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Encyclopedia > Bengali language
Bengali
বাংলা Bangla
Spoken in: Bangladesh, India, and several others 
Region: Eastern South Asia
Total speakers: 230 million (189 million native) [1] 
Ranking: 6,[2] 5,[3]
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Eastern Group
    Bengali-Assamese
     Bengali 
Writing system: Bengali script 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh,
Flag of India India (West Bengal and Tripura),
Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone
Regulated by: Bangla Academy (Bangladesh)
Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (West Bengal)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: bn
ISO 639-2: ben
ISO 639-3: ben 
Global extent of Bengali.
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Bengali or Bangla (IPA: [ˈbaŋla] ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Aryan language family. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... It has been suggested that Robert B. Wray be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Bangla Academy, established on 3 December 1955, is the national academy for promoting Bangla language in Bangladesh. ... Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি in Bangla), or West Bengal Bangla Academy, established on 20 May 1986, is the main academy for promoting Bangla language in West Bengal. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 407 pixelsFull resolution (2753 × 1400 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a . ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... Image File history File links Hi-Bangla. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India after the decline of Sanskrit as an official language. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Bengali is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. With nearly 230 million total speakers, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages (ranking 5th[3] or 6th[2] in the world). Bengali is the primary language spoken in Bangladesh and is the second most spoken language in India.[4][5] Along with Assamese, it is geographically the most eastern of the Indo-Iranian languages. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ...


The Bangla language, with its long and rich literary tradition, serves to bind together a culturally diverse region. In 1952, when Bangladesh used to be East Pakistan, this strong sense of identity led to the Bengali Language Movement, in which several people braved bullets and died on February 21. This day has now been declared as the International Mother Language Day. East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... This article is about the language movement in Bangladesh. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Language Martyrs Day 21st February has been proclaimed the International Mother Language Day by the UNESCO in 2000. ...

Contents

History

Like other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bangla arose from the eastern Middle Indic languages of the Indian subcontinent. Magadhi Prakrit, the earliest recorded spoken language in the region and the language of the Buddha, had evolved into Ardhamagadhi ("Half Magadhi") in the early part of the first millennium CE. Ardhamagadhi, as with all of the Prakrits of North India, began to give way to what are called Apabhramsa languages just before the turn of the first millennium.[6] The local Apabhramsa language of the eastern subcontinent, Purvi Apabhramsa or Apabhramsa Abahatta, eventually evolved into regional dialects, which in turn formed three groups: the Bihari languages, the Oriya languages, and the Bengali-Assamese languages. Some argue for much earlier points of divergence—going back to even 500 CE[7] but the language was not static; different varieties coexisted and authors often wrote in multiple dialects. For example, Magadhi Prakrit is believed to have evolved into Apabhramsa Abahatta around the 6th century which competed with Bengali for a period of time.[8] The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Aryan language family. ... The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the medieval languages such as apabhramsha or abahatta, which eventually evolved into contemporary Indo-Aryan languages like Hindustani, Bangla... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India after the decline of Sanskrit as an official language. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prakrta: natural, usual, vulgar) refers to the broad family of the Indic languages and dialects spoken in ancient India. ... The Apabhramsa language was the next modification in the spoken language of North India after Prakrit, in a period broadly lasting from the 5th to the 10th century. ... Abahatta is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages such as Bangla, Maithili, Oriya. ... Bihari is a name given to the western group of Eastern Indic languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Usually three periods are identified in the history of Bangla:[6]

  1. Old Bangla (900/1000 CE–1400 CE)—texts include Charyapada, devotional songs; emergence of pronouns Ami, tumi, etc; verb inflections -ila, -iba, etc. Oriya and Assamese branch out in this period.
  2. Middle Bangla (1400–1800 CE)—major texts of the period include Chandidas's Srikrishnakirtan; elision of word-final ô sound; spread of compound verbs; Persian influence. Some scholars further divide this period into early and late middle periods.
  3. New Bangla (since 1800 CE)—shortening of verbs and pronouns, among other changes (e.g. tahartar "his"/"her"; koriyachhilôkorechhilo he/she had done).

Historically closer to Pali, Bengali saw an increase in Sanskrit influence during the Middle Bengali (Chaitanya era), and also during the Bengal Renaissance. Of the modern Indo-European languages in South Asia, Bengali and Marathi maintain a largely Sanskrit vocabulary base while Hindi and others such as Punjabi are more influenced by Arabic and Persian. Charyapada is the oldest known Bengali written form. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Chandidas (Bangla: চন্ডীদাস) (born 1408 CE) refers to (possibly more than one) medieval poet of Bengal. ... Shreekrishna Kirtana Kabya was composed by Boru Chandidas. ... In music, see elision (music). ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Deities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (right) and Sri Nityananda (left) at Radha-Krishna temple in Radhadesh, Belgium Caitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Chaitanya) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

Shaheed Minar, or the Martyr's monument, in Dhaka, commemorates the struggle for the Bengali language
Shaheed Minar, or the Martyr's monument, in Dhaka, commemorates the struggle for the Bengali language

Until the 18th century, there was no attempt to document the grammar for Bengali. The first written Bengali dictionary/grammar, Vocabolario em idioma Bengalla, e Portuguez dividido em duas partes, was written by the Portuguese missionary Manoel da Assumpcam between 1734 and 1742 while he was serving in Bhawal.[9] Nathaniel Brassey Halhed, a British grammarian, wrote a modern Bengali grammar(A Grammar of the Bengal Language (1778)) that used Bengali types in print for the first time.[1] Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the great Bengali Reformer, also wrote a "Grammar of the Bengali Language" (1832). Image File history File links Shaheed_minar_Roehl. ... Image File history File links Shaheed_minar_Roehl. ... Image:Shaheed minar. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Manoel da Assumpcam was a Portuguese missionary who wrote the first grammar of Bengali language (Bangla language), titled Vocabolario em idioma Bengalla, e Portuguez dividido em duas partes. ... Bhawal Estate (Bengali: ) was a large zamindari estate in Bengal in modern-day Bangladesh. ... Nathaniel Brassey Halhed (May 25, 1751 - February 18, 1830), English Orientalist and philologist, was born at Westminster. ... This article is about grammar from a linguistic perspective. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Indian reformer Ram Mohan Roy died in Bristol, England, where this statue of him stands. ...


During this period, the Choltibhasha form, using simplified inflections and other changes, was emerging from Shadhubhasha (older form) as the form of choice for written Bengali.[10]


Bengali was the focus, in 1951–52, of the Bengali Language Movement (Bhasha Andolon) in what was then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).[11] Although Bengali speakers were more numerous in the population of Pakistan, Urdu was legislated as the sole national language. On February 21, 1952, protesting students and activists walked into military and police fire in Dhaka University and three young students and several others were killed. Subsequently, UNESCO has declared 21 February as International Mother Language Day. In a separate event in May 1961, police in Silchar, India, killed eleven people who were protesting legislation that mandated the use of the Assamese language.[12] This article is about the language movement in Bangladesh. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Language Martyrs Day 21st February has been proclaimed the International Mother Language Day by the UNESCO in 2000. ... , Silchar (Bengali: Shilchôr, Assamese: শিলচৰ Xilsôr, Sylheti: শিলচর Hilsôr) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. ...


Geographical distribution

The native geographic extent of Bengali
The native geographic extent of Bengali

Bengali is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. Around 98% of the total population of Bangladesh speak Bengali as a native language.[13] There are also significant Bengali-speaking communities in immigrant populations in the Middle East, West and Malaysia. Image File history File links Location-Bangla01. ... Image File history File links Location-Bangla01. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Official status

Bengali is the national and official language of Bangladesh and one of the 23 official languages recognised by the Republic of India.[4] It is the official language of the state of West Bengal and the co-official language of the state of Tripura, Cachar,Karimganj and Hailakandi Districts of southern Assam and the union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Bengali speakers make the majority in Neil Island and Havelock Island. It was made an official language of Sierra Leone in order to honour the Bangladeshi peacekeeping force from the United Nations stationed there.[14] It is also the co-official language of Assam, which has three predominantly Sylheti-speaking districts of southern Assam: Silchar, Karimganj, and Hailakandi.[15] The national anthems of both India and Bangladesh were written in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore. India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Karimganj is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Hailakandi is a city and a municipal board in Hailakandi district in the Indian state of Assam. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Neil Island is an island in the Andaman Islands of India. ... Havelock Island (often just Havelock for short) with an area of some 92 km2 is the largest of the islands which comprise Ritchies Archipelago, a chain of islands to the east of Great Andaman in the Andaman Islands. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Sylheti (native name সিলটী Silôţi; Bengali name সিলেটী SileÅ£i) is the language of Sylhet proper, the north-eastern region of Bangladesh and southern districts of Assam around Silchar. ... , Silchar (Bengali: Shilchôr, Assamese: শিলচৰ Xilsôr, Sylheti: শিলচর Hilsôr) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. ... Karimganj is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... , Hailakandi is a city and a municipal board in Hailakandi district in the Indian state of Assam. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Dialects

Main article: Bengali dialects

Regional variation in spoken Bengali constitutes a dialect continuum. Linguist Suniti Kumar Chatterjee grouped these dialects into four large clusters — Rarh, Banga, Kamarupa and Varendra;[1] but many alternative grouping schemes have also been proposed.[16] The south-western dialects (Rarh) form the basis of standard colloquial Bengali, while Bangali is the dominant dialect group in Bangladesh. In the dialects prevalent in much of eastern and south-eastern Bengal (Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka and Sylhet divisions of Bangladesh), many of the stops and affricates heard in West Bengal are pronounced as fricatives. Western palato-alveolar affricates চ [ ], ছ [ tʃʰ], জ [[]] correspond to eastern চʻ [ts], ছ় [s], জʻ [dz]~[[z]]. The influence of Tibeto-Burman languages on the phonology of Eastern Bengali is seen through the lack of nasalized vowels. Some variants of Bengali, particularly Chittagonian and Chakma Bengali, have contrastive tone; differences in the pitch of the speaker's voice can distinguish words. The dialects of the Bengali language are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1890-1977) linguist, educationist, litterateur, was born on 26 October 1890 at Shivpur in Howrah, son of Haridas Chattopadhyay. ... Barisal is a district in southern Bangladesh. ... This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Sylhet (previously Shilhat and Jalalabad; Sylheti: Bengali: সিলেট, SileÅ£) is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries, including Myanmar (Burma), northern Thailand, and parts of Western China (Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai (Amdo), Gansu, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hunan), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal... Chittagonian is an Indo-European language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and the much of the southeast of the country. ... The Chakma language (Changma Vaj or Changma Kodha) is an Indo-European language spoken in southeastern Bangladesh and neighboring areas of India. ... Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ...


Rajbangsi, Kharia Thar and Mal Paharia are closely related to Western Bengali dialects, but are typically classified as separate languages. Similarly, Hajong is considered a separate language, although it shares similarities to Northern Bengali dialects.[17] Rajbangsiis an Indo-European; Indic langauge spoken in India by over 3,000,000 people according to the 1991 census, the actual number of speakers may vary due to acculturation into the more predominant Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu) languages or by how many people were reach for the survery and furthermore... Hajong is an Indo-Aryan language with Tibeto-Burman roots spoken by about 19,000 ethnic Hajong in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal in India and the Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. ...


During the standardization of Bengali in the late 19th and early 20th century, the cultural center of Bengal was its capital Kolkata (then Calcutta). What is accepted as the standard form today in both West Bengal and Bangladesh is based on the West-Central dialect of Nadia, a district located near Kolkata.[18] There are cases where speakers of Standard Bengali in West Bengal will use a different word than a speaker of Standard Bengali in Bangladesh, even though both words are of native Bengali descent. For example, nun (salt) in the west corresponds to lôbon in the east.[19] , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Nadia is a district of the state of West Bengal, in the north east of the Republic of India. ...


Spoken and literary varieties

Bengali exhibits diglossia between the written and spoken forms of the language. Two styles of writing, involving somewhat different vocabularies and syntax, have emerged:[18][20] Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  1. Shadhubhasha (সাধু shadhu = 'chaste' or 'sage'; ভাষা bhasha = 'language') was the written language with longer verb inflections and more of a Sanskrit-derived (তৎসম tôtshôm) vocabulary. Songs such as India's national anthem Jana Gana Mana (by Rabindranath Tagore) and national song Vande Mātaram (by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay) were composed in Shadhubhasha. However, use of Shadhubhasha in modern writing is negligible, except when it is used deliberately to achieve some effect.
  2. Choltibhasha (চলতিভাষা ) or Cholitobhasha (চলিত cholito = 'current' or 'running') , known by linguists as Manno Cholit Bangla (Standard Current Bangla), is a written Bengali style exhibiting a preponderance colloquial idiom and shortened verb forms, and is the standard for written Bengali now. This form came into vogue towards the turn of the 19th century, promoted by the writings of Peary Chand Mitra (Alaler Gharer Dulal, 1857),[21] Pramatha Chowdhury (Sabujpatra, 1914) and in the later writings of Rabindranath Tagore. It is modeled on the dialect spoken in the Shantipur region in Nadia district, West Bengal. This form of Bengali is often referred to as the "Nadia standard" or "Shantipuri bangla".[16]

Linguistically, cholit bangla is derived from sadhu bangla through two successive standard linguistic transformations. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) is the national anthem of India. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Vande Mataram (in Bangla: বন্দে মাতরম Bônde Matôrom) is the national song of India. ... Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (26 June 1838 - 8 April 1894) (Bengali: Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) (Chattopadhyay in the original Bengali; Chatterjee as spelt by the British) was a Bengali Indian poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram... Peary Chand Mitra (1814-1883), a member of Derozio’s renowned Young Bengal group, author and journalist, played a leading role in the Bengal renaissance with the introduction of simple Bengali prose which everybody could understand. ... Alaler Gharer Dulal (published in 1857) is a Bengali novel by Peary Chand Mitra (1814-1883). ... Pramatha Chowdhury (Bengali: ) (1868-1946) Bengali literature analyst and essayist. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Shantipur is a town in the district of Nadia in West Bengal,India. ... Nadia is a district of the state of West Bengal, in the north east of the Republic of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...


While most writings are carried out in cholit bangla, spoken dialects exhibit a far greater variety. South-eastern West Bengal, including Kolkata, speak in manno cholit bangla. Other parts of West Bengal and west Bangladesh speak in dialects that are minor variations, such as the Medinipur dialect characterised by some unique words and constructions. However, areas of Bangladesh, particularly the Chittagong region, speak in a dialect that bears very little superficial resemblance to manno cholit bangla, including an entirely different vocabulary. The difference is so much that a person from West Bengal will be very hard pressed to understand even a single sentence in a passage of this dialect. This is known as the Bongali sublanguage, or more informally as Chattagram bangla. Writers (such as Manik Bandopadhyay in Padmanodir Majhi) have used the Bongali dialect in writing conversations. Though formal spoken Bengali is modeled on manno cholit bangla, the majority of Bengalis are able to communicate in more than one variety — often, speakers are fluent in choltibhasha and one or more Regional dialects.[10] This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ... Manik Bandopadhay (Bangla: মানিক বন্দোপাধ্যায়) (1908-1956) is one of the most influential novelists in Bangla literature. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ...


Even in Standard Bengali, vocabulary items often divide along the split between the Muslim populace and the Hindu populace. Due to cultural and religious traditions, Hindus and Muslims might use, respectively, Sanskrit-derived and Perso-Arabic words. Some examples of lexical alternation between these two forms are:[19] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

  • hello: nômoshkar (S) corresponds to assalamualaikum/slamalikum (A)
  • invitation: nimontron/nimontonno (S) corresponds to daoat (A)
  • paternal uncle: kaka (S) corresponds to chacha (S/Hindi)
  • water : jol (D) corresponds to pani (S)

(here S = derived from Sanskrit, D = deshi; A = derived from Arabic)


Writing system

Main article: Bengali script
Anandabazar Patrika, a news daily published from Kolkata in Bengali.

The Bengali writing system is not purely alphabet-based such as the Latin script. Rather, it is written in the Bengali abugida, a variant of the Eastern Nagari script used throughout Bangladesh and eastern India. It is believed to have evolved from a modified Brahmic script around 1000 CE,[22] and is similar to the Devanagari abugida used for Sanskrit and many modern Indic languages such as Hindi. It has particularly close historical relationships with the Assamese script and the Oriya script (although the latter is not evident in appearance). The Bengali abugida is a cursive script with eleven graphemes or signs denoting the independent form of nine vowels and two diphthongs, and thirty-nine signs denoting the consonants with the so called "inherent" vowels.[22] The concept of capitalization is absent in Bengali writing system. There is no variation in initial, medial and final forms as in the Arabic script. The letters run from left to right on a horizontal line, and spaces are used to separate orthographic words. It has been suggested that Robert B. Wray be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1419 KB) Author: Myself Source: photo taken on 20th November, 2006 Description: Front page and some other pages of Anandabazar Patrika, a news daily published from Kolkata, India File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1419 KB) Author: Myself Source: photo taken on 20th November, 2006 Description: Front page and some other pages of Anandabazar Patrika, a news daily published from Kolkata, India File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Anandabazar Patrika is a Bengali language broadsheet published from Kolkata. ... ABCs redirects here. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... The Kanai Baraxiboa rock inscription near Guwahati. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The Assamese script belongs to the Brahmic family of scripts and is very similar to Devanagari. ... The Oriya script is used to write the Oriya language. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ... In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...


Although the consonant signs are presented as segments in the basic inventory of the Bengali script, they are actually orthographically syllabic in nature. Every consonant sign has the vowel অ [ɔ] (or sometimes the vowel ও [o]) "embedded" or "inherent" in it.[23] For example, the basic consonant sign ম is pronounced [] in isolation. The same ম can represent the sounds [] or [mo] when used in a word, as in মত [t̪] "opinion" and মন [mon] "mind", respectively, with no added symbol for the vowels [ɔ] and [o].


A consonant sound followed by some vowel sound other than [ɔ] is orthographically realized by using a variety of vowel allographs above, below, before, after, or around the consonant sign, thus forming the ubiquitous consonant-vowel ligature. These allographs, called kars (cf. Hindi matras) are dependent vowel forms and cannot stand on their own. For example, the graph মি [mi] represents the consonant [m] followed by the vowel [i], where [i] is represented as the allograph ি and is placed before the default consonant sign. Similarly, the graphs মা [ma], মী [mi], মু [mu], মূ [mu], মৃ [mri], মে [me]/[], মৈ [moj], মো [mo] and মৌ [mow] represent the same consonant ম combined with seven other vowels and two diphthongs. It should be noted that in these consonant-vowel ligatures, the so-called "inherent" vowel is expunged from the consonant, but the basic consonant sign ম does not indicate this change. Allography, from the Greek for other writing, has several meanings which all relate to how words and sounds are written down. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligature (palaeography). ...


To emphatically represent a consonant sound without any inherent vowel attached to it, a special diacritic, called the hôshonto (্‌), may be added below the basic consonant sign (as in ম্‌ [m]). This diacritic, however, is not common, and is chiefly employed as a guide to pronunciation.


Three other commonly used diacritics in the Bengali are the superposed chôndrobindu (ঁ), denoting a suprasegmental for nasalization of vowels (as in চাঁদ [tʃãd] "moon"), the postposed onushshôr (ং) indicating the velar nasal [ŋ] (as in বাংলা [baŋla] "Bengali") and the postposed bishôrgo (ঃ) indicating the voiceless glottal fricative [h] (as in উঃ! [uh] "ouch!"). In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless glottal transition, commonly called a fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which often behaves like a consonant, but sometimes behaves more like a vowel, or is indeterminate in its behavior. ...


The vowel signs in Bengali can take two forms: the independent form found in the basic inventory of the script and the dependent, abridged, allograph form (as discussed above). To represent a vowel in isolation from any preceding or following consonant, the independent form of the vowel is used. For example, in মই [moj] "ladder" and in ইলিশ [iliʃ] "Hilsa fish", the independent form of the vowel ই is used (cf. the dependent form ি). A vowel at the beginning of a word is always realized using its independent form.


The Bengali consonant clusters (যুক্তাক্ষর juktakkhor in Bengali) are usually realized as ligatures, where the consonant which comes first is put on top of or to the left of the one that immediately follows. In these ligatures, the shapes of the constituent consonant signs are often contracted and sometimes even distorted beyond recognition. In Bengali writing system, there are nearly 260 such ligatures denoting consonant clusters. Many of their shapes have to be learned by rote. Recently, in a bid to lessen this burden on young learners, efforts have been made by educational institutions in the two main Bengali-speaking regions (West Bengal and Bangladesh) to address the opaque nature of many consonant clusters, and as a result, modern Bengali textbooks are beginning to contain more and more "transparent" graphical forms of consonant clusters, in which the constituent consonants of a cluster are readily apparent from the graphical form. However, since this change is not as widespread and is not being followed as uniformly in the rest of the Bengali printed literature, today's Bengali-learning children will possibly have to learn to recognize both the new "transparent" and the old "opaque" forms, which ultimately amounts to an increase in learning burden. Consonant clusters in Bengali are very common word-initially due to a long history of borrowing from English and Sanskrit, two languages with a large cluster inventory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligature (palaeography). ...


Bengali punctuation marks, apart from the daŗi (|), the Bengali equivalent of a full stop, have been adopted from Western scripts and their usage is similar. [1]


Whereas in western scripts (Latin, Cyrillic, etc.) the letter-forms stand on an invisible baseline, the Bengali letter-forms hang from a visible horizontal headstroke called the matra (not to be confused with its Hindi cognate matra, which denotes the dependent forms of Hindi vowels). The presence and absence of this matra can be important. For example, the letter ত [] and the numeral ৩ "3" are distinguishable only by the presence or absence of the matra, as is the case between the consonant cluster ত্র [trɔ] and the independent vowel এ [e]. The letter-forms also employ the concepts of letter-width and letter-height (the vertical space between the visible matra and an invisible baseline).

Signature of Rabindranath Tagore — an example of penmanship in Bengali.
Signature of Rabindranath Tagore — an example of penmanship in Bengali.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Penmanship is the art of writing clearly and quickly. ...

Spelling-to-pronunciation inconsistencies

In spite of some modifications in the nineteenth century, the Bengali spelling system continues to be based on the one used for Sanskrit,[1] and thus does not take into account some sound mergers that have occurred in the spoken language. For example, there are three letters (শ, ষ, and স) for the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ], although the letter স does retain the voiceless alveolar fricative [s] sound when used in certain consonant conjuncts as in স্খলন [skʰɔlon] "fall", স্পন্দন [spɔndon] "beat", etc. There are two letters (জ and য) for the voiced postalveolar affricate [] as well. What was once pronounced and written as a retroflex nasal ণ [ɳ] is now pronounced as an alveolar [n] (unless conjoined with another retroflex consonant such as ট, ঠ, ড and ঢ), although the spelling does not reflect this change. The near-open front unrounded vowel [æ] is orthographically realized by multiple means, as seen in the following examples: এত [æt̪o] "so much", এ্যাকাডেমী [ækademi] "academy", অ্যামিবা [æmiba] "amoeba", দেখা [d̪ækha] "to see", ব্যস্ত [bæst̪o] "busy", ব্যাকরণ [bækɔron] "grammar". The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative (IPA ) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...


The realization of the inherent vowel can be another source of confusion. The vowel can be phonetically realized as [ɔ] or [o] depending on the word, and its omission is seldom indicated, as in the final consonant in কম [kɔm] "less".


Many consonant clusters have different sounds than their constituent consonants. For example, the combination of the consonants ক্‌ [k] and ষ [ʃɔ] is graphically realized as ক্ষ and is pronounced [kʰːo] (as in রুক্ষ [rukʰːo] "rugged") or [kʰo] (as in ক্ষতি [kʰot̪i] "loss") or even [kʰɔ] (as in ক্ষমতা [kʰɔmot̪a] "power"), depending on the position of the cluster in a word. The Bengali writing system is, therefore, not always a true guide to pronunciation.


For a detailed list of these inconsistencies, consult Bengali script. It has been suggested that Robert B. Wray be merged into this article or section. ...


Uses in other languages

The Bengali script, with a few small modifications, is also used for writing Assamese. Other related languages in the region also make use of the Bengali alphabet. Meitei, a Sino-Tibetan language used in the Indian state of Manipur, has been written in the Bengali abugida for centuries, though Meitei Mayek (the Meitei abugida) has been promoted in recent times. The script has been adopted for writing the Sylheti language as well, replacing the use of the old Sylheti Nagori script.[24] Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Meitei-lon , also Meitei-lol, and Manipuri (and sometimes, the 19th century British term, Meithei, which is the name of the people, not of the language), is the predominant language and lingua-franca in the Southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India. ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ...   Sample of Meitei Mayek script, showing the main consonants in the alphabet Meitei Mayek script (also Meithei Mayek, Meetei Mayek, Manipuri script) (Manipuri: Meetei Mayek) is a syllabic script used for the Meitei language (Manipuri), one of the official languages of the Indian state of Manipur. ... Sylheti is the language of Sylhet, the North Eastern province of Bangladesh and a few southern districts of Assam. ...


Romanization

Several conventions exist for writing Indic languages including Bengali in the Latin script, including "International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration" or IAST (based on diacritics),[25] "Indian languages Transliteration" or ITRANS (uses upper case alphabets suited for ASCII keyboards),[26] and the National Library at Calcutta romanization.[27] The Romanization of Bengali, or the representation of the Bengali language in the Latin script, is hardly as uniform as the Romanizations of many other languages such as Japanese, Sanskrit, or Chinese. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... The Indian languages TRANSliteration (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly, but not exclusively, for Devanāgarī (used for the Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Sindhi and other languages). ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The National Library at Calcutta romanization is the most widely used in dictionaries and grammars of Indic languages. ...


In the context of Bangla Romanization, it is important to distinguish between transliteration from transcription. Transliteration is orthographically accurate (i.e. the original spelling can be recovered), whereas transcription is phonetically accurate (the pronunciation can be reproduced). Since English does not have the sounds of Bangla, and since pronunciation does not completely reflect the spellings, being faithful to both is not possible. Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ...


Although it might be desirable to use a transliteration scheme where the original Bangla orthography is recoverable from the Latin text, Bangla words are currently Romanized on Wikipedia mixed a phonemic transcription, where the pronunciation is represented with no reference to how it is written. The Wikipedia Romanization is given in the table below, with the IPA transcriptions as used above. A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ...

Vowels
  Front Central Back
High i   u
High-mid e   o
Low-mid ê   ô
Low   a  
Consonants
  Labial Dental Apico-
Alveolar
Apico-
Postalveolar
Lamino-
Postalveolar
Velar Glottal
Voiceless
stops
p
f
t
th
  ţ
ţh
ch
chh
k
kh
 
Voiced
stops
b
bh
d
dh
  đ
đh
j
jh
g
gh
 
Voiceless
fricatives
    s   sh   h
Nasals m   n     ng  
Liquids     l, r ŗ      

Sounds

Main article: Bengali phonology

The phonemic inventory of Bengali consists of 29 consonants and 14 vowels, including the seven nasalized vowels. An approximate phonetic scheme is set out below in International Phonetic Alphabet. Bengali phonology is the study of the inventory and patterns of the consonants, vowels, and prosody of the Bengali language. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ...

Vowels
  Front Central Back
High i   u
High-mid e   o
Low-mid æ   ɔ
Low   a  
Consonants
  Labial Dental Apico-
Alveolar
Apico-
Postalveolar
Lamino-
Postalveolar
Velar Glottal
Voiceless
stops
p

t̪ʰ
  ʈ
ʈʰ
ʧ
ʧʰ
k
 
Voiced
stops
b

d̪ʰ
  ɖ
ɖʰ
ʤ
ʤʰ
ɡ
ɡʰ
 
Voiceless
fricatives
    s   ʃ   ɦ
Nasals m   n     ŋ  
Liquids     l, r ɽ      

Diphthongs

Magadhan languages such as Bengali are known for their wide variety of diphthongs, or combinations of vowels occurring within the same syllable.[28] Several vowel combinations can be considered true monosyllabic diphthongs, made up of the main vowel (the nucleus) and the trailing vowel (the off-glide). Almost all other vowel combinations are possible, but only across two adjacent syllables, such as the disyllabic vowel combination [u.a] in কুয়া kua "well". As many as 25 vowel combinations can be found, but some of the more recent combinations have not passed through the stage between two syllables and a diphthongal monosyllable.[29] In phonetics, a diphthong (in Greek δίφθογγος) is a vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...

Diphthongs
IPA Transliteration Example
/ij/ ii nii "I take"
/iw/ iu biubhôl "upset"
/ej/ ei nei "there is not"
/ee̯/ ee khee "having eaten"
/ew/ eu đheu "wave"
/eo̯/ eo kheona "do not eat"
/æe̯/ êe nêe "she takes"
/æo̯/ êo nêo "you take"
/aj/ ai pai "I find"
/ae̯/ ae pae "she finds"
/aw/ au pau "sliced bread"
/ao̯/ ao pao "you find"
/ɔe̯/ ôe nôe "she is not"
/ɔo̯/ ôo nôo "you are not"
/oj/ oi noi "I am not"
/oe̯/ oe dhoe "she washes"
/oo̯/ oo dhoo "you wash"
/ow/ ou nouka "boat"
/uj/ ui dhui "I wash"

Stress

In standard Bengali, stress is predominantly initial. Bengali words are virtually all trochaic; the primary stress falls on the initial syllable of the word, while secondary stress often falls on all odd-numbered syllables thereafter, giving strings such as shô-ho-jo-gi-ta "cooperation", where the boldface represents primary and secondary stress. The first syllable carries the greatest stress, with the third carrying a somewhat weaker stress, and all following odd-numbered syllables carrying very weak stress. However in words borrowed from Sanskrit, the root syllable is stressed, causing them to be out of harmony with native Bengali words.[30] In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... A trochee or choree, choreus, is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...


Adding prefixes to a word typically shifts the stress to the left. For example, while the word shob-bho "civilized" carries the primary stress on the first syllable [shob], adding the negative prefix [ô-] creates ô-shob-bho "uncivilized", where the primary stress is now on the newly-added first syllable অ ô. In any case, word-stress does not alter the meaning of a word and is always subsidiary to sentence-stress.[30] In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Negation (i. ...


Intonation

For Bengali words, intonation or pitch of voice has minor significance, apart from a few isolated cases. However in sentences intonation does play a significant role.[31] In a simple declarative sentence, most words and/or phrases in Bengali carry a rising tone,[32] with the exception of the last word in the sentence, which only carries a low tone. This intonational pattern creates a musical tone to the typical Bengali sentence, with low and high tones alternating until the final drop in pitch to mark the end of the sentence. A declaration is a form of statement, which expresses (or declares) some idea; declarations attempt to argue that something is true. ... Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ... Intonation, in linguistics, is the variation of pitch when speaking. ...


In sentences involving focused words and/or phrases, the rising tones only last until the focused word; all following words carry a low tone.[32] This intonation pattern extends to wh-questions, as wh-words are normally considered to be focused. In yes-no questions, the rising tones may be more exaggerated, and most importantly, the final syllable of the final word in the sentence takes a high falling tone instead of a flat low tone.[33] In linguistics, the focus determines which part of the sentence contributes the most important information. ... Wh-questions are questions that cannot be simply answered by saying Yes or No. They begin with a question word, such as What, Why, Who, Why, How, Where, When, Whose. ...


Vowel length

Vowel length is not contrastive in Bengali; all else equal, there is no meaningful distinction between a "short vowel" and a "long vowel",[34] unlike the situation in many other Indic languages. However, when morpheme boundaries come into play, vowel length can sometimes distinguish otherwise homophonous words. This is due to the fact that open monosyllables (i.e. words that are made up of only one syllable, with that syllable ending in the main vowel and not a consonant) have somewhat longer vowels than other syllable types.[35] For example, the vowel in cha: "tea" is somewhat longer than the first vowel in chaţa "licking", as cha: is a word with only one syllable, and no final consonant. (The long vowel is marked with a colon : in these examples.) The suffix ţa "the" can be added to cha: to form cha:ţa "the tea". Even when another morpheme is attached to cha:, the long vowel is preserved. Knowing this fact, some interesting cases of apparent vowel length distinction can be found. In general Bengali vowels tend to stay away from extreme vowel articulation.[35] In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of speech that is made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with one or more optional phones (single sounds or phonetic segments). Syllables are often considered the phonological building blocks of words. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Furthermore, using a form of reduplication called "echo reduplication", the long vowel in cha: can be copied into the reduplicant ţa:, giving cha:ţa: "tea and all that comes with it". Thus, in addition to cha:ţa "the tea" (long first vowel) and chaţa "licking" (no long vowels), we have cha:ţa: "tea and all that comes with it" (both long vowels). Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ...


Consonant clusters

Native Bengali (tôdbhôbo) words do not allow initial consonant clusters;[36] the maximum syllabic structure is CVC (i.e. one vowel flanked by a consonant on each side). Many speakers of Bengali restrict their phonology to this pattern, even when using Sanskrit or English borrowings, such as গেরাম geram (CV.CVC) for গ্রাম gram (CCVC) "village" or ইস্কুল iskul (VC.CVC) for স্কুল skul (CCVC) "school". Consonant clusters in Bengali are very common word-initially due to a long history of borrowing from English and Sanskrit, two languages with a large cluster inventory. ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ...


Sanskrit (তৎসম tôtshômo) words borrowed into Bengali, however, possess a wide range of clusters, expanding the maximum syllable structure to CCCVC. Some of these clusters, such as the mr in মৃত্যু mrittu "death" or the sp in স্পষ্ট spôshţo "clear", have become extremely common, and can be considered legal consonant clusters in Bengali. English and other foreign (বিদেশী bideshi) borrowings add even more cluster types into the Bengali inventory, further increasing the syllable capacity to CCCVCCCC, as commonly-used loanwords such as ট্রেন ţren "train" and গ্লাস glash "glass" are now even included in leading Bengali dictionaries.


Final consonant clusters are rare in Bengali.[37] Most final consonant clusters were borrowed into Bengali from English, as in লিফ্‌ট lifţ "lift, elevator" and ব্যাংক bêņk "bank". However, final clusters do exist in some native Bengali words, although rarely in standard pronunciation. One example of a final cluster in a standard Bengali word would be গঞ্জ gônj, which is found in names of hundreds of cities and towns across Bengal, including নবাবগঞ্জ Nôbabgônj and মানিকগঞ্জ Manikgônj. Some nonstandard varieties of Bengali make use of final clusters quite often. For example, in some Purbo (eastern) dialects, final consonant clusters consisting of a nasal and its corresponding oral stop are common, as in চান্দ chand "moon". The Standard Bengali equivalent of chand would be চাঁদ chãd, with a nasalized vowel instead of the final cluster.


Grammar

Main article: Bengali grammar

Bengali nouns are not assigned gender, which leads to minimal changing of adjectives (inflection). However, nouns and pronouns are highly declined (altered depending on their function in a sentence) into four cases while verbs are heavily conjugated. Bengali grammar is the study of grammar in the Bengali language. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ...


As a consequence, unlike Hindi, Bengali verbs do not change form depending on the gender of the nouns.


Word order

As a Head-Final language, Bengali follows Subject Object Verb word order, although variations to this theme are common.[38] Bengali makes use of postpositions, as opposed to the prepositions used in English and other European languages. Determiners follow the noun, while numerals, adjectives, and possessors precede the noun.[39] The Head directionality parameter is a proposed parameter that provides a choice between: Heads follow phrases in forming larger phrases (head final) and Heads precede phrases in forming larger phrases (head initial). ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ... A postposition is a type of adposition, a grammatical particle that expresses some sort of relationship between a noun phrase (its object) and another part of the sentence; an adpositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... For the word class, see Determiner (class). ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, one of which possesses (owns, rules over, has as a part, has as a relative, etc. ...


Yes-no questions do not require any change to the basic word order; instead, the low (L) tone of the final syllable in the utterance is replaced with a falling (HL) tone. Additionally optional particles (e.g. কি -ki, না -na, etc.) are often encliticized onto the first or last word of a yes-no question. Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ... Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ...


Wh-questions are formed by fronting the wh-word to focus position, which is typically the first or second word in the utterance. In linguistics, the focus determines which part of the sentence contributes the most important information. ...


Nouns

Nouns and pronouns are inflected for case, including nominative, objective, genitive (possessive), and locative.[6] The case marking pattern for each noun being inflected depends on the noun's degree of animacy. When a definite article such as -টা -ţa (singular) or -গুলা -gula (plural) is added, as in the tables below, nouns are also inflected for number. In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... Animacy is a grammatical category, usually of nouns, which influences the form a verb takes when it is associated with that noun. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... For other uses of number, see number (disambiguation). ...

Singular Noun Inflection
Animate Inanimate
Nominative ছাত্রটা
chhatro-ţa
the student
জুতাটা
juta-ţa
the shoe
Objective ছাত্রটাকে
chhatro-ţa-ke
the student
জুতাটা
juta-ţa
the shoe
Genitive ছাত্রটা
chhatro-ţa-r
the student's
জুতাটা
juta-ţa-r
the shoe's
Locative - জুতাটায়
juta-ţa-(t)e
on/in the shoe
Plural Noun Inflection
Animate Inanimate
Nominative ছাত্ররা
chhatro-ra
the students
জুতাগুলা
juta-gula
the shoes
Objective ছাত্রদের(কে)
chhatro-der(ke)
the students
জুতাগুলা
juta-gula
the shoes
Genitive ছাত্রদের
chhatro-der
the students'
জুতাগুলা
juta-gula-r
the shoes'
Locative - জুতাগুলাতে
juta-gula-te
on/in the shoes

When counted, nouns take one of a small set of measure words. As in many East Asian languages (e.g. Chinese, Japanese, Thai, etc.), nouns in Bengali cannot be counted by adding the numeral directly adjacent to the noun. The noun's measure word (MW) must be used between the numeral and the noun. Most nouns take the generic measure word -টা -ţa, though other measure words indicate semantic classes (e.g. -জন -jon for humans). Measure words, in linguistics, are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate the count of nouns. ... East Asian languages or the East Asian sprachbund describe two notional groupings of languages in East and Southeast Asia, either (1) languages which have been greatly influenced by Classical Chinese, or the CJKV Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese) area or (2) a larger grouping including the CJKV area as well...

Measure Words
Bengali Bengali transliteration Literal translation English translation
নয়টা গরু Nôe-ţa goru Nine-MW cow Nine cows
কয়টা বালিশ Kôe-ţa balish How many-MW pillow How many pillows
অনেকজন লোক Ônek-jon lok Many-MW person Many people
চার-পাঁচজন শিক্ষক Char-pãch-jon shikkhôk Four-five-MW teacher Four or five teachers

Measuring nouns in Bengali without their corresponding measure words (e.g. আট বিড়াল aţ biŗal instead of আটটা বিড়াল aţ-ţa biŗal "eight cats") would typically be considered ungrammatical. However, when the semantic class of the noun is understood from the measure word, the noun is often omitted and only the measure word is used, e.g. শুধু একজন থাকবে। Shudhu êk-jon thakbe. (lit. "Only one-MW will remain.") would be understood to mean "Only one person will remain.", given the semantic class implicit in -জন -jon.


In this sense, all nouns in Bengali, unlike most other Indo-European languages, are similar to mass nouns. It has been suggested that Count noun be merged into this article or section. ...


Verbs

Verbs divide into two classes: finite and non-finite. Non-finite verbs have no inflection for tense or person, while finite verbs are fully inflected for person (first, second, third), tense (present, past, future), aspect (simple, perfect, progressive), and honor (intimate, familiar, and formal), but not for number. Conditional, imperative, and other special inflections for mood can replace the tense and aspect suffixes. The number of inflections on many verb roots can total more than 200. A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ...


Inflectional suffixes in the morphology of Bengali vary from region to region, along with minor differences in syntax. Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ...


Bengali differs from most Indo-Aryan Languages in the zero copula, where the copula or connective be is often missing in the present tense.[1] Thus "he is a teacher" is she shikkhôk, (literally "he teacher").[40] In this respect, Bengali is similar to Russian and Hungarian. Zero copula is a linguistic phenomenon whereby the presence of the copula is implied, rather than stated explicitly as a verb or suffix. ... For other uses, see Copula (disambiguation). ...


Vocabulary

Sources of Bengali words     Tôtshômo (Sanskrit Reborrowings)     Tôdbhôbo (Native)     Bideshi (Foreign Borrowings)
Main article: Bengali vocabulary

Bengali has as many as 100,000 separate words, of which 50,000 (67%) are considered tôtshômo (direct reborrowings from Sanskrit), 21,100 (28%) are tôdbhôbo (derived from Sanskrit words), and the rest being bideshi (foreign) and deshi words. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The origins of words in the Bengali vocabulary are numerous and diverse, due to centuries of contact with various languages. ...


However, these figures do not take into account the fact that a large proportion of these words are archaic or highly technical, minimizing their actual usage. The productive vocabulary used in modern literary works, in fact, is made up mostly (67%) of tôdbhôbo words, while tôtshômo only make up 25% of the total.[41][42] Deshi and Bideshi words together make up the remaining 8% of the vocabulary used in modern Bengali literature.


Due to centuries of contact with Europeans, Mughals, Arabs, Turks, Persians, Afghans, and East Asians, Bengali has borrowed many words from foreign languages. The most common borrowings from foreign languages come from three different kinds of contact. Close contact with neighboring peoples facilitated the borrowing of words from Hindi, Assamese and several indigenous Austroasiatic languages (like Santali).[43] of Bengal. After centuries of invasions from Persia and the Middle East, numerous Persian, Arabic, Turkish, and Pashtun words were absorbed into Bengali. Portuguese, French, Dutch and English words were later additions during the colonial period. The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...


Sample audio

A Bengali poem Image File history File links 02_abani_bari2. ...

A section of the poem Abani Bari Achho by Shakti Chattopadhyay read by a male native speaker.

Problems listening to the file? See media help. Abani Bari Achho is a poem by Shakti Chattopadhyay. ... Shakti Chattopadhay (Bangla: শক্তি চট্যোপাধ্যায়) (25 november 1934) was a Bengali poet. ...

Sample text

The following is a sample text in Bengali of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations): The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...



Bengali in Eastern Nagari script
The Kanai Baraxiboa rock inscription near Guwahati. ...

ধারা ১: সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিৎ।


Bengali in Romanization
The Romanization of Bengali, or the representation of the Bengali language in the Latin script, is hardly as uniform as the Romanizations of many other languages such as Japanese, Sanskrit, or Chinese. ...

Dhara êk: Shômosto manush shadhinbhabe shôman môrjada ebong odhikar nie jônmogrohon kôre. Tãder bibek ebong buddhi achhe; shutorang shôkoleri êke ôporer proti bhrattrittoshulôbh mônobhab nie achorôn kôra uchit.


Bengali in IPA
IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ...

ɦara æk: ʃɔmost̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ɦinbɦabe ʃɔman mɔrdʒad̪a eboŋ od̪ɦikar nie dʒɔnmogrohon kɔre. t̪ãd̪er bibek eboŋ bud̪ɦːi atʃʰe; ʃut̪oraŋ ʃɔkoleri æke ɔporer prot̪i bɦrat̪ːrit̪ːoʃulɔbɦ mɔnobɦab nie atʃorɔn kɔra utʃit̪.


Gloss

Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence is; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.


Translation

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

Bengal Portal

Image File history File links BengaliScriptKo. ... Bengali grammar is the study of grammar in the Bengali language. ... Bengali phonology is the study of the inventory and patterns of the consonants, vowels, and prosody of the Bengali language. ... The origins of words in the Bengali vocabulary are numerous and diverse, due to centuries of contact with various languages. ... The dialects of the Bengali language are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family. ... Consonant clusters in Bengali are very common word-initially due to a long history of borrowing from English and Sanskrit, two languages with a large cluster inventory. ... It has been suggested that Robert B. Wray be merged into this article or section. ... The Romanization of Bengali, or the representation of the Bengali language in the Latin script, is hardly as uniform as the Romanizations of many other languages such as Japanese, Sanskrit, or Chinese. ... The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. ... Shaheed Minar, or the Martyrs monument, located near Dhaka Medical College, commemorates the struggle for Bangla language The Language Movement was a cultural and political movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1952. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Language Martyrs Day 21st February has been proclaimed the International Mother Language Day by the UNESCO in 2000. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Bangla language in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 2003
  2. ^ a b Languages spoken by more than 10 million people. Encarta Encyclopedia (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  3. ^ a b Statistical Summaries. Ethnologue (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  4. ^ a b Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed. (2005). Languages of India. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition.. SIL International. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  5. ^ Languages in Descending Order of Strength - India, States and Union Territories - 1991 Census. Census Data Online 1. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  6. ^ a b c (Bhattacharya 2000)
  7. ^ (Sen 1996)
  8. ^ Abahattha in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 2003
  9. ^ Rahman, Aminur. Grammar. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  10. ^ a b Ray, S Kumar. The Bengali Language and Translation. Translation Articles. Kwintessential. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  11. ^ (Baxter 1997, pp. 62–63)
  12. ^ No alliance with BJP, says AGP chief. The Telegraph. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  13. ^ The World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved on 2006-11-04.
  14. ^ "Sierra Leone makes Bengali official language", Daily Times, December 29, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-11-17. 
  15. ^ NIC, Assam State Centre, Guwahati, Assam. Language. Government of Assam. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  16. ^ a b Morshed, Abul Kalam Manjoor. Dialect. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  17. ^ Hajong. The Ethnologue Report. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  18. ^ a b Huq, Mohammad Daniul. Chalita Bhasa. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  19. ^ a b History of Bangla (Banglar itihash). Bangla. Bengal Telecommunication and Electric Company. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  20. ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul. Sadhu Bhasa. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  21. ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul. Alaler Gharer Dulal. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  22. ^ a b Bangla Script in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 2003
  23. ^ Escudero Pascual Alberto (23 October, 2005). Writing Systems/ Scripts (PDF). Primer to Localization of Software. IT +46. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  24. ^ Islam, Muhammad Ashraful. Sylheti Nagri. Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  25. ^ Learning International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration. Sanskrit 3 - Learning transliteration. Gabriel Pradiipaka & Andrés Muni. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  26. ^ ITRANS - Indian Language Transliteration Package. Avinash Chopde. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  27. ^ Annex-F: Roman Script Transliteration (PDF). Indian Standard: Indian Script Code for Information Interchange - ISCII 32. Bureau of Indian Standards (1 April, 1999). Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  28. ^ (Masica 1991, pp. 116)
  29. ^ (Chatterji 1926, pp. 415–416)
  30. ^ a b (Chatterji 1921, pp. 19–20)
  31. ^ (Chatterji 1921, pp. 20)
  32. ^ a b Hayes & Lahiri 1991, pp. 56
  33. ^ Hayes & Lahiri 1991, pp. 57–58
  34. ^ (Bhattacharya 2000, pp. 6)
  35. ^ a b (Ferguson & Chowdhury 1960, pp. 16–18)
  36. ^ (Masica 1991, pp. 125)
  37. ^ (Masica 1991, pp. 126)
  38. ^ (Bhattacharya 2000, pp. 16)
  39. ^ Bengali. UCLA Language Materials project. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  40. ^ Among Bengali speakers brought up in neighbouring linguistic regions (e.g. Hindi), the lost copula may surface in utterances such as she shikkhôk hochchhe. This is viewed as ungrammatical by other speakers, and speakers of this variety are sometimes (humorously) referred as "hochchhe-Bangali".
  41. ^ Tatsama in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 2003
  42. ^ Tatbhava in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 2003
  43. ^ Byomkes Chakrabarti A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali, K.P. Bagchi & Co., Kolkata, 1994, ISBN 8170741289

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The BIS logo The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India is involved in the development of technical standards (popularly known as Indian Standards), product quality and management system certifications and consumer affairs. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Byomkes Chakrabarti (also spelled Byomkesh Chakraborty or Byomkesh Chakrabarty) (1923–1981) was a Bengali research worker on ethnic languages. ...

References

  • Haldar, Gopal (2000), Languages of India, National Book Trust, India, ISBN 81-237-2936-7.
  • Alam, M (2000), Bhasha Shourôbh: Bêkorôn O Rôchona (The Fragrance of Language: Grammar and Rhetoric), S. N. Printers, Dhaka.
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes, A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali, K.P. Bagchi & Co., Kolkata, 1994, ISBN 8170741289 Byomkes Chakrabarti
  • Asiatic Society of Bangladesh (2003), Banglapedia, the national encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
  • Cardona, G & D Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan languages, RoutledgeCurzon, London.
  • Chatterji, SK (1921), "Bengali Phonetics", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.
  • Chatterji, SK (1926), The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language.
  • Ferguson, CA & M Chowdhury (1960), "The Phonemes of Bengali", Language, 36(1), Part 1.
  • Hayes, B & A Lahiri (1991), "Bengali intonational phonology", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory (Springer Science).
  • Klaiman, MH (1987), "Bengali", in Bernard Comrie, The World's Major Languages, Croon Helm, London and Sydney, ISBN 0195065115.
  • Masica, C (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Radice, W (1994), Teach Yourself Bengali: A Complete Course for Beginners, NTC/Contemporary Publishing Company, ISBN 0844237523.
  • Ray, P; MA Hai & L Ray (1966), Bengali language handbook, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, ISBN ASIN B000B9G89C.
  • Sen, D (1996), Bengali Language and Literature, International Centre for Bengal Studies, Calcutta.
  • Bhattacharya, T (2000), "Bangla (Bengali)", in Gary, J. and Rubino. C., Encyclopedia of World's Languages: Past and Present (Facts About the World's Languages), WW Wilson, New York, ISBN 0824209702, <http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~uclyara/bong_us.pdf>.
  • Baxter, C (1997), Bangladesh, From a Nation to a State, Westview Press, ISBN 0813336325.

Dr. Byomkes Chakrabarti (also spelled Byomkesh Chakraborty or Byomkesh Chakrabarty) (1923–1981) was a Bengali research worker on ethnic languages. ... Natural Language & Linguistic Theory (often abbreviated NLLT), is a leading international peer-reviewed quarterly journal in theoretical linguistics, founded in 1983 and currently published by Springer Netherlands (by Kluwer Academic Publishers before 2004). ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Bengali language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Bengali language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus

The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. ... The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the medieval languages such as Apabhramsha or Abahatta, which eventually evolved into the contemporary Indo-Aryan languages, including Hindustani... Abahatta is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages such as Bangla, Maithili, Oriya. ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ... Any of the three main dialects of Prakrit, used extensively in Sanskrit literature. ... Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India after the decline of Sanskrit as an official language. ... Maharashtri is a language of medieval India, descended from Sanskrit, and spoken in what is now Maharashtra and other parts of India. ... A Dramatic Prakrit, Sauraseni was the chief language of northern medieval India, evolving into the Hindi language complex and Punjabi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... GāndhārÄ« was a north-western prakrit spoken in Gāndhāra. ... Jain Prakrit is a term loosely used for the language of the Jain canon. ... Paisaci, also known as Paisachi, or Paishachi, is an extinct language of classical India, its existence as a medium of debate and literary expression is recorded in various Theravada Buddhist sources, and mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Iranian language family. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... Dhanwar also known as Rai (ISO/DIS 639-3: dhw) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim mainly by the Rai community. ... Hindi as defined by the 1991 Indian census includes linguistically disparate Indo-Aryan dialects. ... Awadhi is an Indian language, often considered a dialect of Hindi, spoken in the Awadh (Oudh) region of Uttar Pradesh. ... Bagheli is a language of the Baghelkhand region of central India. ... Bambaiyya Hindi, Mumbaiyya, or Bombay Hindi (Hindi: बंबय्या हिंदी) is a vernacular form of Hindi spoken primarily in Mumbai (Bombay, formerly). ... Brij Bhasha (or Braj Bhasha) is a language spoken in India by more than 42,000 people in the undefined region of Brij Bhoomi, which was a political state in the era of the Mahabharata wars. ... Bundeli is a Western Hindi language (often considered a dialect of Hindi) spoken in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh. ... Chhattisgarhi is a language of India. ... Indian Indentured labourers were initially brought to Fiji from many districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. ... Haryanvi is a combination of dialects mainly spoken by natives in Haryana (North Indian State), Haryanvi is not classified as a language and has lots of similarities with Hindi, and has planty of Urdu words in it. ... Kannauji language (कन्नौजी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Sansiboli is a highly endangered dialect of Rajasthani language of Indo-Aryan family. ... Sadhukaddi, a popular language of medieval India, is a vernacular dialect of Hindi/ Hindustani which is a mix of Hindi (Khariboli), Braj Bhasha, Awadhi, Bhojpuri and Rajasthani, hence it is also commonly called a Panchmail Khichadi. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Dakhni (Hindi: दक्खिनी ), also known as Dakkhani, Deccani (Urdu: دکنی), is a dialect of the Urdu language, was spoken in the Deccan region of southern India, centered on the cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Chennai. ... Rekhta is the highly Persianized form of Urdu, a language that combines Arabic, Persian, and Hindi. ... Angika (Dev. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... The dialects of the Bengali language are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family. ... Chittagonian is an Indo-European language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and the much of the southeast of the country. ... Sylheti (native name সিলটী Silôţi; Bengali name সিলেটী SileÅ£i) is the language of Sylhet proper, the north-eastern region of Bangladesh and southern districts of Assam around Silchar. ... Bhojpuri is a popular regional language spoken in northeastern India in the western part of state of Bihar, the northwestern part of Jharkhand, and the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh, as well as an adjoining area of southern plains of Nepal. ... The Bishnupriya Manipuri language (BPM) (ইমার ঠার/বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language. ... The Chakma language (Changma Vaj or Changma Kodha) is an Indo-European language spoken in southeastern Bangladesh and neighboring areas of India. ... Halbi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 500,000 individuals across the central part of India. ... Hajong is an Indo-Aryan language with Tibeto-Burman roots spoken by about 19,000 ethnic Hajong in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal in India and the Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. ... The Magadhi language (also known as Magahi) is a language of India. ... Maithili (मैथिली MaithilÄ«) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Majhi (ISO/DIS 639-3: mjz) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... Mal Paharia, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 60,000 of 111,000 ethnic Mal Paharia in the states of Jharkhand and West Bengal in India and possibly in Bangladesh. ... Nahari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 100 people in 1961 in the states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa in India. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Rajbangsiis an Indo-European; Indic langauge spoken in India by over 3,000,000 people according to the 1991 census, the actual number of speakers may vary due to acculturation into the more predominant Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu) languages or by how many people were reach for the survery and furthermore... Rohingya is a language spoken by the Rohingya Muslim people of Arakan (Rakhine), Burma (Myanmar). ... Sadri is a Bihari language spoken in India and Bangladesh. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Pahari (or Pahaari) is a general terms for a range of dialects spoken across the Himalayan range, not limited to a single country in the subcontinent. ... The Garhwali are a people of the hilly Garhwal Division of Uttarakhand. ... Variously used to signify the people or the local dialect of Kumaon, a region in the Indian Himalayas. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... The Pothwari or Pothohari language in Urdu otherwise known as Mirpuri or Potwari is an Indo-European language spoken from the Potwar district around Rawalpindi, Pakistan to the Cease-fire Line (LoC) of Indian administered Kashmir de-facto border in the Mirpur district of the Jammu area in Pakistan administered... Derawali is an Indo-European language spoken in western parts of Punjab, Pakistan; it is a dialect of Saraiki (western Punjabi) language. ... Areas in India and Pakistan where Dogri and related dialects are spoken Dogri (डोगरी or ڈوگرى) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and... It has been suggested that Hindku be merged into this article or section. ... The Kangri language is spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, by the Kangri people. ... Kachhi (also spelled, Cutchi or Kachchhi) is an Indo-Aryan Language spoken in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat, with approximately 866,000 speakers. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Lahnda languages or West Panjabi dialects is a group of Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages. ... ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Dhivehi or Divehi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 300,000 people in the Republic of Maldives where it is the official language of the country and in the island of Minicoy (Maliku) in neighbouring India where it is known as Mahl. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Mahal (މަހަލް) or Mahl, also known locally as Maliku Bas, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Minicoy Island (Maliku), in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , pronounced ], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... The Bhil languages are a group of Central Indo-Aryan languages spoken by some 6 million Bhils in western, central, and by small numbers, even in far eastern, India. ... Bhili is a Central Indo_Aryan language spoken in west_central India, in the region east of Ahmadabad. ... Gamit language is spoken in the area of the surat and mostly spoken by the gamit caste. ... Punkmorten 15:55, 9 February 2006 (UTC) Category: ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Kalto or Nahali is a language isolate spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) by around 5,000 people. ... Rajasthani (राजस्थानी) is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family. ... Bagri बागड़ी is a dialect of Rajasthani language of the Indo-Aryan family. ... Goaria is the language used in Rajasthan. ... Gojri also known as Gujari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Gujjars of Northern Pakistan and India. ... Jaipuri language (जयपुरी) refers to the dialect of the Rajasthani languages spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan, in and around the Jaipur region. ... Malvi is an Indo-European language with over a million speakers spoken in Malwa. ... The Marwari language (also variously Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi) is spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan, but is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and in Eastern Pakistan. ... Mewari is a popular language spoken in the Mewar region of Rajasthan. ... This language, also known as Thari or Dhati, was spoken in parts of Pakistan. ... This article is about the language spoken by Roma people. ... Saurashtra, more correctly, Sauraṣṭri or Sauraṣṭram or Sourashtra, also known as Palkar, Sowrashtra, Saurashtram, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Southern Indian State of Tamil Nadu. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is of Turkic language. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Balochi, a north-western Iranian language, is the principal language of Balochistan. ... Bashkardi or Bashagerdi is a southwestern Iranian language spoken in the southeast of Iran in the provinces of Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan, and Hormozgan. ... Dialects of Central Iran is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Central Iran. ... The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ... ... Gorani (also Gurani) is a dialect spoken by several hundreds of thousands of Kurds in the province of Kurdistan and province of Kermanshah in Iran, and in the Halabja region in Iraqi Kurdistan and the Hewraman mountains between Iran and Iraq. ... Harzani (correct form: harzandi) is a modern Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the north of the Iranian province of East Azarbaijan, around the village of Harzand. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Kumzari is an Iranian language spoken by the members of the Shihuh tribe in the Kumzar coast of Musandam Peninsula, northern Oman. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Soranî (سۆرانی) is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... Laki is an Iranian language/dialect (of Gurâni) of the north-western branch spoken in the central Zagros region of Iran (Luristan province) by the Lak people. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... Luri is a southwestern Iranian language and is mainly spoken by the Lurs and Bakhtiari people in the Iranian provinces of Lorestan, Ilam, Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari, Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad and parts of Khuzestan and Hamadan. ... Mazandarani or Tabari (Also known as: Mazeniki, Taperki) is an Iranian language of the northwestern branch. ... Burki is a tribe living in the Kanigurram valley of South Waziristan agency, on the frontier borders of Pakistan. ... Sengiseri is a language spoken in the Semnan province of Iran mainly in the Sangsar (Mahdi Shehr) town and in a several surrounding villages. ... Burki is a tribe living in the Kanigurram valley of South Waziristan agency, on the frontier borders of Pakistan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Aimaq is a dialect of the Persian language of Afghanistan spoken in West of the Hazara, central northwest Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Tajikistan. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Dari (Persian: ) is the official name for the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan[1] and is a synonymous term for Parsi]. // There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari. ... Dehwari is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken by over 20,000 people in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with a significant deviation from it to be on the borderline of being a separate language. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Judeo-Shirazi is a dialect form of the Persian language. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Semnani is one of north western Iranian languages, it is very similar to Mazandarani because they are from the same family which was known as tabari languages. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... The Tat language or Tati is a Western Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group in The Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia. ... Tat language or Tati (Persian: ‎ ) is a group of northwestern Iranian dialects which are closely related to Talysh language. ... Zazaki (Zazaish) is a language spoken by Zazas in eastern Anatolia (Turkey). ... The map of Iranian Speking World The Bartangi language (Persian برتنگی) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Iranian languages. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog (), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Munji language, also Munjani language, is a Pamir language spoken in Badakshan in Afghanistan. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is a language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog ( ), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Ishkashimi language is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... The Munji language, also Munjani language, is a Pamir language spoken in Badakshan in Afghanistan. ... The Rushani language, a Pamir language, is closely related to the Shughni language, and in fact may be classified as a dialect of it. ... Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... The Sarikoli language (also Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China. ... The Wakhi Tajiki language is an Iranian language in the subbranch of Southeastern Iranian languages (see Pamir languages). ... The Yazgulyam language (also Yazgulyami, Iazgulem, Yazgulam, natively yuzdami zevég, Tajik yazgulomi) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken by ca. ... The Yidgha language is a Pamir language spoken in the Upper Lutkuh Valley of Chitral, west of Garam Chishma in Pakistan. ... The Vanji language, also spelt Vanchi and Vanži, is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Waziri language is an east-iranian language spoken on the Waziristan Province of Pakistan and some of the neighboring provinces in Pakistan and Afghanstan. ... The Yaghnobi language [1] is a living Northeastern Iranian language (the only other living member being the Ossetic), and is spoken in high valley of the Yaghnob River in the Zarafshan area of Tajikistan by Yaghnobi people. ... Tangshewi is a language possibly of the Iranian family of languages. ... The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages. ... Dameli is a language spoken by less than 5,000 people in the remote valley of Damil-Nisar, in the Chitral District of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Domaaki - also known as Dumaki or Doma - is a language spoken in parts of northern Pakistan. ... Gawar-Bati is known in Chitral as Aranduyiwar, because it is spoken in Village Arandu, which is the last village in the bottom of Chitral and is across the Kunar River from Berkot in Afghanistan. ... Kalami is a Dardic language spoken in northern Pakistan. ... Kalash or Kalasha (also known as Kalasha-mun) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Iranian branch, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral Group. ... Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Khowar is classified as a Dardic Language. ... Kohistani is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan District (Pakistan). ... Nangalami is a Dardic language and is a branch of the Indo-Iranian language group, which in turn is branch of the Indo-European language. ... Pashayi - also known as Pashai - is a language (or a group of languages) spoken in parts of southwestern Afghanistan. ... Tshina is a Dardic Language and is spoken by majority of people in Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Shumashti - also known as Shumasht - is a language spoken in parts of western Afghanistan. ... Torwali (Turvali) language is spoken in Kohistan and Swat, North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Nuristani languages form a language sub-family of the Indo-Iranian languages localized between the Iranian languages and the Indo-Aryan languages Ashkun language Kamviri language Kati language (Bashgali) Prasuni language (Wasi-Weri) Tregami language Waigali language (Kalasha-Ala) Categories: Language stubs | Indo-Iranian languages ... Askunu is a language of Afghanistan spoken by the Askunu people in the region of Pech Valley around Wama, northwest of Asadabad in Kunar province. ... Kalasha-ala or simply Kalasha is a language spoken by the Kalasha of Nuristan in a few villages in the central part of the Kunar Province of Afghanistan. ... Kamkata-viri contains the two main dialects Kata-vari and Kamviri. ... Kamviri is a dialect of the Kamkata-viri language spoken by 5,500 (or up to 10,000) of the Kom people of Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Kata-vari is a dialect of the Kamkata-viri language spoken by the Kata in parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Mumviri is a dialect of the Kamkata-viri language spoken by perhaps 1,500 of the Mumo people of Afghanistan. ... Tregami or Trigami is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the villages of Gambir and Katar in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ... Vasi-vari is a language spoken by the Vasi in a few villages in the Prasun Valley in Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...


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Bengali language: Information from Answers.com (5256 words)
Bengali is the 4th most widely spoken language of the world and the national and official language of Bangladesh and one of the 14 regional languages recognized by the Union of India.
It is the official language of the state of West Bengal and the co-official language of the state of Tripura and union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Bengali words are virtually all trochaic; the primary stress falls on the initial syllable of the word, while secondary stress often falls on all odd-numbered syllables thereafter, giving strings such as [shô-ho-jo-gi-ta] "cooperation", where the boldface represents primary and secondary stress.
Bengali (1136 words)
Bengali (Bangla) belongs to the eastern group of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Bengali is written with a syllabic alphabet in which all consonants have an inherent vowel which is not always predictable, and sometimes, is not pronounced at all.
Bengali is a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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