FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Benghazi" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Benghazi
Colourful buildings in the city centre.
Colourful buildings in the city centre.

Benghazi (Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī) is the second largest city in Libya and the main city (or capital) of the Cyrenaica region (or ex-Province). During the Kingdom era of Libya's history, Benghazi enjoyed a sort of joint-capital status (alongside Tripoli), possibly because the King used to reside in the nearby city of Al Bayda' and the Senussis (royal family) in general were associated with Cyrenaica rather than Tripolitania. Benghazi continues to hold institutions and organizations associated normally with a national capital city. This creates a constant atmosphere of rivalry and sensitivities between it and Tripoli and by extension between the two regions (Cyrenaica and Tripolitania). Image File history File links Benghazi_city_centre. ... Image File history File links Benghazi_city_centre. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... The Roman Empire ca. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Idris I (Arabic: إدريس الأول) (March 12, 1890 - May 25, 1983) was the first King of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969. ... Zawiyat Al Bayda (also transliterated as Al-Baidhah, El-Beda or Beida) (Arabic: البيضاء) is a city in northeast Libya. ... It has been suggested that Sanusiyya be merged into this article or section. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ...


Benghazi was originally founded around 6th century BC by Ancient Greeks and named "Euesperides" and few ceturies later refounded by Ancient Egyptians and named "Barneek" (or "Berenice"). This later old name sounds similar to Cyrenaica's Arabic name (برقه, pronounced "Barqah", or Barca), so the city's old name might be related to the region's recent Arabic name. The city's present name, Benghazi, is derived from that of a pious benefactor of the city named Ghazi or "Sidi Ghazi," as the locals called him, who died about 1450. The city was renamed "Bani Ghazi" (which literally means Ghazi's sons or descendants). The population was 500,120 in 1995 (census) and has increased to 660,147 in the 2004 census (another 2004 estimate puts the number at 950,000, possibly due to the inclusion of a larger area of outskirts around the city). (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years and was extinguished by the newly-powerful Christianity. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... This article is about the Arabic name used to refer to the region of Cyrenaica in eastern Libya during its Islamic, Ottoman or subsequent eras. ... Barca (Barqa) was a Byzantine province and city in medieval North Africa, occupying the coastal area of what is modern Libya. ... Ghazi (March 21, 1912 - April 4, 1939) was king of Iraq from 1933 to 1939. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

The Ancient city of Cyrene along with Berenice (Benghazi) formed Eastern Libya's pentapolis.
The Ancient city of Cyrene along with Berenice (Benghazi) formed Eastern Libya's pentapolis.

Modern Benghazi, on the Gulf of Sidra, lies a little southwest of the site of the ancient Greek city of Berenice or Berenicis. That city was traditionally founded in 446 BCE (different sources give different dates like 347 BCE [1] or 249 BCE [2]), by a brother of the king of Cyrene, but got the name Berenice only when it was refounded in the 3rd century BCE under the patronage of Berenice (Berenike), the daughter of Magas, king of Cyrene, and wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes, the ruler of Egypt. The new city was later given the name Hesperides, in reference to the Hesperides, the guardians of the mythic western paradise. The name may have also referred to green oases in low-lying areas in the nearby coastal plain. Benghazi later became a Roman city and prospered for 600 years. The city superseded Cyrene and Barca as the chief center of Cyrenaica after the 3rd century CE and during the Persian attacks, but when the Arabs came, in 642-643, it had dwindled to an insignificant village among magnificent ruins. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x579, 117 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Benghazi ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x579, 117 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Benghazi ... Cyrene, the ancient Greek city (in present-day Libya) was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region and gave eastern Libya the classical name Cyrenaica that it has retained to modern times. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... Gulf of Sidra is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya; it is also known as Gulf of Sirte. ... Cyrene, the ancient Greek city (in present-day Libya) was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region and gave eastern Libya the classical name Cyrenaica that it has retained to modern times. ... If you are looking for something or someone else named Berenice, please go here. ... Magas of Cyrene (r. ... Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (reigned 246 BC-222 BC). ... For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ... Barca (Barqa) was a Byzantine province and city in medieval North Africa, occupying the coastal area of what is modern Libya. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ...


In the 1200s, the small settlement became an important player in the trade growing up between Genoese merchants and the tribes of the hinterland. In 16th century maps, the name of Marsa ibn Ghazi appears. Benghazi had a strategic port location, one that was too useful to be ignored by the Ottomans.

Italian Benghazi
Italian Benghazi

It was in 1578 that the Turks invaded Benghazi and it was ruled from Tripoli by the Karamanlis from 1711-1835, then it passed under direct Ottoman rule until 1911. Under Ottoman rule, Benghazi was the most impoverished of the Ottoman provinces. It had neither a paved road nor telegraph service, and the harbor was too silted to permit the access of shipping. Greek and Italian sponge fishermen worked its coastal waters. In 1858, and again in 1874, Benghazi was devastated by bubonic plague. Image File history File links Italian_Benghazi. ... Image File history File links Italian_Benghazi. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... The Karamanli dynasty was a series of pashas who ruled Tripoli from 1711 to 1835. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Bubonic plague is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease plague, which is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ...


In 1911, Benghazi was invaded by the Italians. The local population of Cyrenaica under the leadership of Omar Mukhtar resisted the Italian occupation. Cyrenaica suffered ruthless oppression, particularly under the fascist dictator Mussolini. About 125,000 Libyans were forced into concentration camps, about two-thirds of whom perished. Heavily bombed in World War II, Benghazi was later rebuilt with the country's newly found oil wealth as a gleaming showplace of modern Libya.
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown from power. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... On November 21, 1949, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952. ...


Geography

Benghazi's location within Libya
Benghazi's location within Libya

Benghazi is one of the sub-regions of the area referred to as Cyrenaica, the others being the Jabal Akhdar and the coastal plain running east of Apollonia. Cyrenaica is surrounded by desert on three sides, hence in ancient times the most accessible civilisation was to the North, across the Mediterranean, in Crete and Greece, only 400 km away. Image File history File links Benghazi_Location. ... Image File history File links Benghazi_Location. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... For the Jebel Akhdar region of Oman, see Jebel Akhdar (Oman). ... Apollonia in Cyrenaica (modern Libya) was founded by Greek colonists and became a significant commercial centre in the southern Mediterranean. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...

Benghazi is surrounded by the 'barr', arid steppe. The Jabal Akhdar, literally, 'the Green Mountain', just north of Benghazi, rises to the east. Here the vegetation and climate is more Mediterranean in feel with none of the desert landscapes found further south. A large section of the western Jabal Akhdar is taken up by the fertile Al Marj plain. Further east is the second level of the Jabal Akhdar, between 500 m and over 875 m above sea level, often thickly wooded and cut by ravines. Annual rainfall here, especially around Cyrene, can reach 500 mm. It was this fertile site North-East of Benghazi that the Greeks chose for their settlement. The soil in Benghazi is a rich red colour and very clayey. Image File history File linksMetadata Jabal_Al_Akdhar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jabal_Al_Akdhar. ... For the Jebel Akhdar region of Oman, see Jebel Akhdar (Oman). ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being... Grand Canyon, Arizona A canyon or gorge is a deep valley between cliffs often carved from the Earth by a river. ...


To the north, below the steep cliffs of the plateau, lies a narrow belt of Mediterranean farmland. Olives and other mediterrenean fruits and vegetables are grown here. To the south, the forest and farmland gives way to juniper bush maquis and pre-desert scrub with some winter grazing. Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country. ... Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian; plural macchie) is a shrubland biota in Mediterranean countries, typically consisting of densely-growing evergreen shrubs such as sage, juniper and myrtle. ...


Economy

Al Daawa al-Islamiyah (The Islamic Call) building is where many of the larger companies in Benghazi have their office headquarters.
Al Daawa al-Islamiyah (The Islamic Call) building is where many of the larger companies in Benghazi have their office headquarters.

Benghazi is one of Libya's major economic centres. It is the country's second city and prinicipal city of Eastern Libya. Benghazi is also a bustling port and commercial centre. Image File history File linksMetadata Al_Daawa_alIslamiyah. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Al_Daawa_alIslamiyah. ...


Major manufactured goods include processed food, textiles and construction materials, particularly cement; a large cement factory can be found in the Hawari district. Finance is also important to the city's economy with the Libyan Bank of Commerce and Development maintaining a branch in Benghazi. Other large banks include the Central Bank of Libya office in the city centre as well as others. Handicrafts are of little significance to the economy and are found in the many souks in the city. Tourism is still in its very early stages in Libya. The majority of tourists coming to Eastern Libya use Benghazi as a base for which to explore the Greek ruins in Cyrene or desert excursions south to Kufra. The two main hotels in the city are the Tibesti Hotel and Uzu Hotel. Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, texture and flavor. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... The Central Bank of Libya(CBL) is 100% state ownership and represents the monetary authority in The Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and enjoys the status of autonomous corporate body. ... The souq in Marrakech, Morocco A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


A good connection of speedways and flyovers were built by Skanska in the decades after the revolution and this has made the transport of goods between Benghazi and other cities easier. Air transport from the city is via Benina International Airport with daily flights leaving for the capital Tripoli and connections to other African, Asian and European cities.
Skanska is a multinational heavy-construction company based in Sweden. ... Benina International Airport (IATA: BEN, ICAO: HLLB) (Arabic: مطار بنينة الدولي) serves Benghazi, Libya. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ...


Demographics

The former University of Libya (Al-Jami'a al-Libiya)
The former University of Libya (Al-Jami'a al-Libiya)

As with other cities of Libya, there is a reasonable amount of racial diversity in Benghazi. The people of eastern Libya, Benghazi included, have in the past always been of predominantly Arab descent. In recent times, however, there has been an influx of African immigrants into Benghazi. There are also many Egyptian immigrants in Benghazi due to the fact that Benghazi is very close to Egypt and Sudan and enjoys a stronger economy than those countries do. Libya's Greek community is also concentrated in Benghazi largely due to distance. The Greek island of Crete is a short distance from Benghazi and many families in Benghazi today bear Cretian surnames. The predominant religion in Benghazi is Islam although there is a small Greek Orthodox church found in the centre of the city that serves Benghazi's Christian community. For Muslims, there are many mosques in and around the medina, including the Atiq and Osman mosques as well as others. Image File history File linksMetadata Benghazi_University. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Benghazi_University. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... A medina quarter is a distinct city section found in many North African cities. ...


Education in Benghazi, as is throughout Libya, is compulsory and free. Compulsory education continues up until ninth grade. There are many public primary and secondary schools scattered throughout the city as well as some private and international schools. University education is also free for all Libyan citizens in Benghazi. The largest university, Garyounis University, was founded in 1955. The country's largest library containing over 300,000 volumes is affiliated with the University. Benghazi is also home to the country's first university, the former Al-Jami'a al-Libiya. Ninth grade (called Grade nine in some regions) is a year of education in America and many other nations. ... Univerity of Benghazi, also know as Ghar Younis (after the Palestinian refugee township. ...


References

    See also

    The HIV trial in Libya concerns the trial, conviction, and the death sentences imposed by a Libyan court against the Benghazi Six: five Bulgarian nurses (Kristiyana Valtcheva, Nasya Nenova, Valentina Siropulo, Valya Chervenyashka, and Snezhana Dimitrova) and one Palestinian physician (Ashraf al-Hajuj, alias al-Hadjudj). ... Benina International Airport (IATA: BEN, ICAO: HLLB) (Arabic: مطار بنينة الدولي) serves Benghazi, Libya. ...

    External links

    Coordinates: 32°07′N 20°04′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

    Municipalities of Libya Flag of Libya
    Ajdabiya | Al Butnan | Al Hizam Al Akhdar | Al Jabal al Akhdar | Al Jfara | Al Jufrah | Al Kufrah | Al Marj | Al Murgub | An Nuqat al Khams | Al Qubah | Al Wahat | Az Zawiyah | Benghazi | Bani Walid | Darnah | Ghat | Ghadamis | Gharyan | Murzuq | Mizdah | Misratah | Nalut | Tajura Wa Al Nawahi AlArba' | Tarhuna Wa Msalata | Tripoli | Sabha | Surt | Sabratha Wa Surman | Wadi Al Hayaa | Wadi Al Shatii | Yafran

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Benghazi (0 words)
    It is the second largest city in Libya, and the dominating in the eastern Cyrenaica region, and is the capital of the district of Benghazi.
    The region of Benghazi has some agriculture producing cereals, dates, olives, and livestock for wool and flesh.
    Benghazi's airport lies 32 km to the east, and connects Benghazi with some foreign cities, as well as the major cities of Libya.
    Benghazi on GlobalGuide.Org, mapping the world (1330 words)
    During the Kingdom era of Libya's history, Benghazi enjoyed a sort of joint-capital status (alongside Tripoli), possibly because the King used to reside in the nearby city of Al Bayda' and the Senussis (royal family) in general were associated with Cyrenaica rather than Tripolitania.
    Benghazi is one of the sub-regions of the area referred to as Cyrenaica, the others being the Jabal Akhdar and the coastal plain running east of Apollonia.
    Benghazi is surrounded by the 'barr', arid steppe.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

    COMMENTARY     


    Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
    Your name
    Your comments

    Want to know more?
    Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

     


    Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
    The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
    Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
    All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
    Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m