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Encyclopedia > Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini

In office
October 31, 1922 – July 25, 1943
Monarch Victor Emmanuel III
Preceded by Luigi Facta
Succeeded by Pietro Badoglio (Provisional Military Government)

In office
September 23, 1943 – April 26, 1945

Born July 29, 1883(1883-07-29)
Predappio, Italy
Died April 28, 1945 (aged 61)
Giulino di Mezzegra, Italy
Nationality Italian
Political party National Fascist Party
Spouse Rachele Mussolini
Profession Journalist
Religion Atheist,[1][2]
"Ex-atheist"[2][3]
Baptised Roman Catholic in 1927.

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883April 28, 1945) was an Italian who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of key figures in the creation of Fascism. He became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and Il Duce by 1925; he was the leader of the dictatorship until 1943. For a short period after this until his death, Mussolini was the Head of the Italian Social Republic. Mussolini, an Italian surname, may refer to: Alessandro Mussolini, a blacksmith, anarchist, and the father of Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini, fascist dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943 Edda Mussolini, daughter of Benito Mussolini Romano Mussolini, a musician and painter, and the son of Benito Mussolini Alessandra Mussolini, an Italian... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Duce is an Italian word meaning leader, derived from Latin word dux of the same meaning, of which Duke is a derivation. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... Luigi Facta (November 16, 1861 - November 5, 1930) was an Italian politician and journalist. ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Predappio is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy, with a population of 6,362. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Giulino di Mezzegra is a quarter of the city of Mezzegra, in the province of Como, which has passed into history because it is the place where Benito Mussolini and his lover Claretta Petacci were assassinated. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... Donna (Lady) Rachele Mussolini (born Rachele Guidi) (11 April 1890 - 30 October 1979) was the wife of Benito Mussolini. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Atheist redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... Fascist redirects here. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... Duce is an Italian word meaning leader, derived from Latin word dux of the same meaning, of which Duke is a derivation. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by...


Italian fascism which Mussolini was amongst the founders, valued nationalism, corporatism, militarism, social progress and anti-communism combined with censorship and state propaganda. In the years following his creation of the fascist ideology, Mussolini influenced or achieved admiration from a wide variety of political figures, from various different backgrounds. Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Social progress is defined as a progress of society, which makes the society better in the general view of its members. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 are: his public works programmes, for example the taming of the Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job opportunities, and public transport. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, as well as securing economic success in Italy's colonies and commercial dependencies.[4] Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ...


Although he originally sided with France against Germany, Mussolini became one of the main figures of the Axis powers and on 10 June 1940, Mussolini entered Italy into World War II on the side of Axis: three years later, Mussolini was ousted by his own government at the time of the Allied invasion. However, soon after his incarceration began, Mussolini was rescued from prison in the daring Gran Sasso raid by German special forces. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Operation Eiche (German for Oak) was the daring rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. It was planned by General Kurt Student. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ...


Following his rescue, Mussolini headed the Italian Social Republic in parts of Italy that were not occupied by Allied forces until the end of the war. In late April 1945 with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland, only to be captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Communist Italian partisans. His body was taken to Milan where it was hung upside down at a petrol station for public viewing and confirmation of his demise. Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... Summary execution of NVA spy during the Vietnam War. ... Lake Como (Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN...

Contents

Early Life

Mussolini was born in Dovia di Predappio in the province of Forlì in Emilia-Romagna, one of Alessandro Mussolini and Rosa Maltoni's fourteen children. Despite having two incomes in the household, the Mussolinis were poor, as were many families in Italy at this time. He was named Benito after Mexican reformist President Benito Juárez; the names Andrea and Amilcare were from Italian socialists Andrea Costa and Amilcare Cipriani. His mother was a teacher. His father was a blacksmith and a socialist activist.[5][6] Predappio is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy, with a population of 6,362. ... Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, at the nearby comune of Predappio. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... For other uses, see Benito Juárez (disambiguation). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Andrea Costa (1851-1913) was an Italian socialist activist, born in Imola. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ...


In 1891, Mussolini was banned from his local church for throwing stones at the congregation after Mass. Mussolini had never been baptized, and would be only in 1927. He was sent to boarding school later that year and at age 11 was expelled for stabbing a fellow student in the hand in defense and throwing an inkpot at a teacher. He did, however, receive good grades, and qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901.[5][6] For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Emigration

In 1902, Mussolini emigrated to Switzerland to find work and to expand his political horizons. During a period when he was unable to find a permanent job there, he was arrested for vagrancy and jailed for one night. Later, after becoming involved in the socialist movement, he was deported to Italy and volunteered for military service. He later returned to Switzerland and a second attempt to deport him was halted when Swiss socialist parliamentarians held an emergency debate to discuss his treatment.[5][6] A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... A vagrant is a person, almost always poor, without a home or regular work. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ...

Trento, where Mussolini found his first job
Trento, where Mussolini found his first job

Mussolini found a job in February 1908 in the city of Trento, which was ethnically Italian but then under the control of Austria-Hungary. He did office work for the local socialist party and edited its newspaper L'Avvenire del Lavoratore ("The Future of the Worker"). It did not take him long to make contact with irredentist politician and journalist Cesare Battisti, and to agree to write for and edit his newspaper Il Popolo ("The People") in addition to the work he did for the party. He wrote a novel for Battisti's publication (Claudia Particella, l'amante del cardinale) which was published serially in 1910. He later dismissed it as written merely to smear the religious authorities. The novel was subsequently translated into English as The Cardinal's Mistress. In 1915, he had a son with Ida Dalser, a woman born in Sopramonte, a village near Trento. [7][5][6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x557, 114 KB) Panoramic view of Trento. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x557, 114 KB) Panoramic view of Trento. ... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Cesare Battisti (February 4, 1875 – July 12, 1916), Italian-Austrian politician, revolutionary and irredentist. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ida Irene Dalser (1880 – 11 December 1937) was the first wife of Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. ...


By the time Mussolini's novel was printed in Il Popolo, Mussolini was already back in Italy. His growing defiance of Royal authority and anti-clericalism got him in trouble with the authorities until he was finally deported at the end of September. He was prompted to return to Italy once again when his mother became ill. He became a journalist for the socialist newspaper, Avanti! (Forward!).[5][6] Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Avanti! (Forward!) was an Italian daily newspaper, the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party, published since December 25, 1896. ...


Service in World War I

After initially writing on numerous occasions against the war in the socialist paper Avanti, Mussolini relented and he and his class were called up in August of 1915 for active duty.[8] Although his military record was unremarkable, it was without blemish and it has been suggested that he may have been prevented from moving further along in the ranks due to his ongoing political agitation in various periodicals.[8] Mussolini's military experience is told in his work Diario Di Guerra. Overall he totalled about 9 months of active, front-line trench warfare. During this time he contracted paratyphoid fever.[8] His military exploits ended in 1917 when he was wounded accidentally by the explosion of a mortar bomb in his trench. This left him with at least 40 shards of metal left in his body[8] He was discharged from the hospital in August 1917 and resumed his editor in chief position at his new paper the Popolo d'Italia.


Creation of Fascism

Blackshirts and Mussolini 1922
Main article: Fascism

Once Mussolini returned from World War I he gave little credence to socialism (though for a time, his paper still called itself "a Socialist paper"). By February 1918, he was calling for the emergence of a leader "ruthless and energetic enough to make a clean sweep." In May, he hinted in a speech in Bologna that he was going to take that position. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Fascist redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Bologna (from Latin Bononia, Bulaggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ...


On March 23, 1919, Mussolini reformed the Milan fascio as the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (Italian Combat Squad), consisting of 200 members.[9] The Fascisti, led by one of Mussolini's close confidants, Dino Grandi, formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts (or squadristi) to terrorize socialists, anarchists, and communists. The government rarely interfered. The Fascisti grew so rapidly that within two years, it transformed itself into the National Fascist Party at a congress in Rome. Also in 1921, Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time.[6] is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Count Dino Grandi (1895-1988), born in Mordano (BO), Emilia. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ...


The "March on Rome" and early years in power

Further information: March on Rome

The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup d'état by which Mussolini's National Fascist Party came to power in Italy and ousted Prime Minister Luigi Facta. The "march" took place in 1922 between October 27 and October 29. On October 28, King Victor Emmanuel III refused his support to Facta and handed over power to Mussolini. Mussolini was supported by the military, the business class, and the liberal right-wing. For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... Coup redirects here. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Luigi Facta (November 16, 1861 - November 5, 1930) was an Italian politician and journalist. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ...


As Prime Minister, the first years of Mussolini's rule were characterized by a right-wing coalition government composed of Fascists, nationalists, liberals and even two Catholic ministers from the Popular Party. The Fascists made up a small minority in his original governments. But, Mussolini's domestic goal was the eventual establishment of a totalitarian state with himself as supreme leader (Il Duce) a message that was articulated by the Fascist newspaper Il Popolo which was now edited by Mussolini's brother Arnaldo. To that end, Mussolini obtained dictatorial powers for one year. He favored the complete restoration of state authority, with the integration of the Fasci di Combattimento into the armed forces (the foundation in January 1923 of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale) and the progressive identification of the party with the state. In political and social economy, he passed legislation that favored the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes (privatisations, liberalisations of rent laws and dismantlement of the unions).[6] A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Italian Peoples Party (Partito Popolare Italiano, PPI) was a christian-democratic political party in Italy. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Duce is an Italian word meaning leader (derived from Latin dux of the same meaning). ...


In 1923, Mussolini sent Italian forces to invade Corfu during the "Corfu Incident." In the end, the League of Nations proved powerless and Greece was forced to comply with Italian demands. This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... The Corfu Incident was diplomatic emergency in 1923. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


Acerbo Law

In June 1923, the government passed the Acerbo Law, which transformed Italy into a single national constituency. It also granted a two-thirds majority of the seats in Parliament to the party or group of parties which had obtained at least 25 percent of the votes. This law was punctually applied in the elections of April 6, 1924. The "national alliance", consisting of Fascists, most of the old Liberals and others, won 64 percent of the vote largely by means of violence and voter intimidation. These tactics were especially prevalent in the south.That gave him so much do to do. The Acerbo Law was a 1923 electoral law, ostensibly proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo, forced through the Italian Parliament - if a party gained 25 percent of the votes, they gained 2/3 of the seats. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


Squadristi Violence

The assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti, who had requested the annulment of the elections because of the irregularities committed, provoked a momentary crisis of the Mussolini government. The murderer, a squadrista named Amerigo Dumini, reported to Mussolini soon after the murder. Mussolini ordered a cover-up, but witnesses saw the car used to transport Matteotti's body parked outside Matteotti's residence, which linked Dumini to the murder. The Matteotti crisis provoked cries for justice against the murder of an outspoken critic of Fascist violence. The government was shocked into paralysis for a few days, and Mussolini later confessed that a few resolute men could have alerted public opinion and started a coup that would have swept fascism away. Dumini was imprisoned for two years. On release he told others that Mussolini was responsible, for which he served further prison time. For the next 15 years, Dumini received an income from Mussolini, the Fascist Party, and other sources. This may have been hush money, for he left a dossier full of incriminating evidence to a Texas lawyer in case of his own death. Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885, Fratta Polesine, Province of Rovigo—10 June 1924, near Rome) was an Italian socialist politician. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Amerigo Dumini (1894, Saint Louis, Missouri—1967, probably in Bologna) was an Italian fascist activist and assassin. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Hush money is an informal term for financial incentives or rewards offered in exchange for not divulging information. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


The opposition parties responded weakly or were generally unresponsive. Many of the socialists, liberals and moderates boycotted Parliament in the Aventine Secession, hoping to force Victor Emmanuel to dismiss Mussolini. Despite the leadership of communists such as Antonio Gramsci, socialists such as Pietro Nenni and liberals such as Piero Gobetti and Giovanni Amendola, a mass antifascist movement never caught fire. The king, fearful of violence from the Fascist squadristi, kept Mussolini in office. Because of the boycott of Parliament, Mussolini could pass any legislation unopposed. The political violence of the squadristi had worked, for there was no popular demonstration against the murder of Matteotti. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... “Moderates” redirects here. ... The Aventine Secession is the common reference to an Italian movement reuniting parties in opposition to Fascism and Benito Mussolinis regime. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Pietro Sandro Nenni (February 9, 1891—Rome, January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and lifetime Senator since 1970. ... Piero Gobetti (1901-1926) was a young journalist, intellectual and radical liberal. ... Giovanni Amendola (Salerno 15 April 1882 - Cannes 1 April 1926) was an Italian journalist and politician. ... Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideology, organization, or government, on all levels. ...


Within his own party, Mussolini faced doubts and dissension during these critical weeks. The militant members of the party were angry that only a few dozen had been killed and a bloodbath ensued, causing thousands of casualties.


On January 3, 1925, Mussolini made a speech before the Chamber in which he took responsibility for squadristi violence (though he did not mention the assassination of Matteotti). Promising a crackdown on dissenters, he dropped all pretense of collaboration and set up a total dictatorship. Before his speech, fascist militia beat up the opposition and prevented opposition newspapers from publishing. Mussolini correctly predicted that as soon as public opinion saw him firmly in control the "fence-sitters", the silent majority and the "place-hunters" would all place themselves behind him. In 1925, all opposition was silenced. And so the Matteotti crisis was the turning point between a parliamentary state ruled by a fascist party to a fascist dictatorship. From late 1925 until the mid-1930s, fascism experienced little and isolated opposition, although that which it did was memorable. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


While failing to outline a coherent program, Fascism evolved into a new political and economic system that combined totalitarianism, nationalism, anti-communism, anti-capitalism and anti-liberalism into a state designed to bind all classes together under a corporatist system (the "Third Way"). This was a new system in which the state seized control of the organisation of vital industries. Under the banners of nationalism and state power, Fascism seemed to synthesise the glorious Roman past with a futuristic utopia. Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ...


Building a dictatorship

Assassination Attempts

Mussolini's influence in propaganda was such that he had surprisingly little opposition to suppress. Nonetheless, he was "slightly wounded in the nose" when he was shot on April 7, 1926 by Violet Gibson, an Irish woman and sister of Baron Ashbourne.[10] In January 1927, 15 year old Anteo Zamboni attempted to shoot Mussolini in Bologna. Zamboni was lynched on the spot.[11] Mussolini also survived a failed assassination attempt in Rome by anarchist Gino Lucetti,[12] and a planned attempt by American anarchist Michael Schirru, which ended with Schirru's capture and execution.[13] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Violet Gibson, best known for shooting Benito Mussolini, Italys Fascist leader, in the middle of the street. ... Baron Ashbourne is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Gino Lucetti (August 31, 1900 - September 17, 1943) was an Italian anarchist. ...


Police state

At various times after 1922, Mussolini personally took over the ministries of the interior, foreign affairs, colonies, corporations, defense, and public works. Sometimes he held as many as seven departments simultaneously, as well as the premiership. He was also head of the all-powerful Fascist Party and the armed local fascist militia, the MVSN or "Blackshirts," who terrorised incipient resistances in the cities and provinces. He would later form the OVRA, an institutionalised secret police that carried official state support. In this way he succeeded in keeping power in his own hands and preventing the emergence of any rival. For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... The OVRA (Organizzazione di Vigilanza Repressione dellAntifascismo, English: Organisation for Vigilance Against Anti-Fascism) was the secret police of Benito Mussolini in Fascist Italy. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ...


Over the next two years, Mussolini progressively dismantled all constitutional and conventional restraints on his power, thereby building a police state. A law passed on Christmas Eve 1925 changed Mussolini's title from "president of the Council of Ministers" (prime minister) to "head of the government." He was no longer responsible to Parliament and could only be removed by the king--something that was technically already true under the Italian constitution (which stated that ministers were responsible to the sovereign). Only Mussolini could determine the body's agenda. Local autonomy was abolished, and podestas appointed by the Italian Senate replaced elected mayors and councils. A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... The so-called Statuto Albertino (Albertine Statute) is the constitution that King Charles Albert of Savoy conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia (including also most parts of north-western Italy, such as Piedmont) on March 4, 1848. ... For information on the phantom island of the same name, see Podesta (island). ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ...


All other parties were outlawed in 1928, though in practice Italy had been a one-party state since Mussolini's 1925 speech. In the same year, an electoral law abolished parliamentary elections. Instead, the Grand Council of Fascism selected a single list of candidates to be approved by plebiscite. The Grand Council had been created five years earlier as a party body but was "constitutionalised" and became the highest constitutional authority in the state. The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ...


Economic policy

Benito Mussolini visiting Alfa Romeo factories.
Benito Mussolini visiting Alfa Romeo factories.
Main article: Economy of Italy under Fascism, 1922-1943

Mussolini launched several public construction programs and government initiatives throughout Italy to combat economic setbacks or unemployment levels. His earliest, and one of the best known, was Italy's equivalent of the Green Revolution, known as the "Battle for Grain", in which 5,000 new farms were established and five new agricultural towns on land reclaimed by draining the Pontine Marshes. This plan diverted valuable resources to grain production, away from other less economically viable crops. The huge tariffs associated with the project promoted widespread inefficiencies, and the government subsidies given to farmers pushed the country further into debt. Mussolini also initiated the "Battle for Land", a policy based on land reclamation outlined in 1928. The initiative had a mixed success; while projects such as the draining of the Pontine Marsh in 1935 for agriculture were good for propaganda purposes, provided work for the unemployed and allowed for great land owners to control subsidies, other areas in the Battle for Land were not very successful. This program was inconsistent with the Battle for Grain (small plots of land were inappropriately allocated for large-scale wheat production), and the Pontine Marsh was lost during World War II. Fewer than 10,000 peasants resettled on the redistributed land, and peasant poverty remained high. The Battle for Land initiative was abandoned in 1940. Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the...


He also combated an economic recession by introducing the "Gold for the Fatherland" initiative, by encouraging the public to voluntarily donate gold jewellery such as necklaces and wedding rings to government officials in exchange for steel wristbands bearing the words "Gold for the Fatherland". Even Rachele Mussolini donated her own wedding ring. The collected gold was then melted down and turned into gold bars, which were then distributed to the national banks. A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys Gross National Product in two successive quarters. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... For other senses of this word, see necklace (disambiguation). ... A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a precious metal ring. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Wristbands are encircling strips worn on the wrist, made of any of a variety of materials depending on the purpose. ... Donna (Lady) Rachele Mussolini (born Rachele Guidi) (11 April 1890 - 30 October 1979) was the wife of Benito Mussolini. ... The term national bank has several meanings: especially in developing countries, a bank owned by the state an ordinary private bank which operates nationally (as opposed to regionally or locally or even internationally) In the past, the term national bank has been used synonymously with central bank, but it is...


Mussolini pushed for government control of business: by 1935, Mussolini claimed that three quarters of Italian businesses were under state control. That same year, he issued several edicts to further control the economy, including forcing all banks, businesses, and private citizens to give up all their foreign-issued stocks and bonds to the Bank of Italy. In 1938, he also instituted wage and price controls.[14] He also attempted to turn Italy into a self-sufficient autarky, instituting high barriers on trade with most countries except Germany. In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ...


Government by propaganda

A fascist propaganda poster
A fascist propaganda poster

As dictator of Italy, Mussolini's foremost priority was the subjugation of the minds of the Italian people and the use of propaganda to do so; whether at home or abroad, and here his training as a journalist was invaluable. Press, radio, education, films — all were carefully supervised to create the illusion that fascism was the doctrine of the twentieth century, replacing liberalism and democracy. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Fascist redirects here. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


The principles of this doctrine were laid down in the article on fascism, written by Giovanni Gentile and signed by Mussolini that appeared in 1932 in the Enciclopedia Italiana. In 1929, a concordat with the Vatican was signed, the Lateran treaties, by which the Italian state was at last recognised by the Roman Catholic Church, and the independence of Vatican City was recognised by the Italian state. In 1927, Mussolini was baptised by a Roman Catholic priest in order to take away certain Catholic opposition, who were still very critical of a regime which had taken away papal property and virtually blackmailed the Vatican. However, Mussolini was never known to be a practicing Catholic. Since 1927, and more even after 1929, Mussolini, with his anti-Communist doctrines, convinced many Catholics to actively support him. In the encyclical Non abbiamo bisogno, Pope Pius XI attacked the Fascist regime for its policy against the Catholic Action and certain tendencies to overrule Catholic education morals. Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... The first volume of the Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti or Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts was published in 1925. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then-Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... This article is about religious workers. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


The law codes of the parliamentary system were rewritten under Mussolini. All teachers in schools and universities had to swear an oath to defend the fascist regime. Newspaper editors were all personally chosen by Mussolini and no one who did not possess a certificate of approval from the fascist party could practice journalism. These certificates were issued in secret; Mussolini thus skillfully created the illusion of a "free press". The trade unions were also deprived of any independence and were integrated into what was called the "corporative" system. The aim (never completely achieved), inspired by medieval guilds, was to place all Italians in various professional organizations or "corporations", all of which were under clandestine governmental control. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The concept of the corporate state developed under the context of Fascism in Mussolinis Italy as a means of regulating industrial relations. ...


Large sums of money were spent on highly visible public works, and on international prestige projects such as the SS Rex Blue Riband ocean liner and aeronautical achievements such as the world's fastest seaplane the Macchi M.C.72 and the transatlantic flying boat cruise of Italo Balbo, who was greeted with much fanfare in the United States when he landed in Chicago. The SS Rex was a product of Navigazione Generale Italiana (later become Italian Line - Italia Società di Navigazione). ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... Macchi M.C.72. ... Air Marshal Italo Balbo Italo Balbo (June 6, 1896 - June 28, 1940) was an Italian aviator, blackshirt leader and possible successor of Mussolini. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


Foreign policy

In foreign policy, Mussolini soon shifted from the pacifist anti-imperialism of his lead-up to power to an extreme form of aggressive nationalism. An early example was his bombardment of Corfu in 1923. Soon after he succeeded in setting up a puppet regime in Albania and in ruthlessly consolidating Italian power in Libya, which had been loosely a colony since 1912. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean mare nostrum ("our sea" in Latin), and he established a large naval base on the Greek island of Leros to enforce a strategic hold on the eastern Mediterranean. A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Leros (Greek: Λέρος; Italian: Lèro) is a Greek island in the Dodecanese, in the southern Aegean Sea. ...


Conquest of Abyssinia/Ethiopia

Main article: Second Italo-Abyssinian War

The invasion of Ethiopia was carried out rapidly (the proclamation of Empire took place in May 1936) and involved several atrocities such as the use of chemical weapons, (mustard gas and phosgene), and the indiscriminate slaughter of much of the local population to prevent opposition. Mussolini relied heavily on his propaganda machine to defend these actions, though many Italians never accepted these ideals as legitimate. The armed forces used a vast arsenal of grenades and bombs loaded with mustard gas, which were dropped from airplanes. This substance was also sprayed directly from above on to enemy combatants and villages. Mussolini authorised the use of the weapons: Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ...

"Rome, 27 October '35. A.S.E. Graziani. The use of gas as an ultima ratio to overwhelm enemy resistance and in case of counterattack is authorised. Mussolini."

"Rome, 28 December '35. A.S.E. Badoglio. Given the enemy system I have authorised V.E. the use even on a vast scale of any gas and flamethrowers. Mussolini."

Mussolini and his generals attempted to keep secret their use of chemical weapons, but it was revealed to the world through the denunciations of the International Red Cross and of many foreign observers. The Italian reaction to these revelations consisted in the allegedly "erroneous" bombardment (at least 19 times) of Red Cross tents posted in the areas of military encampment of the Ethiopian resistance. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ...


Regarding the Ethiopian population, the orders given by Mussolini were very clear:

"Rome, 5 June 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. All rebels taken prisoner must be killed. Mussolini." is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Rome, 8 July 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. I have authorised once again V.E. to begin and systematically conduct a politics of terror and extermination of the rebels and the complicit population. Without the legge taglionis one cannot cure the infection in time. Await confirmation. Mussolini." is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The predominant part of the work of repression was carried out by Italians who, besides the bombs laced with mustard gas, instituted forced labor camps, installed public gallows, killed hostages, and mutilated the corpses of their enemies. Graziani ordered the elimination of captured guerrillas by throwing them out of airplanes in mid-flight. Many Italian troops had themselves photographed next to cadavers hanging from gallows, or standing beside chests full of cut-off heads. These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ...


The first Italo-Abyssinian(Ethiopian) War, the Italians had came to try to conquere in 1889 during the time of Emperor Menelik II. The wife (queen) of Menelik II, Empress Taytu, played a very big role in the victory over Italy. Including near the end of the war when the Italians tried to sign a peace treaty. But there was a trick to it. In the treaty was a hidden paragraph, which allowed Italy a complete occupation and colony over Ethiopia (Abyssinia). As her husband was about to sign this treaty, she refused and she demanded a full translation of the document and discoverd the trick.


One episode in the Italian occupation of Ethiopia was the slaughter of Addis Ababa in February 1937, which followed an attempt to assassinate Graziani. In the course of an official ceremony, a bomb exploded next to the general. The response was immediate and cruel. The thirty or so Ethiopians present at the ceremony were impaled, and immediately after, the black shirts of the fascist militias poured out into the streets of Addis Ababa where they tortured and killed all of the men, women and children that they encountered in their path. They also set fire to homes in order to prevent the inhabitants from leaving, and organized the mass executions of groups of 50-100 people.[15]


But then after in 1940, for the second time in a row, the Ethiopians defeated the Italians at war. Although Ethiopia does not get enough credibility for threre victory, it is the only remaining uncolonized county in Africa besides Liberia.


Spanish Civil War

His active intervention in 1936–1939 on the side of Franco in the Spanish Civil War ended any possibility of reconciliation with France and Britain. As a result, his relationship with Adolf Hitler became closer, and he chose to accept the German annexation of Austria in 1938 and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in 1939. At the Munich Conference in September 1938, he posed as a moderate working for European peace, helping Nazi Germany seize control of the Sudetenland. His "axis" with Germany was confirmed when he made the "Pact of Steel" with Hitler in May 1939, as the previous "Rome-Berlin Axis" of 1936 had been unofficial. Members of TIGR, a Slovene anti-fascist group, plotted to kill Mussolini in Kobarid in 1938, but their attempt was unsuccessful. The Spanish Civil War had large numbers of non-Spanish citizens participating in combat and advisory positions. ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black. ... TIGR, abbreviation for Trst (Trieste), Istra (Istria), Gorica (Gorizia) and Reka (Rijeka (Fiume)), was the first antifascist national-defensive organization in Europe, consisting of Slovenians in Slovenian region of Primorje (Primorski Slovenci). ... Area: 192. ...


Axis of blood and steel

From left: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and his son-in-law, Ciano at the Munich Conference, September 29, 1938
Main article: Pact of Steel

The term "Axis Powers" was coined by Mussolini in November 1936 when he spoke of a Rome-Berlin axis in reference to the treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Germany on October 25, 1936. His "Axis" with Germany was confirmed when he made another treaty with Germany in May 1939. Mussolini described the relationship with Germany as a "Pact of Steel", something he had earlier referred to as a "Pact of Blood". Image File history File links Munich_agreement. ... Image File history File links Munich_agreement. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop...


Germany's influence on Italian policy increased, which alarmed many Italian citizens and proved unpopular. King Victor Emanuel III was also wary of this new axis, favouring the more traditional allies of Britain and France. In 1938, Italian soldiers began marching using the German goose step, which Mussolini called the passo romano ("Roman step"). The passing of the Charter of Race in 1938 demonstrated the enormous influence of Hitler over Mussolini, who had always been more interested in cultural superiority rather than racial superiority. These anti-Semitic laws meant that Jews were fired from government jobs and barred from marrying Italian "Aryans." Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 - December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 - May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... This article is about about the marching step. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Eve of World War II

As World War II approached, Mussolini announced his intention of annexing Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He spoke of creating a "New Roman Empire" that would stretch east to Palestine and south through Libya and Egypt to Kenya. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...


Mussolini's imperial ambitions focused on Albania. Italian forces had been humiliated there in 1920 by Albanian nationalist forces. The Italians were driven out of Vlorë which they had occupied for six years since 1914. If there was a single thread running through the fabric of Mussolini's imperial ambitions it was the need to restore Italy's honor.[16] Vlorë(Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, (locally) Vlonë or Vlona, Italian: , Greek: , Turkish: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ...


Mussolini decided to invade Albania while the world was focused on German actions in Czechoslovakia and possible war against Poland.


Italian invasion of Albania

Main article: Italian invasion of Albania

While the world was preoccupied with Hitler's aggressions, Italian forces crossed the Adriatic Sea headed for the small nation of Albania. On April 7, 1939, Italy invaded Albania. Despite some initial resistance, especially at Durrës, the Italians quickly took control of the country. Albania's leader, King Zog, was forced to flee. Combatants Italy Albania Commanders Alfredo Guzzoni Zog I The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7 – April 12, 1939) was a military campaign by Fascist Italy against the Albanian Kingdom. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Italy Albania Commanders Alfredo Guzzoni Zog I The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7 – April 12, 1939) was a military campaign by Fascist Italy against the Albanian Kingdom. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ...


World War II in Europe began on September 1, 1939, when the Germans invaded Poland and, in response, the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany. Mussolini decided to remain non-belligerent in the conflict until he was quite certain which side would win. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... A non-belligerent is a person or country who does not take part in aggression. ...


War declared

Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler stand together on a reviewing stand during an official visit to occupied Yugoslavia.
Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler stand together on a reviewing stand during an official visit to occupied Yugoslavia.

On June 10, 1940, Mussolini finally declared war on Britain and France. Italian forces on the French border were able to make limited gains with a battle in southern France facing the fortified Alpine Line before France surrendered to Germany. The Italians lost 1,247 dead or missing in this brief campaign against only 200 French fatalities.[17] In an ominous sign of things to come, Italian gains were literally measured in yards. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (552x740, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Benito Mussolini The Rome-Berlin Axis ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (552x740, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Benito Mussolini The Rome-Berlin Axis ... During the era of World War II (1939 - 1945), Italy had a very varied and tumultuous military history. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... Maginot Line fortification, 2002 The Maginot Line was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along her borders with Germany and with Italy in the wake of World War I. Generally the term describes either the entire system or just the...


As soon as war was declared, Mussolini sent his forces in Italian East Africa to attack British forces in the Sudan, Kenya, and British Somaliland during what became known as the East African Campaign. On August 3, 1940, Italian forces invaded and occupied all of British Somaliland. In addition to this, other Italian forces in East Africa made limited advance into Sudan and Kenya. By the end of 1940, however, supply issues caused the isolated Italians in East Africa to halt any further advances and, instead, they began to fortify their positions against Allied counterattacks. Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


Initially, the Italian forces in Libya limited their activities against the British forces in Egypt to skirmishes. On September 13, 1940, the Italian Tenth Army commanded by General Rodolfo Graziani crossed the border and launched the first major attack of what was to become the Western Desert Campaign. After advancing successfully for three days, the Italian forces in Egypt halted their advance at Sidi Barrani to wait for logistic supply to catch up. Graziani planned to continue the offensive afterwards but did not get a chance to do so. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Italian Tenth Army consisted of ten divisions when it attacked Egypt on September 13, 1940. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ... Combatants  Australia Free France  New Zealand  Poland South Africa  United Kingdom India Italy Germany Commanders to June 22 1941: Archibald Wavell to August 8 1942: Claude Auchinleck to February 1943: Harold Alexander Ugo Cavallero Rodolfo Graziani Erwin Rommel The Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War was the... Sidi Barrani is a village in Egypt, ~95km from the border with Libya, and ~240km from Tobruk. ...


On October 25, 1940, Mussolini sent the Corpo Aereo Italiano (Italian Air Corps or CAI) to Belgium. He sent this expeditionary air force contingent in order to take part in the Battle of Britain. The mixed Italian fighter/bomber force achieved limited success against Allied forces, and was retired by early 1941.[18] is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Corpo Aereo Italiano (C.A.I.) was an Italian expeditionary force participating in the Battle of Britain during the final months of 1940. ... This article is about military history. ...


On October 28, 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces gathered in Albania and commanded by General Sebastiano Visconti Prasca into Greece. This started the Greco-Italian War. But, after a brief period of success, the Italian offensive which had been poorly coordinated, mainly due to Mussolini's personal involvement in its planning, were repelled by a relentless Greek counterattack. This resulted in the loss of one-quarter of Italian-controlled Albania. The Italian forces in Albania were stalled, and Mussolini asked Germany for assistance. Hitler soon committed forces to the Balkans in opposition to the Allies who hurried to defend Greece. is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sebastiano Visconti Prasca (1883 - 1961) was an Italian military officer, supreme commands in Greco-Italian War and noble family member of Visconti 1940 Commander in Chief Albania Category: ... Belligerents Italy Albania Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men, 463 aircraft[1] Under 300,000 men, 77 aircraft[1] Casualties and losses 63,000[2][3][4] dead, 100,000+[2] wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...

Mussolini in conversation with Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.

In December 1940, the British in Egypt launched Operation Compass. What started as a limited action to force the Italians back into Libya soon had British forces advancing to Bardia, Tobruk, and beyond. In January 1941, the British in East Africa launched a three pronged invasion of Italian East Africa. The Italians fought back hard, but their defense started to crumble after the Battle of Keren in April. Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most famous German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... Combatants Western Desert Force United Kingdom Indian Empire Australia Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Annibale Bergonzoli Strength 31,000 soldiers(december 1940 250,000)[1] 120 artillery pieces 275 tanks 60 Armoured cars 150,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 500 dead... Bardia is a geographic region in the Kingdom of Nepal. ... Tobruk is on the Mediterranean Sea in northeastern Libya. ... Belligerents United Kingdom British Raj Free France Italy Commanders William Platt Nicola Carnimeo Strength 13,000[1] Indian 4th Infantry Division Indian 5th Infantry Division 2 battalions Free French 23,000[1] Casualties and losses 536 Killed[2] 3,229 Wounded[2] 3,000 Killed[2] 3,500 Wounded, Missing...


By February 7, 1941, the British had completed Operation Compass in North Africa, which resulted in the near total destruction of the Italian Tenth Army and the capture of Cyrenaica. On February 12, the German Afrika Korps arrived to support the Italian forces. is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Italian Tenth Army consisted of ten divisions when it attacked Egypt on September 13, 1940. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. ...


On May 18, 1941, the commander of the Italian forces in East Africa, the Duke of Aosta, surrendered to the British at his stronghold of Amba Alagi, although organized Italian resistance in East Africa did not end until November of the same year when the stronghold of Gondar was surrendered. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Amadeo di Savoia (October 21, 1898 - March 3, 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a cousin of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. His baptismal name was Amadeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia. ... Ambi-Alagi is a remote area in Ethiopia between Asmara and Addis Ababa. ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ...


In April 1941, Italian forces took part in the Invasion of Yugoslavia with independent axis of attack in support of other Axis armies, capturing some 30,000 prisoners during the brief campaign while suffering 3,324 losses themselves.[19].[20] The same month, the Battle of Greece ended in Axis victory with the support of German and Bulgarian armies. “April War” redirects here. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Belligerents Germany Italy Bulgaria Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Commanders Wilhelm List Alexander Papagos, Henry Maitland Wilson, Bernard Freyberg Thomas Blamey Strength Germany:[1] 680,000 men, 1200 tanks 700 aircraft 1Italy:[2] 565,000 men 1Greece:[3] 430,000 men British Commonwealth:[4] 262,612 men 100 tanks...


In June 1941, with the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Mussolini declared war on the Soviet Union and sent an army to fight there. In December 1941, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he declared war on the United States. Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the actual attack. ...


Replaced by Badoglio

By the summer of 1943, following the Axis defeat in North Africa, setbacks on the Eastern Front, and the Anglo-American landing in Sicily, most of Mussolini's colleagues (including Grandi and Count Galeazzo Ciano, former foreign minister and Mussolini's son-in-law) turned against him. Italy's position had become untenable by this time, and court circles were already putting out feelers to the Allies. Combatants United Kingdom United States France Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Keneth Anderson Bernard Montgomery Albert Kesselring Erwin Rommel Hans-Jürgen von Arnim Giovanni Messe The Tunisia Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia), was a series of World War II battles that took place... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Belligerents United States United Kingdom Canada Australia South Africa Free French Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery George S. Patton Albert Kesselring Alfredo Guzzoni Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin Strength 160,000 personnel 14,000 vehicles 600 tanks 1,800 guns 300,000 Italian personnel 40... Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ...


The home front was also starting to come apart at the seams. It had already been in a precarious position at the war's start due to a shortage of raw materials, clothing and food. Heavy Allied bombing (especially starting in 1942) ground production at the northern factories to a virtual standstill, causing the first major strikes since Mussolini had dropped all trappings of democracy in 1925. By March 1943, conditions had become so precarious that the major factories in Milan and Turin stopped production to secure evacuation allowances for workers' families. Mussolini's once-ubiquitous propaganda machine lost its grip on the population; many Italians turned to Vatican Radio or Radio London for more accurate news coverage. By April 1943, the leading anti-Fascist movements had joined forces to overthrow Mussolini. material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Administration building and radio masts at Vatican City Vatican Radio is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ...


On the night of July 24, Mussolini summoned the Grand Council of Fascism to its first meeting since the start of the war. At this meeting, Mussolini announced that the Germans were thinking of evacuating the south. This led Grandi to launch a blistering attack on his longtime comrade. Grandi moved a resolution asking the king to resume his full constitutional powers—in effect, a vote of no confidence in Mussolini. The motion carried by an unexpectedly large margin, 19-7. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Mussolini did not think the vote had any substantive value and appeared for work the next morning as normal. That afternoon, King Victor Emmanuel III summoned him to the palace and dismissed him from office. He'd been planning to oust Mussolini himself even before the Grand Council vote.[21] Upon leaving the palace, Mussolini was arrested. For the next two months he was moved to various places to hide him from the Germans. Ultimately Mussolini was sent to Campo Imperatore, a mountain resort in central Italy (Abruzzo). He was kept there in complete isolation. Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... Campo Imperatore in Italys Gran Sasso mountains is a high basin shaped plateau sculpted by an ancient glacier. ... “Abruzzi” redirects here. ...


Mussolini was replaced by Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia) Pietro Badoglio, who immediately declared in a famous speech, "La guerra continua a fianco dell'alleato germanico" ("The war continues at the side of our Germanic ally"). In fact, Badoglio was working to negotiate a surrender. Marshal (also spelled Marshall) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ...


On September 3, 1943, Badoglio signed an armistice with the Allies. The armistice was made public by the Allies five days later, throwing Italy into chaos. Badoglio and the king, fearing German retaliation, fled from Rome. They left the entire Italian Army without orders. Many units simply disbanded; some reached the Allied-controlled zone and surrendered; a few decided to start a partisan war against the German Army; and a few rejected the switch of sides and remained allied with the Germans. In retaliation for the Italian armistice, the Germans launched Operation Axis (Operation Achse) which included the ruthless disarming of the Italian Army. is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ...


Repubblica Sociale Italiana

On 12 September 1943, two months after he was stripped of power, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans in Operation Oak (Unternehmen Eiche). This was a raid planned by General Kurt Student and carried out by SS Lieutenant Colonel (Obersturmbannführer) Otto Skorzeny. The Germans relocated Mussolini to northern Italy where he set up a new fascist state, the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI). Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The daring rescue of Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. ... Kurt Student Kurt Student (May 12, 1890-July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as a pilot on the Eastern Front during the First World War and as the commander of the German parachute troops during the Second World War. ... SS-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch SA-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank which was used by both the SA and the SS. The title was first created as an SA rank in 1932 after an expansion of the SA created the need for an... Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 – July 6, 1975[1]) was a Standartenführer[2] in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by...


Mussolini lived in Gargnano on Lake Garda in Lombardy during this period. But he was little more than a puppet under the protection of his German liberators. Gargnano is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. ... Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest lake in Italy. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


After yielding to pressures from Hitler and the remaining loyal fascists who formed the government of the Republic of Salo, Mussolini helped orchestrate a series of executions of some of the fascist leaders who had betrayed him at the last meeting of the Fascist Grand Council. One of those executed included his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ...


As Head of State and Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Italian Social Republic, Mussolini used much of his time to write his memoirs. Along with his autobiographical writings of 1928, these writings would be combined and published by Da Capo Press as My Rise and Fall. Da Capo Press is a publishing company with offices in New York City and Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


Death

Cross marking the place in Mezzegra where Mussolini was shot
Cross marking the place in Mezzegra where Mussolini was shot

Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci were stopped by communist partisans and identified by the political commissar of the partisans' 52nd Garibaldi Brigade, Urbano Lazzaro, on April 27, 1945, near the village of Dongo (Lake Como), as they headed for Switzerland to board a plane to escape to Spain. Mussolini had been traveling with retreating German forces and was apprehended while attempting to escape recognition by wearing a German military uniform. After several unsuccessful attempts to take them to Como they were brought to Mezzegra. They spent their last night in the house of the De Maria family. Image File history File linksMetadata Cross_mezzegra. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cross_mezzegra. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Mistress is the feminine form of the word master. ... Clara Petacci (Claretta Petacci) (February 28, 1912 – April 28, 1945) was a young Roman girl from an upper-class family who became Benito Mussolinis mistress. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military. ... Urbano Lazzaro (1925 - January 3, 2006) was an Italian resistance fighter who is credited as capturing Benito Mussolini following World War II. Lazzaro was part of a resistance group with communist affiliations in the north of the country said the Italian National Partisan Association. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lake Como (Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. ... For other uses, see Como (disambiguation). ... Mezzegra is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 km north of Milan and about 20 km northeast of Como. ...


The next day, Mussolini and his mistress were both shot, along with most of the members of their 15-man train, primarily ministers and officials of the Italian Social Republic. The shootings took place in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra. According to the official version of events, the shootings were conducted by "Colonel Valerio" (Colonnello Valerio). Valerio's real name was Walter Audisio. Audisio was the communist partisan commander who was reportedly given the order to kill Mussolini by the National Liberation Committee. When Audisio entered the room where Mussolini and the other fascists were being held, he reportedly announced: "I have come to rescue you!... Do you have any weapons?", He then had them loaded into transports, driven a short distance, Audisio ordered "get down", Petacci hugged Mussolini and refused to move away from him when they were taken to an empty space. Shots were fired and Petacci fell down, just then Mussolini opened his Jacket and screamed "Shoot me in the chest!". Audisio shot him in the chest, Mussolini fell down but he didn't die, he was breathing heavily, Audisio went near and he shot one more bullet in his chest. Mussolini's face looked as if it he had significant pain, Audisio said to his driver "Look at his face, the emotions on his face doesn't suit him". The other members were also lined up before a firing squad later the same night[22][citation needed] Mistress is the feminine form of the word master. ... Giulino di Mezzegra is a quarter of the city of Mezzegra, in the province of Como, which has passed into history because it is the place where Benito Mussolini and his lover Claretta Petacci were assassinated. ... Walter Audisio (Alessandria, June 28, 1909 – Rome, October 11, 1973) was a Italian partisan and politician. ...


Mussolini's body

On April 29, 1945 , the bodies of Mussolini and his mistress were taken to the Piazzale Loreto (in Milan) and hung upside down on meat hooks from the roof of a gas station, then stoned by civilians from below. This was done both to discourage any fascists from continuing the fight and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities. The corpse of the deposed leader became subject to ridicule and abuse. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN...


After his death, and the display of his corpse in Milan, Mussolini was buried in an unmarked grave in Musocco, the municipal cemetery to the north of the city. On Easter Sunday 1946 his body was located and dug up by Domenico Leccisi and two other neo-Fascists. Making off with their hero, they left a message on the open grave: "Finally, O Duce, you are with us. We will cover you with roses, but the smell of your virtue will overpower the smell of those roses." Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


On the loose for months — and a cause of great anxiety to the new Italian democracy — the Duce's body was finally 'recaptured' in August, hidden in a small trunk at the Certosa di Pavia, just outside Milan. Two Fransciscan brothers were subsequently charged with concealing the corpse, though it was discovered on further investigation that he had been constantly on the move. Unsure what to do, the authorities held the remains in a kind of political limbo for 10 years, before agreeing to allow them to be re-interred at Predappio in Romagna, his birth place, after a campaign headed by Leccisi and the Movimento Sociale Italiano. Certosa di Pavia is the name of a famous monastery complex in Lombardy, Italy, situated near a small town (in Province of Pavia) with the same name. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Predappio is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy, with a population of 6,362. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ...


Leccisi, now a fascist deputy, went on to write his autobiography, With Mussolini Before and After Piazzale Loreto. Adone Zoli, the Prime Minister of the day, contacted Donna Rachele, the former dictator's widow, to tell her he was returning the remains, as he needed the support of the far-right in parliament, including Leccisi himself. In Predappio the dictator was buried in a crypt (the only posthumous honour granted to Mussolini; his tomb is flanked by marble fasces and a large idealised marble bust of himself sits above the tomb.) Adone Zoli (December 16, 1887 – February 20, 1960) was an Italian politician of the Christian Democratic Party. ... Donna (Lady) Rachele Mussolini (born Rachele Guidi) (11 April 1890 - 30 October 1979) was the wife of Benito Mussolini. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Roman fasces. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ...


Legacy

Mussolini was survived by his wife, Donna Rachele Mussolini, two sons, Vittorio and Romano Mussolini, and his daughter Edda, the widow of Count Ciano and Anna Maria. A third son, Bruno, was killed August 7, 1941.[23] Sophia Loren's sister, Anna Maria Scicolone, was formerly married to Romano Mussolini, Mussolini's son. Mussolini's granddaughter Alessandra Mussolini is currently a member of the European Parliament for the extreme right-wing party Alternativa Sociale; other relatives of Edda (Castrianni) moved to England after World War II. Donna Rachele Mussolini (1890-1979) was the wife of Benito Mussolini. ... Vittorio Mussolini (September 21, 1916 - June 12, 1997) was a film critic, producer, and the second son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. ... Romano Mussolini (born September 26, 1927 in Carpena, Forlì, Italy, died February 3, 2006 in Rome) was the third and youngest son of Benito Mussolini. ... Edda Ciano Mussolini - (September 1, 1901 - April 9, 1995) Daughter of Benito Mussolini and Rachele Guides. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is a motion picture and stage, Academy Award-winning actress, widely considered to be the most popular Italian actress. ... Photograph of Alessandra Mussolini from the European Parliament. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Alternativa Sociale (English language: Social Alternative) is an Italian political coalition of neo-fascist parties. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Mussolini's National Fascist Party was banned in the postwar Constitution of Italy, but a number of successor neo-fascist parties emerged to carry on its legacy. Mussolini's granddaughter, Alessandra Mussolini, runs one of the primary neo-fascist parties in modern Italy, Azione Sociale. Historically, the strongest neo-fascist party was MSI (Movimento Sociale Italiano), which was declared dissolved in 1995 and replaced by the National Alliance, which distanced itself from Fascism (its leader Gianfranco Fini once declared that Fascism was "an absolute evil"). These parties were united under Silvio Berlusconi's House of Freedoms coalition and the leader of the National Alliance, Gianfranco Fini, was one of Berlusconi's most trusted advisors. In 2006, the House of Freedoms coalition was narrowly defeated by Romano Prodi's coalition, L'Unione. The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Photograph of Alessandra Mussolini from the European Parliament. ... Azione Sociale (Social Action), previously known as Libertà di Azione (Freedom of Action), is an Italian fascist political party, led by Alessandra Mussolini, and a splinter group from Alleanza Nazionale. ... Led by Giorgio Almirante the Italian Social Movement-National Right (Movimento Sociale Italiano-Destra Nazionale, MSI-DN) was a neo-Fascist party formed in 1946 by supporters of former dictator Benito Mussolini (the name National Right was joint in 1972, when other nationalist and conservative groups entered to the ISM... National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) is a national-conservative Italian political party. ... Gianfranco Fini Gianfranco Fini (born January 3, 1952 in Bologna) is an Italian politician, currently Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister in the Government led by Silvio Berlusconi. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... Casa delle Libertà (CDL; Italian for House of Freedoms), was a major Italian center-right political alliance led by Silvio Berlusconi. ... Gianfranco Fini Gianfranco Fini (born January 3, 1952 in Bologna) is an Italian politician, currently Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister in the Government led by Silvio Berlusconi. ... Casa delle Libertà (CDL; Italian for House of Freedoms), was a major Italian center-right political alliance led by Silvio Berlusconi. ... Prodi redirects here. ... LUnione (The Union in English) is a Italian left-wing coalition of parties. ...


In popular culture

Yaweh redirects here. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ... Jack Oakie (November 12, 1903 – January 23, 1978) is an actor. ... A film critic, Carlo Lizzani (born 1922 April 3 in Rome) became a scriptwriter and assistant director after World War II, and worked on such notable films of the late 40s as Roberto Rossellinis Germany Year Zero, Alberto Lattuadas The Mill on the Po (both 1948) and Giuseppe... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Bugsy is a 1991 film which tells the story of mobster Bugsy Siegel. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Henry Warren Beatty (born March 30, 1937), better known as Warren Beatty, is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ... José Antonio Domínguez Banderas (born August 10, 1960), better known as Antonio Banderas, is a Spanish film actor and singer who has starred in high-profile Hollywood films including Assassins, Interview with the Vampire, Mariachi sequels, Philadelphia, The Mask of Zorro, and the Shrek sequels. ... Benito is an Italian TV regarding the story of Benito Mussolinis early rise to power in the Socialist International and his relationship with Angelica Balabanoff. ... Tea with Mussolini (1999) is a semi-autobiographical film directed by Franco Zeffirelli, telling the story of young Italian boy Lucas upbringing by a kind British woman and her circle of friends. ... Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Cash was the eighth episode of British sitcom The Young Ones. ... The Young Ones was a popular British sitcom, first seen in 1982, which aired on BBC2. ... Alexei David Sayle (b. ... Rod Steiger (April 14, 1925 – July 9, 2002) was an American Academy Award-winning actor best known for his intense performances in such films as In the Heat of the Night, On the Waterfront and Doctor Zhivago. ... Lion of the Desert is a 1981 historical film depicting real events, starring Anthony Quinn as Libyan tribal leader Omar Mukhtar fighting Mussolinis army during World War II. It was directed by Moustapha Akkad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jerry Eugene Pournelle, Ph. ... Inferno is a science fiction novel written by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, published in 1976. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ...

See also

The Faisceau was a short-lived French Fascist party. ... Margherita Sarfatti (1880 - 1961) was an Italian journalist, art critic, patron, collector, socialite, and one of Mussolinis mistresses. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ John Pollard (1998). "Mussolini's Rival's: The Limits of the Personality Cult in Fascist Italy," New Perspective 4(2). http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~semp/facistitaly.htm
  2. ^ a b Manhattan, Avro (1949). "Chapter 9: Italy, the Vatican and Fascism", The Vatican in World Politics. Retrieved on 2006-06-28. 
  3. ^ "But Mussolini talked in two tongues. By 1922 this former republican was reassuring the officer corps he was in favour of the monarchy. The ex-atheist was singing the praises of the Catholic church." The resistible rise of Benito Mussolini and Italy's fascists, Socialist Worker Online, 16 November 2002, issue 1826 (Accessed 6 June 2007)
  4. ^ Warwick Palmer, Alan. Who's Who in World Politics: From 1860 to the Present Day. Routledge. ISBN 0415131618. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Grollier encyclopedia article
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Living History 2; Chapter 2: Italy under Fascism - ISBN 1-84536-028-1
  7. ^ Real History and Benito Mussolini
  8. ^ a b c d Mussolini: A Study In Power, Ivone Kirkpatrick,he cried hiself to sleep Hawthorne Books, 1964. ISBN 0-837-18400-2
  9. ^ The Rise of Benito Mussolini.
  10. ^ The Times, Thursday, April 8, 1926; pg. 12; Issue 44240; col A
  11. ^ The Reader's Digest February 1927
  12. ^ The attempted assassination of Mussolini in Rome
  13. ^ 1931: The murder of Michael Schirru
  14. ^ The Vampire Economy: Italy, Germany, and the US, Jeffrey Herbener, Mises Institute, October 13, 2005
  15. ^ Angelo Del Bocca and Giorgio Rohat (1996). I gas di Mussolini. Editori Riuniti. ISBN 8835940915. 
  16. ^ The Balkans by Misha Glenn page 418
  17. ^ Page 82, "The Armed Forces of World War II", Andrew Mollo, ISBN 0-517-54478-4
  18. ^ Page 91, "The Armed Forces of World War III", Andrew Mollo, ISBN 0-517-54478-4
  19. ^ US Govt History, p. 64
  20. ^ Geschichte, p. 325
  21. ^ Annussek, Greg (2005). Hitler's Raid to Save Mussolini. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81396-2. 
  22. ^ Benito Mussolini
  23. ^ Commando Supremo: Events of 1941

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Mussolini. Bosworth, R.J.B., London, Hodder, 2002 (hardback ISBN 0340731443); (paperback ISBN 0340809884).
  • "Mussolini's Italy: Life Under the Dictatorship 1915-1945". Bosworth, R.J.B., London, Allen Lane, 2006 (hardback ISBN 0713996978, paperback 2006 ISBN 0141012919).
  • The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution, Zeev Sternhell, with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri, trans. by David Maisel, Princeton University Press, NJ, 1994. pg 214.
  • Mussolini's Cities: Internal Colonialism in Italy, 1930-1939, Cambria Press: 2007
  • Mussolini's Rome: rebuilding the Eternal City, Borden W. Painter, Jr., 2005
  • Mussolini: A biography, Denis Mack Smith ,New York: Random House 1982
  • Mussolini, Renzo De Felice, Torino : Einaudi, 1995.
  • Mussolini: A New Life, Nicholas Farrell, London: Phoenix Press, 2003, ISBN 1842121235.
  • Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce, Ray Moseley, Dallas: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2004.
  • Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist. O'Brien, Paul. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2004 (hardback, ISBN 1-84520-051-9; (paperback, ISBN 1-84520-052-7).
  • Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe "Italy, 1918-1945: the first appearance of fascism.
  • Europe 1870-1991 by Terry Morris and Derrick Murphy
  • Il Duce - Christopher Hibbert
  • The Last Centurion by Rudolph S.Daldin www.benito-mussolini.com ISBN 0-921447-34-5
  • Hitler and Mussolini. The Secret Meetings by Santi Corvaja translated by Robert L. Miller Enigma 2001 ISBN1-929631-00-6
  • Mussolini. The Secrets of his Death by Luciano Garibaldi Enigma 2004 ISBN1-929631-23-5

Zeev Sternhell is the Léon Blum Professor of Political Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ... Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ...

Writings of Mussolini

  • Giovanni Hus (Jan Hus), il veridico Rome (1913) Published in America under John Hus (New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1929) Republished by the Italian Book Co., NY (1939) under John Hus, the Veracious.
  • The Cardinal's Mistress (trans. Hiram Motherwell, New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1928)
  • There is an essay on "The Doctrine of Fascism" credited to Benito Mussolini but ghost written by Giovanni Gentile that appeared in the 1932 edition of the Enciclopedia Italiana, and excerpts can be read at Doctrine of Fascism. There are also links to the complete text.
  • La Mia Vita ("My Life"), Mussolini's autobiography written upon request of the American Ambassador in Rome (Child). Mussolini, at first not interested, decided to dictate the story of his life to Arnaldo Mussolini, his brother. The story covers the period up to 1929, includes Mussolini's personal thoughts on Italian Politics and the reasons that motivated his new revolutionary idea. It covers the march on Rome and the beginning of the dictatorship and includes some of his most famous speeches in the Italian Parliament (Oct 1924, Jan 1925).
  • From 1951 to 1962 Edoardo and Duilio Susmel worked for "La Fenice" publisher in order to print opera omnia (all the works) of Mussolini in 35 volumes.

Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... The first volume of the Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti or Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts was published in 1925. ... The Doctrine of Fascism is a seminal essay signed by Mussolini and officially attributed to him, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. ...

External links

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  • Mussolini In pictures
  • Commando Supremo: Benito Mussolini
  • Did Mussolini really make the trains run on time?
  • Is Mussolini quote on corporatism accurate?
  • 2 Mussolini autobiographies in one book. English. Searchable. Click on the result titled "My Rise and Fall" (usually the top result). Then use the search form in the left column titled "search within this book."
  • The 1928 autobiography of Benito Mussolini. Online. My Autobiography. Book by Benito Mussolini; Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928.
  • Michael Schirru's failed attempt on Mussolini's life
  • The Jewish mother of Fascism Haaretz article on Margherita Sarfatti by Saviona Mane
  • Il Duce 'sought Hitler ban', BBC News 27 September, 2003
Political offices
Preceded by
Luigi Facta
Prime Minister of Italy
1922 – 1943
Succeeded by
Pietro Badoglio
Preceded by
Carlo Schanzer
Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
1922 – 1929
Succeeded by
Dino Grandi
Preceded by
Dino Grandi
Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
1932 – 1936
Succeeded by
Galeazzo Ciano
Preceded by
Galeazzo Ciano
Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
1943
Succeeded by
Raffaele Guariglia
Preceded by
Paolino Taddei
Italian Minister of the Interior
1922 – 1924
Succeeded by
Luigi Federzoni
Preceded by
Luigi Federzoni
Italian Minister of the Interior
1926 – 1943
Succeeded by
Bruno Fornaciari
Preceded by
New Title
Head of the Fascist Grand Council
1928 – 1944
Succeeded by
Pietro Badoglio
Preceded by
New Title
Head of State of the Italian Social Republic
1943 – 1945
Succeeded by
End Title
Preceded by
New Title
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Italian Social Republic
1943 – 1945
Succeeded by
End Title
Persondata
NAME Mussolini, Benito Amilcare Andrea
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Mussolini, Benito
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prime-Minister and fascist dictator of Italy
DATE OF BIRTH July 29, 1883(1883-07-29)
PLACE OF BIRTH Dovia di Predappio, Italy
DATE OF DEATH April 28, 1945
PLACE OF DEATH Giulino di Mezzegra, Italy

Fascist redirects here. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Predappio is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy, with a population of 6,362. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Giulino di Mezzegra is a quarter of the city of Mezzegra, in the province of Como, which has passed into history because it is the place where Benito Mussolini and his lover Claretta Petacci were assassinated. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Benito Mussolini (1242 words)
Benito Mussolini was born on July 29th, 1883 in the town of Varnano dei Costa near the village of Predappio.
Benito Mussolini was an avid writer and after he finished his schooling, he became an editor for the Milan socialist paper "Avanti".
Although Mussolini quenched his thirst for power, he was still enraged by the treatment Italy received for their part in defeating the Germans and Austrians in World War I. He had visions of a new Roman Empire and he could see the day when the Mediterranean Sea became the "Mare Nostrum"(Our Sea).
Benito Mussolini information - Search.com (4556 words)
Mussolini was born in a village named Predappio in the state of Forlì, in Emilia-Romagna.
Mussolini." Mussolini and his generals sought to cloak the operations of chemical warfare in the utmost secrecy, but the crimes of the fascist army were revealed to the world through the denunciations of the International Red Cross and of many foreign observers.
Mussolini was survived by his wife, Donna Rachele Mussolini, by two sons, Vittorio and Romano Mussolini, and his daughters Edda, the widow of Count Ciano and Anna Maria.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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