FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Benjamin Baillaud
Image:BenjaminBaillaud.jpeg
Benjamin Baillaud

Édouard Benjamin Baillaud (February 14, 1848July 8, 1934) was a French astronomer. February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ...


Baillaud studied at the École Normale Supérieure and the University of Paris. He worked as an assistant at the Paris Observatory beginning in 1872. Later he was director of the Toulouse Observatory from 1878 to 1907, during much of this time serving as Dean of Toulouse University Faculty of Science. The quadrangle at the main ENS building on rue dUlm is known as the Cour aux Ernests – the Ernests being the goldfish in the pond. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganized as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The Paris Observatory (in French, Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon) is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centers in the world. ... 1872 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


He greatly expanded the observatory and enthusiastically supported the Carte du Ciel project. He specialized in celestial mechanics, in particular the motions of the satellites of Saturn. Carte du Ciel (Map of the Sky) was an international project to map the positions of millions of stars — that is to say, of all stars to the 11th or 12th magnitude. ... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... Moons of solar system scaled to Earths Moon The common noun moon (not capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ...


In 1903, the observatory took over a facility on the Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees that had been founded by amateurs in the 1850s with the goal of putting a telescope there. However, the height of 2865 metres (9400 feet) posed formidable logistical challenges and the ambition had remained unrealised though a meteorological observatory had operated from 1873 to 1880. Baillaud organised a team of soldiers to erect a 0.5 metre (20 inch) reflecting telescope, and 0.25 metre refracting telescope on the summit. 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Events and Trends Technology Production of steel revolutionised by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Science Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution... 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ... The metre, or meter, is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units (SI: Système International dUnités). ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The metre, or meter, is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units (SI: Système International dUnités). ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... Ritchey 24 reflecting telescope A reflecting telescope (reflector) is an optical telescope which uses mirrors, rather than lenses, to reflect light. ... The 50 cm refractor at Nice Observatory. ...


In 1907, he became director of the Paris Observatory where he immediately set to work to relaunch the stalled Carte du Ciel project with a conference held at the observatory, entertained by singers from the Paris Opera and refreshed by wine provided by the director of the Bordeaux Observatory. Though the French government agreed to fund the project, it was becoming increasingly clear that its objectives were hopelessly unrealistic. 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Paris Observatory (in French, Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon) is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centers in the world. ... Exterior of the Palais Garnier. ... A glass of red wine Wine is an alcoholic beverage that is made by fermenting grapes or grape juice. ...


Baillaud was active in time standardisation, becoming the founding president of the International Time Bureau and initiating the transmission of a time signal from the Eiffel Tower. Baillaud maintained the observatory and the time signal throughout World War I, even though the German howitzer Big Bertha was targeted on the nominal co-ordinates of Paris, the location of the observatory! Baillaud's concern for the astronomical time standard led him to be an outspoken opponent of daylight saving time. Universal Time (UT) is a timescale based on the rotation of the Earth. ... A time signal is a visible, audible, mechanical, or electronic signal used as a reference to determine the time of day. ... The Tower at sunrise The Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel) is a puddled iron tower built on the Champ de Mars, beside the River Seine, in Paris, France. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer 155 mm M198 Howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ... Big Bertha Big Bertha (German: Dicke Bertha; literal translation Fat Bertha) is the name of the L/14 model of heavy mortar-like howitzers built and used by Germany during World War I. The name Big Bertha is often mistakenly applied to the Long Max and Paris Gun railway guns. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Daylight saving time (also called DST, or summer time) is the portion of the year in which a regions local time is advanced by (usually) one hour from its official standard time. ...


Baillaud became founding president of the International Astronomical Union in 1919. He retired as director of the Paris Observatory in 1926. Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (IAU) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


He won the Bruce Medal in 1923. The Catherine Wolfe Bruce gold medal is awarded every year by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for outstanding lifetime contributions to astronomy. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Baillaud crater on the Moon is named after him. Note however asteroid 1280 Baillauda is named after his son Jules Baillaud rather than for him. Baillaud is a lunar crater that is located near the north limb of the Moon. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... An asteroid is a small, solid object in our Solar System, orbiting the Sun. ...


External links

Obituaries


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Bruce Medalists (251 words)
Benjamin Baillaud studied at l'École Normale Supérieure and the University of Paris.
At Paris he inaugurated the telegraphy of time signals from the Observatory via the Eiffel Tower and, with great difficulty, kept the time service in operation throughout World War I. Widely regarded as an outstanding administrator, he was the first president of the International Astronomical Union.
Borel, E[mile], et al, “Benjamin Baillaud, 1848-1934,” suivi de: Extraits des rapports annuels présentés au Conseil de l’Observatoire de Paris (Toulouse, 1937).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m