booster. In the course of 1825, Disraeli wrote three anonymous pamphlets for Powles, promoting the companies. [4] George Canning (11 April 1770-8 August 1827) was a British statesman and politician who served as Foreign Secretary and, briefly, Prime Minister. ... John Diston Powles (c. ...


That same year Disraeli's financial activities brought him into contact with the publisher John Murray who, like Powles and Disraeli, was involved in the South American mines. Accordingly, they attempted to bring out a newspaper, The Representative, to promote both the cause of the mines and those politicians who supported the mines, specifically Canning. The paper was a failure, in part because the mining "bubble" burst in late 1825, financially ruining Powles and Disraeli. Also, according to Disraeli's biographer, Lord Blake, the paper was "atrociously edited", and would have failed regardless. Disraeli's debts incurred from this debacle would haunt him for the rest of his life. John Murray (1778–1843) was a Scottish publisher and member of the famous John Murray publishing house. ... In the Fall of 1825 the young Benjamin DIsraeli convinced his fathers friend, the publisher John Murray, that the time was ripe for a Tory morning paper that would challenge the Times. ... Robert Norman William Blake, Baron Blake (December 23, 1916 - September 20, 2003) was an English historian, best known for his 1966 biography of Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield. ...


Literary career

a Young Disraeli by Sir Francis Grant, 1852
a Young Disraeli
by Sir Francis Grant, 1852

Disraeli now turned towards literature, and brought out his first novel, Vivian Grey, in 1826. Disraeli's biographers agree that Vivian Grey was a thinly-veiled re-telling of the affair of the Representative, and it proved very popular on its release, although it also caused much offence within the Tory literary world when Disraeli's authorship was discovered. The book, which was initially published anonymously, was purportedly written by a "man of fashion" – someone who moved in high society. Disraeli, then just twenty-three, did not move in high society, and the numerous solecisms present in Vivian Grey made this painfully obvious. Reviewers were sharply critical on these grounds of both the author and the book. Furthermore, Murray believed that Disraeli had caricatured him and abused his confidence–an accusation denied at the time, and by the official biography, although subsequent biographers (notably Blake) have sided with Murray.[5] benjamin disraeli, painted by sir francis grant in 1852 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... benjamin disraeli, painted by sir francis grant in 1852 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Benjamin Disraelis first novel, published in 1827. ... The Representative was a spectacularly unsuccessful daily newspaper published in London, England, from 25 January 1826 to 29 July 1826. ...


After producing a Vindication of the English Constitution, and some political pamphlets, Disraeli followed up Vivian Grey by a series of novels, The Young Duke (1831), Contarini Fleming (1832), Alroy (1833), Venetia and Henrietta Temple (1837). During the same period he had also written The Revolutionary Epick and three burlesques, Ixion, The Infernal Marriage, and Popanilla. Of these only Henrietta Temple (based on his affair with Lady Henrietta Sykes) was a true success.


During the 1840s Disraeli wrote three political novels collectively known as "the Trilogy"–Sybil, Coningsby, and Tancred.


Disraeli's relationships with other writers of his period (most of whom were male), were strained or non-existent. After the disaster of the Representative John Gibson Lockhart was a bitter enemy and the two never reconciled.[6] Disraeli's preference for female company prevented the development of contact with those who were not alienated by his opinions, comportment, or background. One contemporary who tried to bridge the gap, William Makepeace Thackeray, established a tentative cordial relationship in the late 1840s only to see everything collapse when Disraeli took offence at a burlesque of him which Thackeray had penned for Punch. Disraeli took revenge in Endymion (published in 1880), when he caricatured Thackeray as "St. Barbe".[7] John Gibson Lockhart (July 14, 1794 - November 25, 1854), Scottish writer and editor, was born in the manse of Cambusnethan in Lanarkshire, where his father, Dr John Lockhart, transferred in 1796 to Glasgow, was minister. ... William Makepeace Thackeray William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was an English novelist of the 19th century. ...


Parliament

Sir Robert Peel, Bt.Prime Minister 1834-35, 1841-46
Sir Robert Peel, Bt.
Prime Minister 1834-35, 1841-46

Disraeli had been considering a political career as early as 1830, before he departed England for the Mediterranean. His first real efforts, however, did not come until 1832, during the great crisis over the Reform Bill, when he contributed to an anti-Whig pamphlet edited by John Wilson Croker and published by Murray entitled England and France: or a cure for Ministerial Gallomania. The choice of a Tory publication was regarded as odd by Disraeli's friends and relatives, who thought him more of a Radical. Indeed, Disraeli had objected to Murray about Croker inserting "high Tory" sentiment, writing that "it is quite impossible that anything adverse to the general measure of Reform can issue from my pen." Further, at the time Gallomania was published, Disraeli was in fact electioneering in High Wycombe in the Radical interest. [8] Disraeli's politics at the time were influenced both by his rebellious streak and by his desire to make his mark. In the early 1830s the Tories and the interests they represented appeared to be a lost cause. The other great party, the Whigs, was anathema to Disraeli: "Toryism is worn out & I cannot condescend to be a Whig." [9] Download high resolution version (500x623, 95 KB)From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x623, 95 KB)From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The British Reform Act of 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... John Wilson Croker (December 20, 1780 - August 10, 1857) was a British statesman and author. ... The Radicals were a parliamentary political grouping in the United Kingdom in the early to mid 19th century, who drew on earlier ideas of radicalism and helped to transform the Whigs into the Liberal Party. ... High Wycombe in the UK High Wycombe, (previously Chepping Wycombe or Chipping Wycombe as late as 1911[1]) South Buckinghamshire, is 29 miles (45 kilometres) west-north-west of London, England. ...


Though he initially stood for election, unsuccessfully, as a Radical, Disraeli was a Tory by the time he won a seat in the House of Commons in 1837 representing the constituency of Maidstone. The next year he settled his private life by marrying Mary Anne Lewis, the widow of Wyndham Lewis, Disraeli's erstwhile colleague at Maidstone. The term Tory (from Irish Gaelic tóraighe, an outlaw or guerrilla fighter, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — literally meaning pursued man) applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Maidstone (pronounced either mādstun or mādstone) is the county town of Kent, in South East England, United Kingdom. ... Mary Anne Disraeli, 1st Viscountess Beaconsfield (11 November 1792 - 15 December 1872), born Mary Anne Evans, married Wyndham Lewis and then, after her first husbands death, Benjamin Disraeli. ...

Lord John MannersFriend of Disraeli, and leading figure in the Young England movement
Lord John Manners
Friend of Disraeli, and leading figure in the Young England movement

Although a Conservative, Disraeli was sympathetic to some of the demands of the Chartists and argued for an alliance between the landed aristocracy and the working class against the increasing power of the merchants and new industrialists in the middle class, helping to found the Young England group in 1842 to promote the view that the landed interests should use their power to protect the poor from exploitation by middle-class businessman. During the twenty years between the Corn Laws and the Second Reform Bill Disraeli would seek a Tory-Radical alliances, to little avail. Prior to the 1867 Reform Bill the working class did not possess the vote and therefore had little tangible political power. Although Disraeli forged a personal friendship with John Bright, a Lancashire manufacturer and leading Radical, Disraeli was unable to convince Bright to sacrifice principle for political gain. After one such attempt, Bright noted in his diary that Disraeli "seems unable to comprehend the morality of our political course."[10] Download high resolution version (500x618, 106 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x618, 106 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Oh! the vests of Young England are perfectly white, And theyre cut very neatly and sit very tight, And they serve to distinguish our Young Englishmen From the juvenile MANNERS to CONINGSBY BEN. (Punch, 28 December, 1844) The Victorian era political group Young England was born on the playing... A movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid_19th century, Chartism gains its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838, which set out the main aims of the movement. ... Oh! the vests of Young England are perfectly white, And theyre cut very neatly and sit very tight, And they serve to distinguish our Young Englishmen From the juvenile MANNERS to CONINGSBY BEN. (Punch, 28 December, 1844) The Victorian era political group Young England was born on the playing... The Corn Laws, in force between 1815 and 1846, were import tariffs ostensibly designed to protect British farmers and landowners against competition from cheap foreign grain imports. ... John Bright John Bright (November 16, 1811–March 27, 1889), was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ...


Protection

Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel passed over Disraeli when putting together his government in 1841 and Disraeli, hurt, gradually became a sharp critic of Peel's government, often deliberately adopting positions contrary to those of his nominal chief.[11] The best known of these cases was the Maynooth grant in 1845 and the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. The end of 1845 and the first months of 1846 were dominated by a battle in parliament between the free traders and the protectionists over the repeal of the Corn Laws, with the latter rallying around Disraeli and Lord George Bentinck. An alliance of pro free-trade Conservatives (the "Peelites"), Radicals, and Whigs carried repeal, and the Conservative Party split: the Peelites moved towards the Whigs, while a "new" Conservative Party formed around the protectionists, led by Disraeli, Bentinck, and Lord Stanley (later Lord Derby). The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ... Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. ... The Maynooth Grant was a grant that was given to Maynooth College by the British government. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Lord William George Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck (27 February 1802–21 September 1848), better known as simply Lord George Bentinck, was an English Conservative politician and racehorse owner, best known (with Benjamin Disraeli) for his role in unseating Sir Robert Peel over the Corn Laws. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... The Peelites were a breakaway faction of the British Conservative Party, and existed from 1846 to 1859. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative...


This split had profound implications for Disraeli's political career: almost every Conservative politician with official experience followed Peel, leaving the rump bereft of leadership. As one biographer wrote, "[Disraeli] found himself almost the only figure on his side capable of putting up the oratorical display essential for a parliamentary leader." [12] Looking on from the House of Lords, the Duke of Argyll wrote that Disraeli "was like a subaltern in a great battle where every superior officer was killed or wounded." [13] If the remainder of the Conservative Party could muster the electoral support necessary to form a government, then Disraeli was now guaranteed high office. However, he would take office with a group of men who possessed little or no official experience, who had rarely felt moved to speak in the House of Commons before, and who, as a group, remained hostile to Disraeli on a personal level, his assault on the Corn Laws notwithstanding.[14] George John Douglas Campbell, 8th and 1st Duke of Argyll (30 April 1823 – 24 April 1900) was a prominent United Kingdom Liberal politician as well as a writer on science, religion, and the politics of the 19th century. ... A subaltern is a military term for a junior officer. ...


Disraeli's friendship with the Bentinck family was cemented in 1848 when Lord Henry Bentinck and Lord Titchfield loaned him £25,000 (equivalent to almost £1,500,000 today) so that he could purchase Hughenden Manor, in Buckingham county. This purchase allowed him to stand for the county, which was "essential" if one was to lead the Conservative Party at the time. He and Mary Anne alternated between Hughenden and several homes in London for the remainder of their marriage.[15] Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William John Cavendish Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, 5th Duke of Portland (12 September 1808–6 December 1879), styled Lord William Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck before 1824 and Marquess of Titchfield between 1824 and 1854, was a British aristocratic eccentric who preferred to live in seclusion. ... The pound, a unit of currency, originated (at least in Britain) as the value of a pound mass of silver. ... Hughenden Valley (formerly called Hughenden or Hitchendon) is an extensive village in Buckinghamshire, England, just to the north of High Wycombe. ... Statistics Population: 11,572 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SP695335 Administration District: Aylesbury Vale Shire county: Buckinghamshire Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Buckinghamshire Historic county: Buckinghamshire Services Police force: Thames Valley Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Central Post office... Mary Anne Disraeli, 1st Viscountess Beaconsfield (11 November 1792 - 15 December 1872), born Mary Anne Evans, married Wyndham Lewis and then, after her first husbands death, Benjamin Disraeli. ...


Office

The first Derby government

The Earl of DerbyPrime Minister 1852, 1858-59, 1866-68
The Earl of Derby
Prime Minister 1852, 1858-59, 1866-68
Main article: Who? Who? Ministry

The first opportunity for the protectionist Tories under Disraeli and Stanley to take office came in 1851, when Lord John Russell's government was defeated in the House of Commons over the Ecclesiastical Titles Act 1851. Disraeli was to have been Home Secretary, with Stanley (becoming the Earl of Derby later that year) as Prime Minister. The Peelites, however, refused to serve under Stanley or with Disraeli, and attempts to create a purely protectionist government failed. [16] Download high resolution version (500x611, 91 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x611, 91 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Who can refer to: WHO, World Health Organization The Who, a British rock band The Guess Who, a Canadian rock band who (pronoun), an English language interrogative pronoun. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792–28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a British Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... The Ecclesiastical Titles Act 1851 was a statute passed by the Parliament of Great Britain in 1851 as an anti Roman Catholic measure. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... The Peelites were a breakaway faction of the British Conservative Party, and existed from 1846 to 1859. ...


Russell resumed office, but resigned again in early 1852 when a combination of the protectionists and Lord Palmerston defeated him on a Militia Bill. This time Lord Derby (as he had become) took office, and appointed Disraeli Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. Disraeli's first and primary responsibility was to produce a Budget for the coming fiscal year. He proposed to reduce taxes on malt and tea (indirect taxation); additional revenue would come from an increase in the House tax. More controversially, Disraeli also proposed to alter the workings of the Income Tax (direct taxation) by "differentiating"–i.e., different rates would be levied on different types of income. [17] The establishment of the income tax on a permanent basis had been the subject of much inter-party discussion since the fall of Peel's ministry, but no conclusions had been reached, and Disraeli was criticised for mixing up details over the different "schedules" of income. He was also hampered by an unexpected increase in defence expenditure, which was forced on him by Derby and Sir John Pakington (leading to his celebrated remark to John Bright about the "damned defences"). [18] This, combined with bad timing and perceived inexperience led to the failure of the Budget and consequently the fall of the government in December of that year. The Right Honourable Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid 19th century. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... An indirect tax (such as sales tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is collected from the person who bears the tax by intermediaries and the proceeds passed on to government. ... An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income of persons, corporations, or other legal entities. ... The term direct tax has more than one meaning: a colloquial meaning and, in the United States, a constitutional law meaning. ... The Rt Hon. ... John Bright John Bright (November 16, 1811–March 27, 1889), was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ...


William Ewart Gladstone's final speech on the failed Budget marked the beginning of over twenty years of mutual parliamentary hostility, as well as the end of Gladstone's formal association with the Conservative Party. William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ...


Opposition

With the fall of the government Disraeli and the Conservatives returned to the opposition benches. Derby's successor as Prime Minister was the Peelite Lord Aberdeen, whose ministry was composed of both Peelites and Whigs. Disraeli himself was succeeded as chancellor by Gladstone. The Right Honourable George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, PC (January 28, 1784–December 14, 1860) was a Tory/Peelite politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1852 until 1855. ...


The second Derby government

Main article: Second Derby Ministry

Lord Palmerston's government collapsed in 1858 amid public fallout over the Orsini affair and Derby took office at the head of a purely 'Conservative' administration. He again offered a place to Gladstone, who declined. Disraeli remained leader of the House of Commons and returned to the Exchequer. As in 1852 Derby's was a minority government, dependent on the division of its opponents for survival.[19] The principal measure of the 1858 session would be a bill to re-organise governance of India, the Indian Mutiny having exposed the inadequacy of dual control. The first attempt at legislation was drafted by the President of the Board of Control, Lord Ellenborough, who had previously served as Governor-General of India (1841-44). The bill, however, was riddled with complexities and had to be withdrawn. Soon after, Ellenborough was forced to resign over an entirely separate matter involving the current Governor-General, Lord Canning.[20] Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1852, 1858-1859, 1866-1868. ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Felice Orsini (1819 - March 13, 1858) was an Italian revolutionary who tried to assassinate Napoleon III. Felice Orsini was born at Meldola in Romagna. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a British perspective. ... The President of the Board of Control was a British government official in the late 18th and early 19th century responsible for overseeing the British East India Company and generally serving as the chief official in London responsible for Indian affairs. ... Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough (September 8, 1790 - December 22, 1871) was a British politician. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... The Right Honourable Charles John Canning, 1st & Last Earl Canning (14 December 1812 - 17 June 1862), English statesman, Governor-General of India during the Mutiny of 1857, was the youngest child of George Canning, and was born at Brompton, near London. ...


Faced with a vacancy, Disraeli and Derby tried yet again to bring Gladstone into the government. Disraeli wrote a personal letter to Gladstone, asking him to place the good of the party above personal animosity: "Every man performs his office, and there is a Power, greater than ourselves, that disposes of all this..." In responding to Disraeli Gladstone denied that personal feelings played any role in his decision then and previously to accept office, while acknowledging that there were differences between him and Derby "broader than you may have supposed." Gladstone also hinted at the strength of his own faith, and the role it played in his public life, when he addressed Disraeli's most personal and private appeal:

I state these points fearlessly and without reserve, for you have yourself well reminded me that there is a Power beyond us that disposes of what we are and do, and I find the limits of choice in public life to be very narrow.—W. E. Gladstone to Disraeli, 1858[21]

With Gladstone's refusal Derby and Disraeli looked elsewhere and settled on Disraeli's old friend Edward Bulwer-Lytton, who became Secretary of State for the Colonies; Derby's son Lord Stanley, succeeded Ellenborough at the Board of Control. Stanley, with Disraeli's assistance, proposed and guided through the house the India Act, under which the subcontinent would be governed for sixty years. The East India Company and its Governor-General were replaced by a viceroy and the Indian Council, while at Westminster the Board of Control was abolished and its functions assumed by the newly-created India Office, under the Secretary of State for India. [22] Edward George Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton (May 25, 1803 - January 18, 1873) was an English novelist, playwright, and politician. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... In municipal government a Board of Control is an executive body that usually deals with financial and administrative matters. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ...


The 1867 Reform Bill

Main article: Third Derby Ministry

After engineering the defeat of a Liberal Reform Bill introduced by Gladstone in 1866, Disraeli and Derby introduced their own measure in 1867. Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1852, 1858-1859, 1866-1868. ...

William Ewart GladstoneFour-time Prime Minister
William Ewart Gladstone
Four-time Prime Minister

This was primarily a political strategy designed to give the Conservative party control of the reform process and the subsequent long-term benefits in the Commons, similar to those derived by the Whigs after their 1832 Reform Act. The Reform Act of 1867 extended the franchise by 938,427 — an increase of 88% — by giving the vote to male householders and male lodgers paying at least 10 pounds for rooms and eliminating rotten boroughs with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants, and granting constituencies to fifteen unrepresented towns, and extra representation in parliament to larger towns such as Liverpool and Manchester, which had previously been under-represented in Parliament.[23]. This act was unpopular with the right wing of the Conservative Party, most notably Lord Cranborne (later the Marquess of Salisbury), who resigned from the government and spoke against the bill, accusing Disraeli of "a political betrayal which has no parallel in our Parliamentary annals." [24] Cranborne, however, was unable to lead a rebellion similar to that which Disraeli had led against Peel twenty years earlier. William Ewart Gladstone This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... William Ewart Gladstone This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Reform Act 1867 (also known as the Second Reform Act) was a piece of British legislation that greatly increased the number of men who could vote in elections in the UK. In its final form, the Reform Act 1867 enfranchised all male householders and abolished compounding (the practice of... The term rotten borough refers to a parliamentary borough or constituency in the Kingdom of England (pre-1707), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801), the Kingdom of Ireland (1536-1801) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (from 1801 until their final abolition in 1867) which due... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister on three occasions, for a total of over 13 years. ...

Prime Minister

First government

Derby's health had been declining for some time and he finally resigned as Prime Minister in late February of 1868; he would live for twenty months. Disraeli's efforts over the past two years had dispelled, for the time being, any doubts about him succeeding Derby as leader of the Conservative Party and therefore Prime Minister. As Disraeli remarked, "I have climbed to the top of the greasy pole." [25] Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1868, 1874- 1880. ...

The Marquess of SalisburyThree-time Prime Minister
The Marquess of Salisbury
Three-time Prime Minister

However, the Conservatives were still a minority in the House of Commons, and the enaction of the Reform Bill required the calling of new election once the new voting register had been compiled. Disraeli's term as Prime Minister would therefore be fairly short, unless the Conservatives won the general election. He made only two major changes in the cabinet: he replaced Lord Chelmsford as Lord Chancellor with Lord Cairns, and brought in George Ward Hunt as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Disraeli and Chelmsford had never got along particularly well, and Cairns, in Disraeli's view, was a far stronger minister. [26] Download high resolution version (500x618, 57 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x618, 57 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Frederic Thesiger, 1st Baron Chelmsford (25 April 1794 - 5 October 1878), was an English jurist and politician. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Hugh McCalmont Cairns, 1st Earl Cairns (27 December 1810 - 2 April 1885) was a British statesman (of Irish birth) who served as Lord Chancellor of Great Britain during the first two ministries of Benjamin Disraeli. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ...


Disraeli's first premiership was dominated by the heated debate over the established Church of Ireland. Although Ireland was (and remains) overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, the Protestant Church remained the established church and was funded by direct taxation. An initial attempt by Disraeli to negotiate with Cardinal Manning the establishment of a Roman Catholic university in Dublin foundered in March when Gladstone moved resolutions to dis-establish the Irish Church altogether. The proposal divided the Conservative Party while reuniting the Liberals under Gladstone's leadership. While Disraeli's government survived until the December general election, the initiative had passed to the Liberals, who were returned to power with a majority of 170.[27] In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... 1882 caricature from Punch Henry Edward Cardinal Manning (July 15, 1808 - January 14, 1892) was an English Catholic Archbishop and Cardinal. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The 1868 UK general election was the first after passage of the Reform Act 1867, which enfranchised all male householders, thus greatly increasing the number of men who could vote in elections in the United Kingdom. ...


Second government

After six years in opposition, Disraeli and the Conservative Party won the election of 1874, giving the party its first absolute majority in the House of Commons since the 1840s. Under the leadership of R. A. Cross, the Home Secretary, Disraeli's government introduced various reforms, including the Artisans Dwellings Act (1875), the Public Health Act (1875), the Pure Food and Drugs Act (1875), the Climbing Boys Act (1875), and the Education Act (1876). His government also introduced a new Factory Act meant to protect workers, the Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act (1875) to allow peaceful picketing, and the Employers and Workmen Act (1878) to enable workers to sue employers in the civil courts if they broke legal contracts. Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1868, 1874- 1880. ... The 1874 UK general election ended with the Liberals, led by William Gladstone, winning a majority of the votes cast, but Benjamin Disraelis Conservatives winning the majority of seats in the House of Commons, largely because they won a number of uncontested seats. ... In the Westminster System, a majority government is one in which the government enjoys an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or Parliament. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... The Public Health Act of 1875 was established in Great Britain due to bad living conditions. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Imperialism

Disraeli and Queen Victoria, during the latter's visit to Hughenden at the height of the Eastern crisis.
Disraeli and Queen Victoria, during the latter's visit to Hughenden at the height of the Eastern crisis.

Disraeli was a stauch supporter of the expansion and preservation of the British Empire. He introduced the Royal Titles Act, which created Queen Victoria Empress of India, putting her at the same level as the Russian Tsar. He also, over the objections of his own cabinet, purchased 44% of the shares of the Suez Canal Company. Queen Victoria and Benjamin Disraeli File links The following pages link to this file: Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield British Empire New Imperialism Theories of New Imperialism User:Mackensen/Benjamin Disraeli Categories: Public domain images ... Queen Victoria and Benjamin Disraeli File links The following pages link to this file: Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield British Empire New Imperialism Theories of New Imperialism User:Mackensen/Benjamin Disraeli Categories: Public domain images ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Hughenden Valley (formerly called Hughenden or Hitchendon) is an extensive village in Buckinghamshire, England, just to the north of High Wycombe. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ...


Difficulties in South Africa (epitomised by the defeat of the British Army at the Battle of Isandlwana), as well as Afghanistan, weakened his government and led to his party's defeat in the 1880 election. Combatants Britain Zulu Nation Commanders Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Henry Pulleine. ...


The Eastern Question

Main article: Eastern Question

Disraeli and Gladstone clashed over Britain's Balkan policy. Disraeli saw the situation as a matter of British imperial and strategic interests, keeping to Palmerston's policy of supporting the Ottoman Empire against Russian expansion. Gladstone, however, saw the issue in moral terms, for Bulgarian Christians had been massacred by the Turks and Gladstone therefore believed it was immoral to support the Ottoman Empire. Disraeli achieved a diplomatic success at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, in limiting the growing influence of Russia in the Balkans and breaking up the League of the Three Emperors. The Eastern Question, in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... League of the Three Emperors (Dreikaiserbund) 1881 Long term cause of the First World War Creation of a conservative league between Germany, Russia and Austria Post-Franco-Prussian War Alliance against radicals Conservatives in the three countries were wary of the growing threat (as they perceived it) of liberalism and...


He was elevated to the House of Lords in 1876 when Queen Victoria (who liked Disraeli both personally and politically) made him Earl of Beaconsfield and Viscount Hughenden. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ...


Death

In the general election of 1880 Disraeli's Conservatives were defeated by Gladstone's Liberals. Disraeli became ill soon after and died in April 1881. His literary executor, and for all intents and purposes his heir, was his private secretary, Lord Rowton. The UK general election of 1880 was a general election in the United Kingdom held on the 18 April 1880. ... A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of the literary estate of an author who has died. ... Montagu William Lowry-Corry, 1st Baron Rowton (8 October 1838–9 November 1903), also known as Monty, was a British philanthropist and minor diplomat, best known for serving as Benjamin Disraelis private secretary from 1866 until the latters death in 1881. ...


Personal life and family

Benjamin was the second child and eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli and Maria Basevi. His siblings included Sarah (1802–1859), Naphtali (1807), Ralph (1809–1898), and James (1813–1868). [28] Isaac DIsraeli in a portrait from 1797. ...


Before his entrance into parliament Disraeli was involved with several different women, most notably Lady Henrietta Sykes (the wife of Sir Francis Sykes, Bt), who served as the model for Henrietta Temple. His relationship with Henrietta would eventually cause him serious trouble beyond the usual problems associated with a torrid affair. It was Henrietta who introduced Disraeli to Lord Lyndhurst, with whom she later became romantically involved. As Lord Blake observed: "The true relationship between the three cannot be determined with certainty...there can be no doubt that the affair [figurative usage] damaged Disraeli and that it made its contribution, along with many other episodes, to the understandable aura of distrust which hung around his name for so many years." [29] John Singleton Copley, 1st Baron Lyndhurst (1772-1863), Lord Chancellor of England, was a British politician. ...


Disraeli's Judaism

Although born of Jewish parents, Disraeli was baptised in the Christian faith at the age of thirteen, and remained an observant Anglican for the rest of his life.[30] At the same time, he considered himself ethnically Jewish and did not view the two positions as incompatible.


Disraeli's governments

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1868, 1874- 1880. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1868, 1874- 1880. ...

Works by Disraeli

Line drawing of Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield - Project Gutenberg eText 13619. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield - Project Gutenberg eText 13619. ...

Fiction

Benjamin Disraelis first novel, published in 1827. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Venetia is a novel by Georgette Heyer. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Coningsby or The New Generation, an English political novel by Benjamin Disraeli published in 1844. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Sybil, or The Two Nations Published in the same year as Frederick Engelss The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, Sybil (1845) traces the plight of the working classes of England. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Endymion is also a science-fiction novel by Dan Simmons, part of the Hyperion Cantos tetralogy. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ...

Non-fiction

  • An Inquiry into the Plans, Progress, and Policy of the American Mining Companies (1825)
  • Lawyers and Legislators: or, Notes, on the American Mining Companies (1825)
  • The present state of Mexico (1825)
  • England and France, or a Cure for the Ministerial Gallomania (1832)
  • What Is He? (1833)
  • The Letters of Runnymede (1836)
  • Lord George Bentinck (1852)

Films featuring Disraeli

Statue in Parliament Square, London
Statue in Parliament Square, London

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 322 KB) Summary Benjamin Disraeli statue, Parliament Square, London, Tuesday 13 June 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 322 KB) Summary Benjamin Disraeli statue, Parliament Square, London, Tuesday 13 June 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Anti-war protesters gather at Parliament Square on the afternoon of March 20, 2003. ... Disraeli is a 1929 film that was adapted by Julien Josephson and De Leon Anthony from a play by Louis N. Parker. ... See also: 1928 in film 1929 1930 in film 1920s in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events The days of the silent film were numbered. ... George Arliss (10 April 1868- 5 February 1946) was a British actor. ... The Academy Award for Best Actor is one of the awards given to male actors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Joan Bennett on the December, 1945 issue of Movie Story Magazine Joan Geraldine Bennett (February 27, 1910 – December 7, 1990) was an American film actress who also achieved success later in life as a television actress. ... The Prime Minister is a 1941s drama genre film. ... // North America Sergeant York Buck Privates, starring Abbott and Costello Tobacco Road Best Picture: How Green Was My Valley - 20th Century-Fox Best Actor: Gary Cooper - Sergeant York Best Actress: Joan Fontaine - Suspicion Adam Had Four Sons Blossoms in the Dust, starring Greer Garson and Walter Pidgeon Bowery Blitzkrieg Buck... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Emmy, Grammy, Tony and Academy Award-winning English theatre and film actor, and is generally regarded as one of the great British actors in history. ... The Mudlark, made in England in 1950 by 20th Century Fox, is a completely fictionalized account of how Queen Victoria was eventually brought out of her mourning for Prince Albert. ... See also: 1949 in film 1950 1951 in film 1950s in film 1940s in film years in film film // Events February 15 - Walt Disney Studios animated film Cinderella debuts. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... Disraeli is the name of a four-part series, made for ATV in 1978, about the great statesman. ... // Events February 1 - Bob Dylans film Renaldo and Clara, a documentary of the Rolling Thunder Revue tour premieres in Los Angeles, California March 1 - Charlie Chaplins coffin is stolen from a Swiss cemetery 3 months after burial March - Leigh Brackett completes the first draft for Star Wars Episode... Ian McShane (born 29 September 1942) is a Golden Globe-winning English actor. ... Mary Peach (born October 20, 1934 in Durban, South Africa) is a British film and television actress. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1997 films | Best Actress Oscar Nominee (film) ... This is a list of film-related events in 1997. ... Sir Antony Sher KBE (born 14 June 1949) is an actor, novelist and painter. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Robert Blake, Disraeli, 3. Norman Gash, reviewing Blake's work, argued that Benjamin's claim to Spanish ancestry could not be entirely dismissed. Norman Gash, review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake. The English Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 327. (Apr., 1968), 360-364
  2. ^ Opponents, however, continued to include the apostrophe in correspondence. Lord Lincoln, writing to Sir Robert Peel in 1846, referred to "D'Israeli." J. B. Conacher, "Peel and the Peelites, 1846-1850." The English Historical Review, Vol. 73, No. 288. (Jul., 1958), 435
  3. ^ Rhind, N. (1993) Blackheath Village & Environs, 1790-1990, Vol.1 The Village and Blackheath Vale (Bookshop Blackheath, London), p.157.
  4. ^ Blake, Disraeli, 24-26; Claudio Veliz, "Egana, Lambert, and the Chilean Mining Associations of 1825." The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 55, No. 4. (Nov., 1975), 637-663
  5. ^ Stephen R. Graubard, review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake. The American Historical Review, Vol. 73, No. 1. (Oct., 1967), 139.
  6. ^ C. L. Cline, "Disraeli and John Gibson Lockhart" in Modern Language Notes, Vol. 56, No. 2. (Feb., 1941), pp. 134-137.
  7. ^ C. L. Cline, "Disraeli and Thackeray" in The Review of English Studies, Vol. 19, No. 76. (Oct., 1943), pp. 404-408. This view has been accepted by most historians. See James D. Merritt, "The Novelist St. Barbe in Disraeli's Endymion: Revenge on Whom?" in Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 23, No. 1. (Jun., 1968), pp. 85-88, who argues that St. Barbe was an attack on Thomas Carlyle.
  8. ^ Robert Blake, Disraeli, (New York, 1966), 84-86.
  9. ^ Ibid, 87
  10. ^ G. M. Trevelyan, The Life of John Bright (1913), 207. The specific occasion was the 1852 Budget. Disraeli seems to have held out the possibility of Bright, Richard Cobden, and Thomas Milner Gibson eventually joining the cabinet in exchange for the support of the Radicals.
  11. ^ Peel's reasons for doing so are disputed. Some historians suggest Edward Stanley's well-known antipathy to Disraeli as the prime factor. Robert Blake dismisses these claims, arguing instead that Peel's need to balance the various factions of the Conservative Party, and the heavy preponderance of aristocrats within the cabinet, precluded Disraeli's inclusion. See C. L. Cline, "Disraeli and Peel's 1841 Cabinet" in The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 11, No. 4. (Dec., 1939), pp. 509-512 and Blake, Disraeli, 165-166.
  12. ^ Blake, Disraeli, 247
  13. ^ Quoted in Blake, Disraeli, 247-248
  14. ^ Blake, Disraeli, 260.
  15. ^ Blake, Disraeli, 250-253.
  16. ^ Ibid, 301-305.
  17. ^ P. R. Ghosh, "Disraelian Conservatism: A Financial Approach." The English Historical Review, Vol. 99, No. 391. (Apr., 1984), 269-273; H. C. G. Matthew, "Disraeli, Gladstone, and the Politics of Mid-Victorian Budgets." The Historical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3. (Sep., 1979), 621.
  18. ^ Bright's diary quotes the conversation in full. See George Trevelyan, The Life of John Bright, (London, 1913), 205-206
  19. ^ Angus Hawkins, "British Parliamentary Party Alignment and the Indian Issue, 1857-1858," The Journal of British Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2. (Spring, 1984), pp. 79-105.
  20. ^ Blake, Disraeli, 379-832.
  21. ^ Ibid, 832-834.
  22. ^ Blake, Disraeli, 385-386.
  23. ^ J.B. Conancher, "The Emergence of British Parliamentary Democracy in the Nineteenth Century", 177
  24. ^ Quoted in Blake, Disraeli, 473.
  25. ^ Blake, Disraeli, 485-487.
  26. ^ Ibid, 487-489.
  27. ^ Ibid, 496-502.
  28. ^ Ibid, 3.
  29. ^ Ibid, 116-119.
  30. ^ Ibid, 11. See also Todd M. Endelman, "Disraeli's Jewishness Reconsidered" in Modern Judaism, Vol. 5, No. 2, Gershom Scholem Memorial Issue. (May, 1985), 115.

Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC (22 May 1811–18 October 1864) was a British politician, who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. ... Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from December 10, 1834 to April 8, 1835, and again from August 30, 1841 to June 29, 1846. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... Richard Cobden Richard Cobden (June 3, 1804 – April 2, 1865) was an a British manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with John Bright in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ... Thomas Milner Gibson (1806-1884), English politician, who came of a good Suffolk family, was born in Trinidad, where his father, an officer in the army, was serving. ...

References

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield
  • Blake, Robert (1966). Disraeli. New York: St. Martin's Press. 
  • Cline, C.L. (February 1941). "Disraeli and John Gibson Lockhart". Modern Language Notes 56 (2): 134-137. 
  • Cline, C.L. (December 1939). "Disraeli and Peel's 1841 Cabinet". The Journal of Modern History 11: 509-512. 
  • Cline, C.L. (October 1943). "Disraeli and Thackeray". The Review of English Studies 19: 404-408. 
  • Conancher, J.B. (1971). The Emergence of British Parliamentary Democracy in the Nineteenth Century. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 
  • Conancher, J.B. (July 1958). "Peel and the Peelites, 1846-1850". The English Historical Review 73 (288): 431-452. 
  • Endelman, Todd M. (May 1985). "Disraeli's Jewishness Reconsidered". Modern Judaism 5 (2): 109-123. 
  • Gash, Norman (April 1968). "Review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake". The English Historical Review 83 (327): 360-364. 
  • Ghosh, P.R. (April 1984). "Disraelian Conservatism: A Financial Approach". The English Historical Review 99: 268-296. 
  • Graubard, Stephen R. (October 1967). "Review of Disraeli, by Robert Blake". The American Historical Review 73 (1): 139. 
  • Jerman, B.R.. The Young Disraeli. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 
  • Matthew, H.C.G. (September 1979). "Disraeli, Gladstone, and the Politics of Mid-Victorian Budgets". The Historical Journal 22 (3): 615-643. 
  • Merritt, James D. (June 1968). "The Novelist St. Barbe in Disraeli's Endymion: Revenge on Whom?". Nineteenth-Century Fiction 23 (1): 85-88. 
  • Trevelyan, G.M. (1913). The Life of John Bright. London: Constable. 
  • Veliz, Claudio (November 1975). "Egana, Lambert, and the Chilean Mining Associations of 1825". The Hispanic American Historical Review 55 (4): 637-663. 
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Image File history File links Benjamin_Disraeli,_1st_Earl_of_Beaconsfield_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Image File history File links Benjamin_Disraeli,_1st_Earl_of_Beaconsfield_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Robert Norman William Blake, Baron Blake (December 23, 1916 - September 20, 2003) was an English historian, best known for his 1966 biography of Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield. ... Dr. Todd Endelman Todd M. Endelman is the William Haber Professor of Modern Jewish History at the University of Michigan. ... Norman Gash was the sole biographer of Sir Robert Peel, he published two volumes of his life; the first was entitled Mr Secretary Peel and followed his life up until 1830. ... James Merritt, born December 22, 1952, is a U.S. religious leader and former President of the Southern Baptist Convention. ... George Macaulay Trevelyan (February 16, 1876 – July 21, 1962), was an English historian, son of Sir George Otto Trevelyan and great-nephew of Thomas Macaulay. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

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Persondata
NAME Disraeli, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Disraeli, Benjamin, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield
SHORT DESCRIPTION British politician
DATE OF BIRTH 21 December 1804
PLACE OF BIRTH London, England
DATE OF DEATH 19 April 1881
PLACE OF DEATH London, England

  Results from FactBites:
 
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3233 words)
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (21 December 1804 19 April 1881) was an English statesman and literary figure.
In 1876 Disraeli was raised to the peerage as the Earl of Beaconsfield, capping nearly four decades in the House of Commons.
Benjamin was the second child and eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli and Maria Basevi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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